The Center for Applied Linguistics manages the Language Policy Research Network (LPReN), which was originally launched by the Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquée, (the International Association of Applied Linguistics) Research Networks Committee in 2006.
We invite you to join LPREN’s listserv. All messages posted to the list are publicly available. Members are invited to read and write messages about topics of interest, upcoming events, questions for the field, resource sharing, research interests, or other issues that affect international language policy research. Because this list is moderated, all messages sent to the list will be reviewed prior to posting. Please do not send attachments.
LPREN's Mission Statement
The Language Policy Research Network (LPREN) is an international organization of researchers, scholars, and stakeholders in the field of language policy. The overarching mission of LPReN is to promote the development of networks and rich collaboration around issues of language policy. We host colloquia at conferences, invite publications related to the field, convene at events, and share resources, announcements, and other opportunities via the LPREN listserv.
LPReN ’s mission is to connect a global network of researchers, scholars, and stakeholders dedicated to providing information, advocacy, and outreach around issues of language policy.
LPReN was founded in 2006 by a group of leading scholars in language policy, with the goal of supporting international and interdisciplinary networks of language policy parties. LPReN’s sponsorship of conference panels, facilitation of the LPReN listserv, commissioning of publications, and dissemination of resources contributes to the development of networks and rich collaboration around issues in language policy research and scholarship.
Bridging Research and Practice through Informed Policy Participation
LPReN contributes to building a broad and informed network of parties involved in language policy issues through making research and scholarship on language policy accessible to policymakers, practitioners, families, and others. The network was founded with consideration for the social responsibilities of scholars working in the area of language policy and the need to combine responsible research with commitment to advocacy. The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL), a recognized leader in the dissemination of research to diverse stakeholders, has housed LPReN since 2010. The network accepts commissions for papers, reports, and research regarding language policy issues and serves as a portal of information for all stakeholders.
Language policy has important human consequences: Language policy is significant for educational, cultural, economic, and social well-being, especially in multilingual and multicultural societies.
Language policy is dynamic: Language policies are social processes that involve interpretation and implementation by diverse actors. Populations and language practices are characterized by shifts across time, space, and groups, requiring on-going consideration by language planners and policymakers.
Gaps in language policy research and practice: Language policy scholarship is not always fully considered by policymakers, nor communicated to the stakeholders who implement and experience the outcomes of policies on the ground.
Language policy research is an interdisciplinary and global discipline: Influences on the development and outcomes of language policies are multi-dimensional and increasingly trans-national, necessitating input from experts in different disciplines and all world regions and locales.
Language policy is improved through democratic participation: All political processes are characterized by debate and exchange of ideas; informed discussion and debate about language policy issues, inclusive of all stakeholders, and needed to develop policies that best meet the needs of all members of society.
Advisory Committee Members
The LPREN Advisory Committee convenes periodically at meetings to review the general direction of LPREN and consider opportunities to enhance language policy research. It also acts as a review team for proposals to LPREN sponsored panels at major international conferences.
- Rama Kant Agnihotri
University of Delhi, India
- Peter Backhaus
Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
- Colin Baker
Bangor University, Wales, UK
- Jeff Bale
OISE, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- David Block
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats
- Theodorus du Plessis
University of the Free State, South Africa
- Patsy Duff
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
- Margarita Hidalgo
San Diego State University, San Diego, California
- Nancy H. Hornberger
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Francis M. Hult
Lund University, Lund, Sweden
- Robert B. Kaplan
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
- Kendall A. King
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
- Karen E. Lillie
SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, NY
- Angel Lin
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
- Reynaldo F. Macías
University of California, Los Angeles, California
- Jeff MacSwan
University of Maryland
- Teresa L. McCarty
University of California, Los Angeles, California
- Sinfree Makoni
Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
- Sarah Catherine Moore
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC
- Sonja Novak-Lukanovič
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Masaki Oda
Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan
- Vaidehi Ramanathan
University of California, Davis, California
- Dónall Ó Riagáin
- Thomas Ricento
University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Harold Schiffman
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Elana Shohamy
Tel Aviv University, Israel
- Bernard Spolsky
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
- Christopher Stroud
University of the Western Cape, South Africa
- Roland Terborg
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico
- James W. Tollefson
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
- Humphrey Tonkin
University of Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
- Larisa Warhol
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut
- Li Wei
Birkbeck College, University of London, UK
- Terrence G. Wiley
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC
- Wayne E. Wright
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Rama Kant Agnihotri, D.Phil. (York) retired as Professor of Linguistics at the University of Delhi, Delhi. He is interested in and has taught and written extensively about Applied Linguistics, Morphology, Sociolinguistics and Research Methods for several years. He has lectured in Germany, UK, USA, Canada, Yemen, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, among other countries. He has also been working with several NGOs across India in the area of primary school education. He co-edits, with A.L.Khanna, the Sage series on Applied Linguistics.
Peter Backhaus is Associate Professor at Waseda University, Tokyo. His research interests include sociolinguistics, conversation analysis, and writing and orthography, with special focus on Japanese. He is author of Linguistic Landscapes (Multilingual Matters, 2007) and has recently worked on an edited volume titled Communication in Elderly Care (Continuum, 2011).
Dr Colin Baker is the Executive Pro Vice Chancellor at Bangor University in Wales, UK, and the author of 16 books and over 60 articles on bilingualism, with specific interests in language planning and bilingual education. His book ‘Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism’ (Multilingual Matters, 5th edition in 2011) has sold over 80,000 copies and has been translated into Japanese, Spanish, Latvian, Greek, Vietnamese and Mandarin. He edits two Multilingual Matters Book Series and is Editor of the International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.
Bale's research explores the history of second language education in the United States in relation to the ebb and flow of U.S. imperial projects. In addition, his work adopts comparative approaches to better understand the conflicts surrounding bilingual education policy in the US and Germany. Bale oversees secondary world language teacher preparation at Michigan State and helped develop its new programs in Arabic teacher certification. He has published in Language Policy, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, International Multilingual Research Journal, and Critical Education. His co-edited book (with Sarah Knopp), Education and Capitalism: The Struggle for Learning and Liberation, is set to appear in late 2011.
David Block is ICREA (Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats) Research Professor in Sociolinguistics in the Department de Anglès i Lingüística at the Universitat de Lleida and convenor of the ongoing Simposi Català de Sociolingüística. His main interests are the impact of globalization on language practices of all kinds, migration, and the interface between identity and language learning and use. He is especially interested in how political economy can inform thinking about globalization and identity, and in his more recent work he has focussed on neoliberalism as the dominant ideology in contemporary societies and class as a key dimension of identity. He co-edited, with Deborah Cameron, Globalization and Language Teaching (Routledge, 2002) and co-authored, with John Gray and Marnie Holborow, Neoliberalism and Applied Linguistics (Routledge, 2012). He has published three single-authored books: The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition (Edinburgh University Press, 2003); Multilingual Identities in a Global City: London Stories (Palgrave, 2006); and Second Language Identities (Continuum, 2007) and is currently writing a fourth, Class in Applied Linguistics (Routledge).
The author is professor in language management and head of the Department of Language Management and Language Practice at the University of the Free State. He teaches language policy, language planning and language management and language politics. His research covers the fields of multilingualism and language management and has since 1988 regularly visited several international institutions in Belgium, Germany and Israel.
He has delivered 33 papers at international conferences and 40 at national conferences and is co-editor of 10 books, Afrikaans en taalpolitiek (1987) with Hans du Plessis, Taal en stryd: Gedenkbundel 1989—1999 (1999) with Alwyn van Gensen, Multilingualism & Government (2000) with Kas Deprez , Multilingualism, the judiciary and security services (2001) with Kas Deprez and Lut Teck, Multilingualism, education and social integration (2003) with Pol Cuvelier and Lut Teck, Multilingualism and electronic language management (2005) with Walter Daelemans, Lut Teck and Cobus Snyman, The politics of language in South Africa (2006) with Vic Webb, Multilingualism and Exclusion (2007) with Pol Cuvelier, Michael Meeuwis and Lut Teck, Multilingualism and educational interpreting. Innovation and delivery (2008) with Marlene Verhoef) and Multilingualism from below (2010) with Pol Cuvelier, Michael Meeuwis, Reinhild Vandekerckhove and Vic Webb.
Professor of Language and Literacy Education and Co-director of the Centre for Research in Language and Literacy Education at the University of British Columbia. Her research deals with second (or additional) language learners of all types and ages and the integration of minority students in mainstream education and workplace contexts. Her current research projects examine the learning, teaching, and use of English and Mandarin as global languages and related languages ideologies.
Professor emerita of Spanish linguistics and sociolinguistics at San Diego State University (1987-2008), where she developed the instructional materials and testing instruments for a three-level program of Spanish for U.S. Hispanics. Her publications have examined issues related to society, language and ethnicity, and the ways in which they interact when language is either a dependent, independent or interdependent variable. She has studied language attitudes along the Mexico-U.S. border, language maintenance and shift in the U.S. Southwest, koineization, comparative dialectology, and variation of New World Spanish in addition to English in Mexico, bilingual education, U.S. Spanish, and reversing language shift. The edited volume of 2006 Mexican indigenous languages at the dawn of the twenty-first century addresses language policy in Mexico (past and present).
Her articles and book reviews have appeared in Anthropological Linguistics, Language and Society, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Language Problems and Language Planning, Hispania, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Journal of Language and Intercultural Communication, Anuario de Lingüística Hispánica, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Journal of Sociolinguistics, and Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, among others. She has also contributed to edited volumes on Research Issues and Problems in U.S. Spanish. Mexican-American Spanish in Its Sociocultural Context, Spanish in the U.S.: Sociolinguistic Issues, Spanish in the U. S.: Language Contact and Diversity, Language and Culture in Learning: Teaching of Spanish to Native Speakers of Spanish, Post-Imperial English (1940-1990), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Teoría y Práctica, Handbook of Language and Dialect Variation, among others.
Professor of Education and Director of Educational Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, where she also convenes the annual Ethnography in Education Research Forum. Her research interests include sociolinguistics in education, ethnography in education, language policy, bilingualism and biliteracy, Indigenous language revitalization and heritage language education. She has taught, lectured, and advised on multilingual language policy and education throughout the world, as visiting professor, Fulbright Senior Specialist, U.S. State Department English Language Specialist, and United Nations consultant. Author/editor of over two dozen books and more than 100 articles and chapters, her recent publications include the 10-volume Encyclopedia of Language and Education (Springer, 2008), Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), and Sociolinguistics and Language Education (with Sandra McKay, Multilingual Matters, 2010).
Associate Professor at the Center for Languages and Literature at Lund University. Hult has lectured on language policy, sociolinguistics, and discourse analysis at several universities in Europe and North America, and his work appears in a number of major international journals and edited volumes. He is also the founder and manager of the Educational Linguistics List and co-editor of Springer's Educational Linguistics book series.
Professor Emeritus, Linguistics, USC. Authored or edited 55 books, 178 articles in scholarly journals and as chapters in books, and 90 book reviews and other more ephemeral pieces in various newsletters, as well as 10 special reports to government and to various institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. Received the Life-Time Achievement Award from the University of Southern California (2005), a Distinguished Alumni Citation Award from Willamette University (2002), the American Association for Applied Linguistics Award for Distinguished Scholarship and Service (1998), the first Distinguished Faculty Service Award from the Academic Senate, University of Southern California (1995), and the first Distinguished Service Award from the Black Administrators' Alliance, County of Los Angeles (1989).
Associate Professor of Second Languages and Cultures at the University of Minnesota, where she teaches about and conducts research on language policy, sociolinguistics and bilingualism. Her recent work appears in the Modern Language Journal, Discourse Studies, Applied Linguistics and the International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. She is editor of the journal Language Policy.
Karen E. Lillie is an Assistant Professor of TESOL at SUNY Fredonia. She earned her Ph.D. at Arizona State University in Applied Linguistics with a specialization focus in language policy and forensic linguistics (language & law). Her research interests include language and the justice system, language discrimination, rights for language minorities, and specifically within policy, dropout rates for ELLs, secondary level educational policy, and the effects of English-Only laws and propositions.
Dr. Lin is well-respected for her versatile interdisciplinary scholarship in language and identity studies, bilingual education, language policy and planning in postcolonial contexts, classroom discourse analysis, sociocultural theories of second language learning, critical discourse analysis, and youth cultural studies.
Professor Macias has research interests in the politics of language policy making and planning, language demography, education and literacy. He has published 6 books and three dozen articles and chapters. He has been involved in major national studies in the United States, consulted with state and federal bodies in the U.S., and regional groups including in Europe and China.
Jeff MacSwan is professor of education and linguistics at the University of Maryland. MacSwan’s research focuses on the role of language in schooling, on education policy related to English Language Learners in the U.S., and on the linguistic study of bilingualism. MacSwan is the author of over fifty publications; examples of his work appear in Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Lingua, Teachers College Record, and in edited collections. MacSwan is a Spencer Foundation/National Academy of Education Postdoctoral Fellow, and has served as a visiting scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Center for the Study of Multilingualism at Hamburg University. He has given invited talks at Harvard, Syracuse, Ohio State, Chicago, Arizona, Santa Barbara, Stanford, Bangor, Hamburg, Bremen, Wuppertal, and the National Institutes of Health, among others.
Teresa L. McCarty is the A.W. Snell Professor of Education Policy Studies and Applied Linguistics at Arizona State University, where she also co-directs the Center for Indian Education. A sociocultural anthropologist, she has published widely on Indigenous/bilingual education, language planning and policy, critical literacy studies, and ethnographic studies of schooling. She is past president of the Council on Anthropology and Education, the former editor of Anthropology and Education Quarterly, and is associate editor of Language Policy and American Educational Research Journal. Her most recent book is Ethnography and Language Policy (Routledge 2011).
Sarah Catherine Moore, LPREN Manager, has researched the role and impact of language politics, planning, and policy on the education of language minority students at the local, state, and national levels in the United States and in international contexts. Dr. Moore's areas of expertise include program models and methods for the instruction of language learners, approaches to language educator professional development, and the process through which language policies are implemented among a range of settings and stakeholders. She has been an educator and teacher educator at the K-12, community college, and university levels. Dr. Moore's Ph.D. is from Arizona State University in Education Policy with an emphasis on Language Policy.
Dr. Novak-Lukanovič is Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics in the Department of Comparative and General Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Senior Scientific Associate at the Institute for Ethnic Studies in Ljubljana. Since 2010, she has been Director of the Institute for Ethnic Studies in Ljubljana. Dr. Novak-Lukanovič's fundamental and applied research work focuses on ethnic issues from the perspective of language and culture (language accommodation, intercultural communication, the economic perspective of language); she is cooperating in various international projects (UNESCO, Council of Europe, OECD, Minorities Working Group DS Alps-Adriatic, EU). President of the Slovene Association for Applied Linguistics and a member of the Slovene National Commission for UNESCO, Dr. Novak-Lukanovič was awarded her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. She has published in diverse venues and attended numerous international conferences.
Masaki Oda (Ph.D. Georgetown University) has taught Japanese, EFL and Linguistics, and trained teachers in the US and Japan. His primary interests are public discourses and language policy making, language of Air Traffic Control and Language and Globalization.
Vaidehi Ramanathan is a professor of applied sociolinguistics in the Linguistics Department at the University of California, Davis. Her research interests span all domains of literacy, including language policies and the ways in which they impact teacher-education, minority languages and unequal power relations between English and the vernaculars in postcolonial contexts. She is also interested in policy issues concerning health and disabilities and ways in which they are linguistically manifested in health insurance policies and medically institutionalized settings such as hospitals and pharmacies. Her publications include Language, Body and Health (co-edited, Mouton de Gruyter, 2011), Bodies and Language: health, ailments, disabilities (2009, Multilingual Matters), The English-Vernacular Divide: postcolonial language policies and practice (2005, Multilingual Matters), The Politics of TESOL education: writing, knowledge, critical pedagogy (2002, RoutledgeFalmer/Taylor and Francis), and Alzheimer Discourse: Some sociolinguistic dimensions (1997, Lawrence Erlbaum). She has also co-edited a special issue of TESOL Quarterly on grounded explorations of language policy and special issue of Language Policy with a focus on health.
Dónall Ó Riagáin works as an independent consultant on language planning. A founding member of the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages, he was subsequently the organization’s first President and Secretary General. He was involved in preparing a number of reports for the European Parliament, the European Commission, the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Council of Europe, including the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. He was a part-time lecturer on University College Dublin’s MA Course in European Studies from 2000 until 2010. An Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, Carmarthen, Wales, he is a member of the International Advisory Board of Linguapax [UNESCO], Barcelona and is Chairperson of Abakan Action, an informal network working for the promotion of linguistic diversity. He is a member of EUNoM (European Universities Network on Multilingualism). He is currently working as an expert on the ‘Minorities in Russia’ Joint Programme of the Council of Europe and the EU. He is a guardian of the Observatoire International des Droits Linguistiques, Moncton University, Canada.
Dr. Ricento holds the first North American Chair in English as an Additional Language. He has published widely in the field of language policy and language and ideology. He is founding co-editor (with Terrence Wiley) of the Journal of Language, Identity, and Education (Routledge). He has a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics from the University of California, Los Angeles.
My research interests focus on the linguistics of the Dravidian languages, especially Tamil, and to a lesser extent, Kannada, and in the area of language policy. I have published in these two areas where overlapping interests in sociolinguistics (diglossia, language standardization, multilingualism) intersect with language policy and the politics of language. I am also director of the Consortium for Language Policy and Planning, and recently finished a stint as Pedagogical Materials Director of the National South Asia Language Resource Center. Recent publications include Linguistic Culture and Language Policy (Routledge 1996) and A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil (Cambridge University Press, 1999), and An English Dictionary of the Tamil Verb, 2010.
Elana Shohamy teaches and researches multiple topics related to language policy such as the use of language tests for creating policies, linguistic landscape, educational policies, language rights and negotiating policies. She is the author of the 2006 book Language Policy: Hidden Agendas and New Approaches. Together with Kendall King, she is the current editor of the Journal Language Policy.
Dr. Spolsky is a leading scholar in language policy, including language education policy and language management; sociolinguistics, including language change and language maintenance; educational linguistics, including literacy and second language learning; language testing and its history; and language attitudes and identity. Dr. Spolsky was in residence at CAL during October-December 2010.
During his time at CAL, Dr. Spolsky continued to work on editing the Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy, began the editing of a collection of articles on language academies and other management agencies, and carried out research for a monograph on religious influences on language management. He also provided general consultation to CAL staff, and gave a special presentation to CAL staff and guests, “Fergie, Joshua, and the Birth of Responsible Sociolinguistics.”
Senior Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Professor, Centre for Research on Bilingualism Stockholm University, Sweden.
Professor Stroud's current research interests focus on practices and ideologies of multilingualism in social and politically transforming economies in Southern Africa. For the past five years, he has been working on semiotic landscapes and consumption in the townships and informal settlements of Cape Town, and exploring the potential of multilingual mobile literacies and modes of local engagement in emerging community literacies, for voice and agency in the townships of Manenberg and Khayelitsha. He is working on developing a notion of linguistic/multilingual citizenship as an approach to multilingual dynamics and the politics of language.
Roland Terborg is Associate Professor in the Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, Centro de Enseñanza de Lenguas Extranjeras, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). His research interests are in sociolinguistics, especially language death.
James W. Tollefson has published extensively on language policy, language conflict, migration, and inequality. His books include Language Policies in Education; Planning Language, Planning Inequality; and (with Amy B.M. Tsui) Medium of Instruction Policies, and Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts. His current research examines media representations of language and social conflict.
President Emeritus and University Professor of the Humanities at the University of Hartford, where he teaches courses for the English Department (in theatre history), the Foreign Language Department (in language and society), and the Theatre Division of the Hartt School (in Shakespeare). He is editor-in-chief of the journal Language Problems and Language Planning and editor of the book series Studies in World Language Problems. His publications include monographs and edited volumes on international education, language policy and planning, sixteenth-century English literature, translation, and other topics. He has also published several book-length translations. He is a former chair of the Council on International Exchange of Scholars and of the Canadian Fulbright Commission, and has at various times also chaired the boards of the International Partnership for Service-Learning, the American Forum for Global Education, and the Universal Esperanto Association. He is a past president of the International Spenser Society.
Larisa Warhol is a Research Specialist at the University of Connecticut and graduate of the Ph.D. program in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Arizona State University. She received her M.S.Ed. in Intercultural Communication from the University of Pennsylvania and her B.A. in Classical Civilization from Yale University. Her research has encompassed language policy; non-formal and community-based education programs; multicultural education and American Indian language revitalization and education policy.
Li Wei studied English and Linguistics at Beijing Normal University, China and Newcastle University, England. He was Professor of Applied Linguistics and Head of School of Education, Communication & Language Sciences at Newcastle until the end of 2006. He has been Professor of Applied Linguistics at Birkbeck College, University of London since January 2007. He is Principal Editor of the International Journal of Bilingualism (Sage). He is Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences UK and Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, UK.
Terrence G. Wiley is President and CEO of the Center for Applied Linguistics and the organizer of LPReN. Prior to joining CAL, Dr. Wiley was executive dean of the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education at Arizona State University. He previously served as director of the university’s Division of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies and was professor of educational policy studies and applied linguistics. He has also held positions at Cal Poly Pomona, California State University Long Beach, and the City of Long Beach Department of Public Health. Dr. Wiley received his Ph.D. in education, with an emphasis in linguistics, from the University of Southern California. He also holds master’s degrees in linguistics and Asian studies and a bachelor’s degree in history.
Dr. Wiley’s teaching and research have focused on language policy, literacy and biliteracy, language and immigration, bilingual education and bilingualism, heritage and community language education, English and globalization, and English as a second and international language. His scholarly articles and reviews have appeared in numerous journals.
His recent books include The Education of Language Minority Immigrants in the United States and Literacy and Language Diversity in the United States. His editorial service includes co-founding and co-editing the Journal of Language, Identity, and Education and the International Multilingual Research Journal. He has guest-edited and served on the editorial boards of numerous other journals. His international collaborations and lectures have included work with universities on six continents.
Dr. Wayne E. Wright is an Associate Professor in the Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where he teaches courses in the areas of ESL and bilingual education, second language literacy, assessment, and research. His research focuses on language and education policy and programs for language minority students. He is Editor of the Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement (www.jsaaea.org), Book Review Editor of the International Multilingual Research Journal, and author of Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners: Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice.