Links to Other Online Resources

Group of teenage students

The Alliance has collected numerous links to resources on other Web sites relating to heritage languages. Learn more.

Heritage Voices Logo

NEW! The Alliance has developed the Heritage Voices Collection, an online series designed to allow heritage language speakers and programs to share their unique voices with visitors to our Web site. Learn more.

Research and Resources

Online Academic Articles

Arabic Language Teaching in the United States
Sally Morrison, ERIC/CLL Language Link, June 2003

In 2000, languages of the Middle East made up only 2% of all foreign language classes offered in the United States: 1.3% Hebrew and .5% Arabic (Cumming, 2001). Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the FBI’s urgent call for Arabic, Pashto, and Farsi translators, interest in the teaching and learning of these languages has increased dramatically. This article looks at the state of Arabic language teaching in the United States today and describes some of the challenges specific to Arabic teaching and learning faced by teachers and students.

Are We Wasting Our Nation's Language Resources? Heritage Languages in America
Kathleen Marcos, ERIC/CLL Language Link, October 1999

Engaging Critical Pedagogy: Spanish for Native Speakers
Jennifer Leeman, Foreign Language Annals, Spring 2005: Volume 38, No. 1

Foreign Language Anxiety and Heritage Students of Spanish:
A Quantitative Study

Michael Tallon, Foreign Language Annals,
Spring 2009: Vol. 42, No. 1

This article describes an in-depth study on the anxiety levels of heritage speakers of Spanish in the foreign language classroom.  Classes ranging from Elementary Spanish to Spanish for Health Professionals are studied.  The study focuses mainly on college-age participants and uses the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) as the evaluative benchmark.  Results show clear differences between anxiety levels of traditional foreign language learners and heritage learners.  This analysis may lead to implications for the language teacher and may alter lesson plans to better interest and engage heritage students.  Teachers may find this study quite useful in the classroom as the analysis offers suggestions for alleviating stress in the classroom for both groups of learners, such as cutting down on high-stress activities like speaking in front of the class or writing work on the board.
Heritage Language Learners in First-Year Foreign Language Courses: A Report of General Data Across Learner Subtypes
Rachel Reynolds, Kathryn Howard, Julia Deak
Foreign Language Annals, Summer 2009: Volume 42, No. 2
This article describes a comprehensive study of college-level students in foreign language classes.  The study explores speakers’ motivations to study a language, expectations for classes, and desires for future courses.  Students were separated by heritage status— narrow heritage language learner (HLL), broad HLL, and non-HLL. Distinct gaps are seen between those with family ties and those without them.  Additionally, marked differences are seen between elective learners (those who chose to learn a language voluntarily) and circumstantial learners (those forced by environment to learn a language).  This study may be of interest to those seeking to design curricula for a unique group— HLL, elective learner, or circumstantial learner—as participants’ varied course desires and expectations are enumerated.  A course may be designed slightly differently depending on student make-up so as to better interest and engage students.

Heritage Language Research Priorities Conference ReportPDF logo
The UCLA Steering Committe, September, 2000

Innovative language education programmes for heritage language students: The special case of Puerto Ricans?
G. Richard Tucker. (2005). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8, 2 (188-195).

The author discusses current interest in educational reform in Puerto Rico, the need for better and more appropriate assessment tools, the growing realization in the USA that two-way bilingual programs can provide an effective vehicle for fostering the development of bilingual proficiency, bicultural competence and subject-matter knowledge for heritage language students; and the possible confluence and implications of these three threads of work for the education of Puerto Rican children who participate in the so-called "migrant stream" moving regularly between the island and the mainland. The paper concludes with the list of a number of research questions that might form the basis for a set of planned-variation studies to examine diverse factors associated with improving the quality of language teaching and learning in Puerto Rico.

Maintaining and Renewing Native LanguagesPDF logo
Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona University and Edward Tennant, Educational Research Associates

This article reviews research on maintaining and renewing American Indian languages. A rationale is given for the importance of maintaining tribal languages in terms of Native students' cross-cultural understanding. Then Joshua Fishman's theoretical paradigm for reversing language shift is summarized and tribal and national language policies are reviewed. Early childhood, elementary, secondary, and tribal college native language efforts are described along with Navajo and Yup'ik examples of school-based native-language maintenance/renewal efforts. Based on the research of tribal native-language renewal efforts and current research on second language teaching, specific suggestions are given for maintaining and renewing native languages.

Preserving Home Languages and Cultures in the Classroom: Challenges and Opportunities
Lourdes Díaz Soto, Jocelynn L. Smrekar, and Deanna L. Nekcovei
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Spring 1999

Spanish for U.S. Bilinguals in Higher Education
Ana Roca, ERIC/CLL Digest, November 1992

Teaching Spanish to Native Speakers: A New Perspective in the 1990s
Cecilia Rodríguez Pino, ERIC/CLL News Bulletin, September 1997

Using New Technology to Teach Native American Languages
Sally Morrison, ERIC/CLL Language Link, March 2003

A View From Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools
Xueying Wang (Ed.), National Foreign Language Center, 1999

Online Journals

Heritage Language Journal
There is a demonstrable need for a forum for ongoing discussion among researchers and educators interested in heritage language education. To meet this need, an online blind-refereed journal, Heritage Language Journal, was established in 2003. It is published jointly by the Center for World Languages of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the UC Consortium for Language Learning and Teaching.

Read the latest issue.

The Bilingual Research Journal
The Bilingual Research Journal
was dedicated to disseminating information and inspiring discussion on topics related to bilingualism, bilingual education, and language issues.

Bilingual Research Journal. (Fall, 2000). Special Issue on Heritage Languages, Terrence L. Wiley & Guadalupe Valdés (Eds.).

Additional archived online resource guides available from CAL

Each resource guide below provides a general overview of a particular language-related topic and lists various relevant resources including print materials, online information, videos, and organizations. Please be aware that these archived resource guides are historical in nature and will not be maintained or updated by CAL.

American Sign Language
Bronwyn Coltrane, Center for Applied Linguistics

Less Commonly Taught Languages
Sally Morrison, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics

Teaching Spanish to Spanish Speakers
Ana Roca, Florida International University
Kathleen Marcos, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics
Paula Winke, Center for Applied Linguistics

Browse the complete archived list of Resource Guides