CAL: Topics: Dialects
CAL Resources Archive
The CAL Resources Archive was created to provide our visitors with access to older pages and content from our Web site that they may find useful. Please be aware that information within the CAL Resources Archive is historical in nature and will not be maintained or updated by CAL.

Language Link

June 2001

Previous issues

Feature Article:
The Refugee Service Center at CAL: New Orientations for Those Who Serve Refugees

Census Update

Journal Review:
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development

News Corner:
News from ERIC/CLL
News from the National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE)
News from ERIC and the U.S. Department of Education
News from Our Colleagues

This publication was prepared with funding from the National Library of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, under contract no. ED-99-CO-0008. The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of NLE, OERI, or ED.


Feature Article

The Refugee Service Center at CAL
New Orientations for Those Who Serve Refugees

Anne Costello, Director, Refugee Service Center, Center for Applied Linguistics

Her name is Faduma, Issa, or Jasmina. She comes to ESL class faithfully, yet she may be tired or reluctant to participate, preoccupied with thoughts of her children's needs, the strain of her housekeeping job and financial pressures, and the stress of managing all this in the midst of a strange new language and culture. Depending on where she's from--Somalia, Iraq, or Bosnia--she may be suffering the trauma of having fled her country under dire circumstances, possibly even facing a threat to her life or her family's lives. She is in the United States now and cannot return home. She is a refugee.

Refugees have fled their homes for centuries in search of safety and the possibility of starting over, but after World War II the international community sought to codify its response to those displaced by conflict. The United Nations, in its 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, defines a refugee as one who has fled his or her country of origin and is unable to return due to a "well-founded fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion."

The United States adopted an ad hoc response to refugee outflows during the post-WWII era, but this approach became untenable in the face of a new and very large refugee influx following the Vietnam War. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Refugee Act, which responded to the U.N. Convention and formalized U.S. policy. The Act established what we now know as the U.S. Refugee Resettlement Program.

Refugee Services at CAL

The Refugee Service Center (RSC) was established at CAL in June 1975 as the National Indochinese Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Center, in response to the sudden and overwhelming influx of Vietnamese refugees to the United States following the fall of the South Vietnamese government. CAL's longstanding commitment to bilingual education and ESL made it uniquely suited to respond to the pressing need for language and cultural orientation training for both the refugees themselves and the service providers across the country who welcomed them. CAL's efforts resulted in materials, services, and assistance that were made available in refugee camps in Southeast Asia and at resettlement sites throughout the United States.

The U.S. refugee program resettles fewer refugees today than in 1975, but the ethnic diversity of the U.S. refugee population has grown. This year, 75,000 persons fleeing persecution in over 70 countries will arrive in the United States. Through cooperative agreements with the State Department's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, 10 national voluntary agencies are responsible for meeting refugees' immediate needs in the first month, including housing, food, basic necessities, transportation and community orientation. They also offer or refer refugees to ESL and employment services. These agencies resettle refugees in all 50 states and in hundreds of communities.

From Angolans in Arlington to Sierra Leoneans in Seattle, refugees bring profound changes to their new communities, whether rural, urban, or suburban. Refugees' ability to integrate and Americans' ability and willingness to welcome refugees depends in large part on their mutual understanding and knowledge of each other's cultures. The RSC seeks to respond to this growing need by offering cultural orientation resources for refugees and refugee service providers.

The Cultural Orientation Project

The RSC's Cultural Orientation Project, funded by the Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM), strives to strengthen the linkages and communication among refugee service providers overseas and in the United States in several ways:

The Refugee Service Center welcomes your comments and suggestions. For further information, contact Anne Costello at

Census Update

The 2000 Census promises to have important implications for educators. The data released so far have drawn attention to the growing Hispanic population. From 1990 to 2000, the number of Hispanics in the United States increased by over 50%, reaching 35.3 million or 12.5% of the total U.S. population (Guzmán, 2001). In the months to come, the U.S. Census Bureau will release more detailed information about ethnic and linguistic minorities.

Language Use

According to the 1990 Census, nearly 32 million people in the United States age 5 years or older spoke a language other than English at home (U.S. Census Bureau, 1990). Approximately 330 languages or language families were identified (Rosalind Bruno, personal communication, May 2001). Language use figures from the 2000 Census will be released on a state-by-state basis during the latter half of 2002.

Foreign-Born Population

In 1990, 19.8 million people or 7.9% of the population was born outside the United States to non-citizen parents (Lapham, 1993). While the 2000 Census data are not yet available, it is likely that this population has increased significantly. Based on a Current Population Survey conducted in March 2000, the Census Bureau estimated that the foreign-born population numbered 28.4 million or 10.4% of the total U.S. population. Approximately 50% were born in Latin America and 25% in Asia (Lollock, 2001).

School Enrollment

Of direct relevance to educators are the Census Bureau's school enrollment data. Using the results of a Current Population Survey conducted in October 1999, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 20% of school-age children had at least one foreign-born parent, while 5% of elementary and high school students were themselves foreign born (Jamieson, Curry, & Martinez, 1999).

ERIC/CLL will publish additional information from the 2000 Census when it becomes available. For the latest Census data, visit the Web site of the U.S. Census Bureau.


Guzmán, B. (2001, May). The Hispanic population (Census 2000 Brief No. C2KBR/ 01-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Jamieson, A., Curry, A., & Martinez, G. (1999, October). School enrollment in the United States-Social and economic characteristics of students (Current Population Report No. P20-533). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Lapham, S.J. (1993, September). We the American . . . foreign born (Report No. WE-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Lollock, L. (2001, January). The foreign-born population in the United States. Population characteristics (Current Population Report No. P20-534). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

U.S. Census Bureau. (1990). Detailed languages spoken at home and ability to speak English for persons 5 years and over-50 languages with greatest number of speakers. Washington, DC: Author.

Journal Review

In each issue of ERIC/CLL Language Link, we feature one or more of the journals that we abstract and index for Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), the ERIC database's monthly index to education-related journals. In this issue, we profile Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Language Learning and Technology

The Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (ISSN 0143-4632) is published six times per year by Multilingual Matters. This international journal includes articles on multilingualism and multiculturalism and covers a wide range of topics, including contributions to theory, research studies, educational policies and systems, teaching and learning strategies, and assessment procedures. Recent articles include "Immigrant Mothers Redefine Access to ESL Classes: Contradiction and Ambivalence" (Vol. 21, No. 1); "Creoles and Minority Dialects in Education: An Overview" (Vol. 20, No. 6); "A Causal Model of Spanish Immigration Adaptation in Canada" (Vol. 20, No. 3); "The Discourse of Official Texts and How It Can Impede Public Service Translators" (Vol. 20, No. 3); "Challenges for Multicultural Education: Sociolinguistic Parallels Between African American English and Haitian Creole" (Vol. 20, No. 2); "Immersion and Submersion Classrooms: A Comparison of Instructional Practices in Language Arts" (Vol. 19, No. 4); "Adaptation and Assimilation: U.S. Business Responses to Linguistic Diversity in the Workplace" (Vol. 19, No. 4); and "The Attitudes of Bilingual Children to Their Languages" (Vol. 19, No. 3).

Search online for articles from this and other journals included in Current Index to Journals in Education at

You can recognize journal abstracts in the ERIC database by their "EJ" prefix followed by a six-digit number. ERIC abstracts can be read at ERIC centers in libraries in the United States and overseas, as well as on the Web.

Subscriptions to the journals can be obtained from the publishers. Individual articles from many journals are available through the following reprint services:

You may also wish to contact your local university or research library.


News from ERIC/CLL

The Spring 2001 issue of the ERIC/CLL News Bulletin, our semi-annual print newsletter, includes two articles: (1) Japanese Immersion: A Successful Program in Portland, Oregon and (2) Spotlight on International Education. The News Bulletin is mailed to all U. S.-resident members of TESOL and ACTFL and is also available at our Web site.

ERIC/CLL's latest digest is Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman. Print copies of these and other publications may be obtained from ERIC/CLL at 1-800-276-9834 or

On September 21-23, 2000, a Heritage Language Research Priorities Conference was held at UCLA. It was organized by a UCLA steering committee as a follow-up to the first national Heritage Languages in America Conference held in Long Beach, CA, in October 1999. The objective of the conference was to identify broad areas of research in heritage language education and within these areas to define key researchable questions that might be political, sociological, psychological, or linguistic in nature. Copies of the conference report are available free of charge from the Center for Applied Linguistics. Contact Lisa Biggs (, 202-362-0700, ext. 235). This report is also available online at

ERIC/CLL Director Joy Kreeft Peyton contributed the chapter entitled, "Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners: Immigrant Children," to the book, More Strategies for Educating Everybody's Children, recently published by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

ERIC/CLL is seeking to gather information and resources related to foreign language instruction at the preschool level both in the United States and in other countries. We would like to make available on our Web site an annotated list of resources for preschool foreign language teachers. We are especially interested in teaching techniques, curricula, materials, and research. If you teach a foreign language at the preschool level or have investigated this topic, we would like to hear from you. Please contact us at and tell us about the resources you have found to be most valuable.


News from the National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE)

NCLE's latest digest, Reflective Teaching Practice in Adult ESL Settings examines the use of ongoing reflection and analysis in teaching practice as a tool for professional development. It offers the adult ESL practitioner background information on reflective processes and step-by-step examples of how a hypothetical practitioner might implement them.

With the recent focus on English language and civics education (EL/Civics) in adult ESL, practitioners are looking for information on how to integrate civics-related content with adult English language instruction. NCLE's recent Q&A, Civics Education for Adult Language Learners, addresses this topic. In addition, NCLE staff are compiling ideas that can help teachers create EL/Civics lesson plans. Currently, there are two collections, one that looks at ways to use music in EL/Civics teaching, another that focuses on activities related to African American History Month. Look for forthcoming collections of ideas on the EL/Civics Activities for Adults page of the NCLE Web site.

A new feature on the NCLE Web site is Resource Compilations. This page brings together collections of resources on specific subjects such as reading research, civics, and dialogue journals. There is also a list of publishers of adult ESL materials. The most recent compilation is Resources for Statistics and Data Related to Adult English Language Learners.


News from ERIC and the U.S. Department of Education

Visit the News and Events page of the U.S. Department of Education's Web site for links to Department initiatives and priorities, grant opportunities, publications, and research and statistics.

The U.S. Department of Education's Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) was recently updated and now contains more than 4,000 entries. See What Does the Directory Have for Me? for a complete list of the types of organizations included in EROD.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation (ERIC/AE) has added a new page of resources in Spanish to its Web site. ERIC Resources in Spanish provides links to ERIC Digests available in Spanish and to other Spanish-language resources sponsored by ERIC and the U.S. Department of Education.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools (ERIC/CRESS) has released the Spring 2001 issue of the ERIC/CRESS Bulletin. This issue lists services for Mexican communities in the United States, opportunities for Native American scholars, and the latest books about rural education and small schools that ERIC/CRESS has added to the ERIC Database.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education (ERIC/HE) has added to its Web site a free tutorial that explains how to perform an advanced search of the ERIC database using the popular AskERIC search engine. Explore the new tutorial today on the ERIC/HE Web site at

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education (ERIC/ACVE) has published a new Digest, Women and Minorities in High-Tech Careers. This and other ERIC/ACVE Digests can be viewed and downloaded at

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education (ERIC/CUE) has published the Digest, Latinos in School: Some Facts and Findings. This and other ERIC/CUE Digests can be viewed and downloaded at

Weekly ERIC announcements are published in the New from ERIC section of the ERIC systemwide Web site.


News from Our Colleagues

The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education's Board of Directors endorsed the adoption of a new AACTE resolution, which addresses the preparation of all teachers for working with second language learners.

The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) and the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Hunter College in New York City collaborated on a 3-year project, funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), to establish a training program to prepare teachers to work more effectively with heritage language students. The project provided teachers in Spanish for Native Speakers (SNS) programs a forum where they could share their practical expertise and provide insight into how teachers should be trained in order to work effectively in the SNS classroom. The teachers were an integral part of the team that implemented the resulting teacher-training program, which will be part of the undergraduate and graduate certification programs at Hunter College. Also resulting from the project was the publication, Teaching Heritage Language Learners: Voices From the Classroom (ACTFL Foreign Language Series, 2000). Copies may be purchased from ACTFL for $20.00 per copy. (914) 963-8830; ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801.

The American Association of Teachers of German (AATG), in cooperation with the Goethe-Institut, has established a program that aims to build future leaders in the field of German language education. The TraiNDaF 2002 (Transatlantisches interkulturelles Nachwuchsförderungsprogramm Deutsch als Fremdsprache) program consists of two meetings and a summer study in Germany, the costs of which will be substantially subsidized by a grant from the German government. Applicants should have three years full-time teaching experience, plan to remain in the profession for at least 15-20 more years, and have advanced German skills as measured by the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview or another high-level assessment instrument. Contact AATG for an application. The deadline is January 2, 2002.

The Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE) has issued several new publications. Research Brief #9, Scaffold for School-Home Collaboration: Enhancing Reading and Language Development (April 2001), by Ji-Mei Chang, describes a graphic scaffold that teachers and parents used in collaboration to transfer the knowledge students learned in the classroom and school to the community and home environments. Practitioner Brief #2, Development and Maintenance of Two-Way Immersion Programs: Advice from Practitioners (March 2001), by Julie Sugarman and Elizabeth R. Howard, provides advice to those practitioners implementing new two-way immersion programs. Research Report #9 (2001), Sociocultural Factors in Social Relationships: Examining Latino Teachers' and Paraeducators' Interactions with Latino Students, by Lilia D. Monzó and Robert S. Rueda, explores the impact of sociocultural factors on the relationships and interactions between Latino students and Latino teachers and paraeducators. Research Report #9 is available for $5.00. For ordering instructions, see For more information, contact or call 202-362-0700, ext. 247.

The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) has released the first in a series of technical assistance syntheses on current issues in educating diverse learners. Framing Effective Practice: Educating English Language Learners addresses six topics: program models, standards-based reform, wide-scale assessment, comprehensive school reform demonstration models, teacher quality, and parent and community involvement. Also new is the Technical Assistance Network Directory. The directory includes contact and profile information on state and federally sponsored technical assistance providers. Find both documents, plus Biliteracy for Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education and If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide on the NCBE Web site, along with many other resources.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) has published four new books. Bilingual Education, edited by Donna Christian and Fred Genesee, describes a variety of programs and illustrates the diverse ways in which program features are aligned with community goals, sociolinguistic situations, and student characteristics in different settings. Action Research, edited by Julian Edge, explores effective ways to use action research in language teaching. Academic Writing, edited by Ilona Leki, focuses on innovative courses and programs designed to teach L2 writing in a range of academic settings. Managing ESL Programs in Rural and Small Urban Schools, by Barney Bérubé, provides the theoretical and practical information needed to establish a quality program for one or more English language learners in a small setting.

Harvard Educational Review is pleased to announce the publication of Perspectives on Language and Literacy: Beyond the Here and Now, edited by Sarah W. Beck and Leslie Nabors Oláh. Perspectives on Language and Literacy provides a comprehensive overview of new theories and scholarship in the fields of language and literacy, while also presenting an overview of historical trends. Classic articles provide grounding while recent articles introduce readers to cutting-edge thinking in rapidly developing areas such as critical theory, bilingualism, and cross-linguistic studies. Authors include Carol Chomsky, Michael Cole, Daniel and Lauren Resnick, Sylvia Scribner, and Catherine Snow.


More Language Link More Resources

Untitled Document
CAL Home | CAL Store | Press Room | Jobs | Contact Us | Site Map | Privacy | Links
Copyright © 2014 CAL