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In 2009, about one in four elementary schools reported teaching foreign languages.
Research on Immersion Programs
Barick, H.C., & Swain, M. (1975). Three-year evaluation of a large scale early grade French immersion program: The Ottawa Study. "Language Learning, 25"(1) 1-30.
Campbell, R.N., Gray, T.C., Rhodes, N.C., & Snow, M.A. (1985). Foreign language learning in the elementary schools: A comparison of three language programs. "Modern Language Journal, 69," 45-54.
Genesee, F. (1983). Bilingual education of majority-language children: The immersion experiments in review. "Applied Psycholinguistics, 4," 1-46.
Genesee, F. (1985). Second language learning through immersion: A review of U.S. programs. "Review of Educational Research, 55"(4), 541-561.
Genesee, F. (1986). "Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education." Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
Holobow, N., Genesee, F., Lambert, W., Gastright, J., & Met, M. (1987). Effectiveness of partial French immersion for children from different social class and ethnic backgrounds. "Applied Psycholinguistics, 8," 137-152.
Makin, L. (1996). Bilingualism in early childhood education. "Learning Languages, 1"(3), 24-27.
Pawley, C. (1985). How bilingual are French immersion students? "Canadian Modern Language Review, 41," 865-876.
(Compiled by Helena Curtain and Carol Ann Dahlberg)
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