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Foundational Resources

Browse the collection of foundational resources developed by CAL.

Realizing the Vision of Two-Way Immersion: Fostering Effective Programs and Classrooms

Elizabeth R. Howard & Julie Sugarman

Drawing on a decade of research, this book explores the question of effectiveness in two-way immersion by examining the development of bilingualism and biliteracy in elementary TWI students. Specifically, the authors highlight the importance of fostering cultures of intellectualism, equity, and leadership in order to promote bilingualism and biliteracy among two-way immersion students. 2007

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Profiles in Two-Way Immersion Education

Donna Christian, Christopher L. Montone, Kathryn J. Lindholm, and Isolda Carranza

Two-way immersion programs integrate language minority and language majority students in the same classroom with the goal of academic excellence and bilingual proficiency for both groups. This volume begins the process of documenting that experience by profiling two-way immersion programs in three schools that are implementing different variations of the model. The authors describe each program's evolution, current operation, and results, drawing conclusions wherever feasible. By examining the programs in some depth and highlighting similarities and differences, the authors hope to contribute to a greater understanding of how two-way immersion education works. 1997

The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs

Elizabeth R. Howard, Natalie Olague, & David Rogers

This guide offers a collection of tools: discussion prompts, graphic organizers, and quizzes to be used by those who are in the process of planning or implementing a new dual language program. A dual language program planning team is encouraged to work together through the guide to assess levels of support and readiness existing in the community for a dual language program and to develop a plan for moving forward with program implementation. 2003


Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College
Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato, San José State University (May 2002)

In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences
Elizabeth R. Howard & Michael I. Loeb, Center for Applied Linguistics (December 1998)

Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students
Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (October 1999)

Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics
Elizabeth R. Howard & Julie Sugarman, Center for Applied Linguistics (March 2001)