2007 CREATE Conference

Academic Language and Content:
A Focus on English Language Learners in the Middle School

Recommended Reading List

Several publications were provided to participants in the conference primer, referenced in the presentations, or otherwise recommended during the course of the 2007 CREATE Conference. This list provides full citations to those readings as well as links to online copies, where available. You can also search for readings by speaker or presentation.


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“Everything is very well organized. I like the advance materials and was very impressed with the reader.” -Stacy Kaplan


Abedi, J., & Leon, S. (1999). Impact of students’ language background on content-based performance: Analyses of extant data. University of California, Los Angeles, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Abedi, J., Leon, S., & Mirocha, J. (2003). Impact of students’ language background on content-based assessment: Analysis of extant data (CSE Tech. Rep. No. 603). Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Abedi, J., Lord, C., Hofstetter, C., & Baker, E. (2000). Impact of Accommodation Strategies on English Language Learners' Test Performance. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 19(3), 16–26.

Abedi, J., Lord, C., & Plummer, J. (1997). Final report of language background as a variable in NAEP mathematics performance (CSE technical report 429). Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Available at http://research.cse.ucla.edu/Reports/TECH429.pdf

Achugar, M., & Schleppegrell, M.J. (2005). Beyond connectors: The construction of cause in history textbooks. Linguistics and Education 16(3), 298-318.

Achugar, M., Schleppegrell, M.J., & Oteíza, T. (2007). Engaging teachers in language analysis: A functional linguistics approach to reflective literacy. English Teaching Practice and Critique, 6(2), 8-24.  Available at http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/2007v6n2art1.pdf

Amaral, O., Garrison, L., & Duron-Flores, M. (2006) Taking inventory. Science and Children, p30—33. Available (free for NSTA members) at  http://www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/sc06_043_04_30

American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), & National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, D.C.

August, D. & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006) Developing Literacy in Second-language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
*Executive Summary available at http://www.cal.org/projects/archive/nlpreports/Executive_Summary.pdf

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Bailey, A.L. (2005). Test review: Cambridge young learners English (YLE) tests. Language Testing, 22(2), 1-11.

Bailey, A.L. (2006). Teaching and assessing students learning English in school. In A. L. Bailey (Ed.), The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test (pp. 1-26). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bailey, A.L., & Heritage, H.M. (in press). Formative assessment for literacy learning: Developing reading and academic language proficiency together, Grades K-6. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Bailey, A.L., Moughamian, A., & Dingle, M. (in press). The Contribution of Spanish-language narration to the assessment of early academic performance of latino students.

Bernstein, B. (1990). Class, codes, and control, Vol. IV:The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.

Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middleand high school literacy. Report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Butler, F.A., & Castellon-Wellington, M. (2000/2005). Students’ concurrent performance on tests of English language proficiency and academic achievement. In J. Abedi, A. Bailey, F. Butler, M. Castellon-Wellington, S. Leon, & J. Mirocha (Eds.), Validity of administering large-scale content assessments to English language learners: An investigation from three perspectives (CSE Tech. Rep. No. 663). Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Available at http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports/r663.pdf

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California Department of Education. (2004). Statewide Stanford 9 test results for reading: Number of students tested and percent scoring at or above the 50th percentile ranking. Retrieved February 23, 2004, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/dataquest

Coffin, C. (2006). Historical discourse: The language of time, cause, and evaluation.London: Continuum.

Collier, V. P. (1987). Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 21(4), 617-641.

Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222-251.

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Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School reform and standards-based education: An instructional model for English language learners. Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 195-210.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible to English
learners: The SIOP model. 3rd edition. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

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Fang, Z., & Schleppegrell, M.J. (in preparation). Language and Reading in Secondary Content Areas. University of Michigan Press.
*This book will include the chapter Reasoning in history: Beyond text structures

Fang, Z., Schleppegrell, M. J., & Cox, B. (2006). Understanding the language demands of schooling: Nouns in academic registers. Journal of Literacy Research, 38(3), 247-273.

Fillmore, L. W. (1982). Language minority students and school participation: What kind of English is needed? Journal of Education, 164(2), 143-156.

Fillmore, L. W. (1985). When does teacher talk work as input? In S. M. Gass & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition, pp. 17-50. Rowley, MA: Newbury.

Fillmore, L. W. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6(3), 323-347.

Fisher, D. (2001). "We're moving on up": Creating a schoolwide literacy effort in an urban high school. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(2), 92-101.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (Nov. 2007). A tale of two middle schools: The role of structure and instruction. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 51(3), 201-211. Available at http://www.reading.org/publications/journals/jaal/index.html

Francis, D.J., & Rivera, M. O. (in press). Principles underlying English language proficiency tests and academic accountability for ELLs. In J. Abedi (Ed.), English language proficiency assessment in the nation: Current status and future practice. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Forthcoming at http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports.asp

Francis, D.J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for the use of accommodations in large-scale assessments. (Under cooperative agreement grant S283B050034 for U.S. Department of Education). Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Available at http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL3-Assessments.pdf

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Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners. New York: Cambridge University Press.
*Executive summary available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/research/crede/synthesis/llaa/llaa_exsum.html

Halliday, M.A.K. (2004). Three aspects of children's language development: Learning language, learning through language, learning about language (1980). In J. Webster (Ed.), The language of early childhood, Vol. 4, pp. 308-326. London: Continuum.

Kadamus, J. (February 24, 2005) Update on performance of limited English proficient/English language learners (LEP/ELLs) and implementation plan for strategies to improve performance.
Available at

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National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/Publications/publications.htm

Ortega, L., & Byrnes, H. (Eds.). (in press). Longitudinal study of advanced L2 capacities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A conceptual framework (No. 2003-1). Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute.

Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The language of schooling: A functional linguistics perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schleppegrell, M.J. (2006). The linguistic features of advanced language use: The grammar of exposition. In H. Byrnes (Ed.) Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky, pp. 134-146. London: Continuum. 

Schleppegrell, M.J. (2007). The meaning in grammar. Research in the Teaching of English, 42(1), 121-128.

Schleppegrell, M. J., Achugar, M., & Oteiza, T. (2004). The grammar of history: Enhancing content-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 67-93.

Schleppegrell, M. J., & de Oliveira, L.C. (2006). An integrated language and content approach for history teachers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5(4), 254-268.

Schleppegrell, M.J. & Go, A. (2007). Analyzing the writing of English learners: A functional approach. Language Arts, 84(6), 529-538.

Short, D., & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English language learners – A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Available at http://www.all4ed.org/files/DoubleWork.pdf

Siegel, H. (2002). Multiculturalism, universalism, and science education: In search of common ground. Science Education, 86, 803-820.

Snow, C. E., Porche, M. V., Tabors, P. O., & Harris, S. R. (2007). Is literacy enough?: Pathways to academic success for adolescents. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Stern, H. H. (1990). Analysis and experience as variables in second language pedagogy. In B. Harley, A. Patrick, J. Cummins & M. Swain (Eds.), The development of second language proficiency (pp. 93-109). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Valdés, G. (2001). Learning and not learning English: Latino students in American schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Valdés, G. (2004). Between support and marginalism: The development of academic language in linguistic minority children. International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, 7(2&3), 102-132.

Valdés, G., Bunch, G., Snow, C. E., & Lee, C. (2005). Enhancing the development of students' language(s). In L. Darling-Hammond, J. Bransford, P. LePage, K. Hammerness & H. Duffy (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 126-168). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Vanosdall, R., Klentschy, M., Hedeges, L.V., Weisbaum, K.S. (2007, April).  A randomized study of the effects of scaffolded-guided inquiry instruction on student achievement in science.  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Available at http://www.nsrconline.org/pdf/Klentschy_07.pdf

Walqui, A. (2006). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(2), 159-180.

Wellman, B., & Lipton, L. (2004). Data-driven dialogue: A facilitator's guide to collaborative inqury. Sherman, CT: MiraVia.

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Back to 2007 Conference Materials


Find readings recommended by a particular speaker:

Find readings associated with a particular presentation:

August, Diane
Bailey, Alison
Echevarria, Jana
Fisher, Doug
Francis, David J.
   re: welcome & overview
   re: assessment & accountability
Klentschy, Michael P.
Linan-Thompson, Sylvia
Schleppegrell, Mary
Short, Deborah
Snow, Catherine
Valdés, Guadalupe
Walqui, Aída

Welcome and Overview of CREATE

Academic English: Interactions between Student and Language

Academic Uses of English: A Focus on Science

Apprenticing the Academic Uses of English: Middle School English Language Learners and their Teachers

Assessment, Accountability, and Instruction for ELLs Under NCLB

Creating Literacy-Rich Middle Schools

Effective Classroom Practices—English Learner Development Strategies in Science

Learning History, Learning Academic Language

QuEST (Quality English and Science Teaching)

Social Studies Instruction

Supporting English Language Learners' Success with Academic Language: What Teachers Need to Know

Word Generation

Note about content, copyright, and permission

All content on these pages is the copyrighted intellectual property of the individual author(s), posted by CREATE with special permission from the copyright holders. Reflective of the professional dialogue in which they occurred, items on these pages range from completed research to works-in-progress, impressions, and opinions. If you would like permission to use any of this material in an extended way, CREATE will be glad to help you contact the author.