Heritage Language Programs - Korean
Granada Hills Charter High School
Address: 10535 Zelzah Avenue, Granada Hills, CA 91344
Contact: Brandon Zaslow
Chair, Department of Foreign and Heritage Languages
Web address: www.ghchs.com
Languages/Dialects taught: Korean for Korean Speakers (Levels 1-4)
Spanish for Spanish Speakers (Levels 1-4). Plans to begin a program in Armenian for Armenian Speakers and Mandarin for Mandarin Speakers
Purposes and goals of the program: Effective program for heritage language speakers builds on the knowledge and skills that heritage speakers bring to the classroom. They provide students with language-use experiences that move them beyond the informal situations in which they function. Structured activities enable students to perform successfully in formal, academic, professional, and other real-world situations. In addition, systematic support is provided to increase student control of the formal linguistic register necessary to function in the broadest range of situations.
Language is presented in an interesting and lively manner using a thematic approach that highlights heritage cultures within and beyond the United States. Authentic materials are used to expose students to a variety of content and situations that prepare them to function in the world beyond the classroom. Topics are chosen in order to develop a strong sense of identity and a corresponding high level of self-esteem as students develop the broadest possible worldview and begin to see themselves in professional roles.
At our school heritage speakers in the first year of coursework are able to function in most informal and some formal settings. When listening, students can understand the main ideas and most supporting details on informal topics. Often, they have difficulty comprehending in formal situations. Their reading ability is substantially below their performance in listening since written language is processed with more stumbling and hesitation. When speaking on informal topics, these learners can ask and answer questions as well as narrate, describe, and explain. Their speech, however, does not hold together in oral paragraphs, rather, ideas are coordinated through strings of sentences. Student writing proficiency mirrors their speech, although limited control of the spelling system makes early messages less intelligible.
Heritage speakers in the second year of coursework can function in informal and many formal settings. When listening and reading about formal and abstract topics, they understand the main ideas and most supporting details. They are frequently unable to understand oral or written texts on complex, abstract, or technical topics without assistance. When speaking on formal topics, these learners are able to produce oral paragraphs with some detail although they have difficulty supporting opinions. Their written language is comprehensible, since their production demonstrates increasing control of less common structures and more precise vocabulary. Written communication is principally through strings of paragraphs.
Type of program : Part of the foreign language program
Program Origins :The program for heritage speakers was founded at different times. The first course in Spanish for Spanish speakers was offered in 1996. The Korean speakers program began in 2000; The Armenian program began last year. We are looking for an NCLB compliant instructor. We have an after-school Mandarin program on campus. We wish to begin a Mandarin Speakers program during the 2006-2007 school year.
Funding for the program : The program was funded with State funding via a charter block grant based on ADA (average daily attendance).
Parents' expectations for the program : Parents wish students to develop the communicative and cultural skills to enable them to function in formal settings and to strengthen the links between family members.
Staff's expectations for the program : Staff members would like to equip students with the linguistic and cultural skills to function in a broad range of formal settings. They would also like to provide experiences that assist students in coping with the feelings of "between-world-ness" that comes from being an English dominant bilingual and bicultural individual.
Native Americans: 5%
First-generation immigrants: 30%
Second-generation immigrants: 60%
Third-generation immigrants: 5%
Children of interethnic marriages: 50%
Non-ethnic background: 5%
Countries of origin : Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela
Total student enrollment : 150 Korean; 270 Spanish; 30 Armenian; 4,000 in the school
Identification of heritage speakers :The program identifies heritage speakers by asking students a series of questions about their ability to carry out tasks with the language. Students then self select the course that seems closest to their level of proficiency. After two weeks, changes are made based on students’ actual levels of proficiency.
Course : HERITAGE LANGUAGE 1AB
Duration: Full Year
Prerequisite: Oral Proficiency
Students learn to function in informal and some formal settings; understand the main ideas and most supporting details in concrete, factual, and some abstract texts (oral/written); produce paragraph-level discourse: narration, description, explanation, discussion, and supported opinion; deal with topics related to the external environment; comprehend and produce oral and written paragraphs; comprehend and are understood by non-sympathetic natives when using formal language.
Course : HERITAGE LANGUAGE 2B
Duration: Full year
Prerequisite: Heritage Language 1
Students learn to function in many formal settings; understand the main ideas and most supporting details in many formal and abstract texts (oral/written); produce extended discourse: narration, description, explanation, discussion, and supported opinion; deal with topics related to the external environment; comprehend extended discourse and produce oral paragraphs and written essays; comprehend and are understood by non-sympathetic natives when using formal language.
Course : HERITAGE LANGUAGE 3/
ADVANCED PLACEMENT SPANISH LANGUAGE
Duration: Full Year
Prerequisite: Heritage Language 2
Students learn to function in most formal settings; understand the main ideas and most supporting details in many formal academic and literary texts (oral/written); produce extended discourse: narration, description, explanation, discussion, and supported opinion; deal with topics related to an academic context; comprehend extended discourse and produce oral paragraphs and written essays; comprehend and are understood by non-sympathetic natives when using formal language.
Course : HERITAGE LANGUAGE 4/
ADVANCED PLACEMENT SPANISH LITERATURE
Duration: Full Year
Prerequisite: Advanced Placement Spanish Language
Students learn to function in formal settings; understand the main ideas and most supporting details in many literary texts and critical essays (oral/written); produce extended discourse: narration, description, explanation, discussion, and supported opinion; deal with topics related to an abstract academic context; comprehend extended discourse and produce oral paragraphs and written essays; comprehend and are understood by non-sympathetic natives when using formal, academic language.
Percentage of students who complete the program : Loss of 10% from Level 1-2;
Loss of 1/3 from Level 2 to 3; Loss of 50% from Level 3 to 4.
Reasons for not completing the program :
- Students met the university entrance requirement
- Students completed pre-AP course requirements
- Students need to take other courses
Students' attitudes toward the language varieties they speak : Negative upon entering; they believe that they use a defective variety of the language: Positive when they leave; they learn that they use one of many informal varieties and work to acquire a formal counterpart.
Number of staff in program : 6
Languages in which staff members are proficient : Armenian; Korean; Spanish.
All are native speakers (South Korean variety; Western Armenian; Salvadoran/Mexican/Cuban Spanish)
Teacher certification in Foreign Language, Korean, Spanish, Armenian
* Liberal Studies (Korean certification by test)
* Education (Armenian certification by test)
MA in Education
Professional development opportunities teachers have : Teachers participate in the programs of the Occidental Site of the California Foreign Language Project http://www.la-stars.net and school site professional development for foreign and heritage language teachers.
Professional development opportunities teachers need : Teachers need more language specific support.
Hours per week students receive instruction: 5 hours per week; 180 days per year
- Cultural products, practices, perspectives; content from other areas of the core curriculum
Skills and levels of language proficiency students reach by the end of the program :
- Level 1 Spanish: Intermediate High
- Level 2 Spanish: Advanced
- Level 3 Spanish: Advanced Plus
- Level 4 Spanish: Advanced Plus
Korean 1: Intermediate Mid
- Korean 2: Intermediate High
- Korean 3: Advanced
- Korean 4: Advanced
- Arts and crafts
- Social and cultural norms
- Cultural appropriateness
Learners are provided opportunities to participate in interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational communication; experience cultural products and practices and reflect on the perspectives that underlie them; acquire knowledge and new perspectives from heritage language sources; learn about the nature of language and culture and how each manifests itself in human communication; and take language beyond the classroom in real-world interactions.
Kinds of student identity the program fosters : Language is presented in an interesting and lively manner using a thematic approach that highlights the heritage culture within and beyond the United States. Authentic materials are used to expose students to a variety of content and situations that prepare them to function in the world beyond the classroom. Topics are chosen in order to develop a strong sense of identity and a corresponding high level of self-esteem as students develop the broadest possible worldview and begin to see themselves in professional roles.
Outcomes : Instructors begin each unit by identifying the tasks students will be able to perform upon its completion. They establish three sets of objectives: for knowledge; for communication; and for control of vocabulary, structure, and culturally appropriate behavior.
Exploratory Activities : Designed to spark student interest in the themes developed, to tap into student knowledge of the topics presented, and to familiarize them with the content necessary for the comprehension and production of messages. They consist of interactive formats in which the students and the instructor generate the information necessary to participate in subsequent activities. Representative structures include personalized questions and completions; clusters and quick-writes; surveys and interviews; and vocabulary expansion/academic resource activities.
Reading/Listening Texts :Designed to develop receptive proficiency, the ability to understand the content of the lesson. Content (input) is made comprehensible in early texts through the selection of topics that reflect the world of the learner. Initially, students are assisted in identifying the main ideas and supporting details in informal and concrete texts. Over time, formal texts treating more abstract topics are introduced. With all texts, learners are guided through the reading/listening process by means of personalized, analytic and synthetic prompts which model the higher level thinking skills necessary for independent academic purposes. Closure activities require students to reflect on and apply in personal ways the lessons learned from the texts' themes.
Analysis and Discovery of Grammar : Designed to develop accuracy necessary for high quality comprehension and production of messages. Student knowledge of the heritage language is validated when they are asked to produce examples using their intuitions and innate linguistic competence. Knowledge that students do not yet possess (exceptions to rules, standard variations and grammatical terms) is taught interactively using a programmed approach.
Meaningful and Personalized Guided Practice (Input and Output Structures) : Provides students with opportunities to develop the control of discrete elements of form by practicing specific vocabulary, structures and culturally appropriate behaviors in controlled settings. This is necessary in order for students to comprehend and produce highly precise messages when they integrate, apply, and extend their language when carrying out real-world tasks. In guided practice activities, students are evaluated primarily on their control of the vocabulary, structures and culturally appropriate behaviors of the unit and secondarily on task completion. They may be receptive, requiring the processing of input; or productive, requiring the creation of output.
Integrative Application and Extension (Input and Output Structures) : Requires students to use all that they have at their disposal to accomplish tasks representative of those they might perform outside the classroom. The focus of the situation may necessitate the use of vocabulary, structures and culturally appropriate behaviors practiced in a particular instructional unit, but students are encouraged to use all of the resources they have acquired. Representative formats reflect the settings, tasks, topics and expectations for accuracy of the target culture. In Integrative Application and Extension students are evaluated primarily on task completion and secondarily on the quantity and quality of the language they use.
Recycling : The systematic reentry of functions, content, contexts, text-types and expectations for accuracy, is a central part of instruction. It provides learners with opportunities to learn, relearn or solidify their control of previously practiced elements and experience their use in a variety of culturally valid, real-world settings. Additionally, it serves as both remediation and enrichment and thus provides an essential feature necessary for individualizing instruction.
Spiraling : The utilization of lower level functions, content, contexts, text-types and expectations for accuracy with those of a higher level, can also be used to individualize instruction. It addresses the needs of learners functioning within different stages and moves students at lower ranges to higher levels of performance.
Evaluation : Instructors end each unit by determining the knowledge students have gained; by assessing the tasks they are able to perform; and by testing vocabulary items, grammatical structures and culturally appropriate behaviors for full control, partial control, and conceptual awareness as appropriate.
Spanish Speakers 1-2
Entre mundos 2nd Edition (Prentice Hall, 2004)
Español para nostros (Glencoe, 2006)[only reading selections used]
Spanish Speakers 3-4
Abriendo puertas (McDougal Littel, 2002)
Azulejo (Wayside Publishing, 2002)
Momentos cumbres de la literatura hispana (Prentice Hall, 2003)
Spanish, 4 Years (Amsco, 2001)
Korean Speakers 1-4
Integrated Korean, Beginning Level 1 through Advanced Level 2
Other materials used for instruction : We also use a large number of authentic texts (print, audio, video, art, music, etc.)
Technology used in the program : Technology is central to the program to provide access to authentic texts (print, audio, video, art, music, etc.)
- Student self-assessment instrument
- Teacher observations
- ACTFL OPI (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language’s Oral Proficiency Interview)
Instructors end each unit by determining the knowledge students have gained; by assessing the tasks they are able to perform; and by testing vocabulary items, grammatical structures, and culturally appropriate behaviors for full control, partial control, and conceptual awareness as appropriate.
We receive students from several middle schools. Currently middle schools do not have heritage language programs. Students continue their studies at numerous post-secondary institutions; some of which provide opportunities to continue their studies. Many institutions do not have heritage speaker courses, or their courses are at a lower level than those that our students need.
- Schools outside the United States
Many students participate in a variety of vocational programs.
What the program has in place
Financial support - US government, Local/state government support and Ethnic/cultural organization. We receive donations from parents and funding from the state and federal government.
Assistance or collaboration you would like to receive for your program : We would like to enhance our ability to engage members of the language speaking communities and solicit funds and other types of support both financial and human.
System for graduating students and granting credit for study : students are enrolled in the appropriate course in the series and, via an agreement with the University of California, receive credit (not units) for pre-requisite coursework.
We are a public school and monitor the performance of all of our students. Many of our Spanish speaking students do not excel in the rest of the core curriculum and as a result finish only two years of the heritage language sequence so they can meet other graduation requirements.
Special Challenges and Comments
Challenges : Our greatest challenge is finding NCLB compliant teachers in the less commonly taught languages. Without a state test that measures competency in the content area, many teachers are unable to serve in positions that serve Armenian,
Portuguese, Arabic, Hebrew speaking students (among others).
Additional comments : We have learned that outside of the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers, it is necessary to solicit the support of parents in order to begin the discussion of beginning programs in the less commonly taught languages. Further, there are few instructional resources available, which creates additional demands on teachers in these programs. We have found great success in adapting the Spanish for Spanish Speakers model for the variety of heritage programs that are being taught in the schools.