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Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence (CREDE)

In collaboration with the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) conducted research on selected projects and prepared and disseminated materials for the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE) from 1996-2003. CREDE assisted the nation's population of diverse students, including those at risk of educational failure, to achieve academic excellence. The purpose of CREDE's research was to identify and develop effective educational practices for linguistic and cultural minority students, such as those placed at risk by factors of race, poverty, and geographic location.

CREDE was one of 12 national research and development centers funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students. CREDE continues to improve upon the work of the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning (NCRCDSLL).

CREDE Research Projects Conducted at CAL
Four CREDE research projects were conducted at CAL from 1996-2003. The CREDE project conducted by CAL and listed below focused on Two-Way Immersion Education.

CREDE Research Project: Two-Way Immersion
Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics and Fred Genesee, McGill University
Additional Contacts: Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, San Jose State University; Liz Howard and Julie Sugarman, Center for Applied Linguistics

This study continued the research conducted on two-way bilingual immersion by the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. This study examined instructional outcomes (English-language attainment), student populations (at-risk English proficient students), and long-term effects (elementary two-way immersion program graduates in secondary grades), and documented program implementation in schools across the country.

Download free PDFs resulting from this study:

The Development of Bilingualism and Biliteracy from Grade 3 to 5

Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College

Implementing Two-Way Immersion Programs in Secondary Schools

In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences

Two-Way Immersion 101: Designing and Implementing a Two-Way Immersion Education Program at the Elementary School Level

Learn more about the CREDE Project on the CAL Website.