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Title: School Reform and Student Diversity, Volume II: Case Studies of Exemplary
LEP Students. Studies of Education Reform.
Authors: Berman, Paul; And Others
Publication Date: September 1995
Solving the challenges of educating language-minority students to the
high standards expected of all children requires a willingness to reform
at many of today’s public schools. This volume, the second in a series
of three, presents findings of a study that examined exemplary school-reform
efforts involving the education of limited-English-proficient (LEP)
students. The study focused on language arts in grades 4 through 6 and
mathematics and science in Grades 6 through 8. The volume describes eight
schools with exemplary
approaches to the education of language-minority students. The schools
were selected through a nomination process, telephone screening interviews,
and two site visits
to each of the eight schools. The
case-study summaries briefly describe the school and community context;
portray a scene from one or more exemplary learning environments; identify
and learning models that work for LEP students; highlight structural innovations;
identify supportive factors at the district or state level; and outline
key findings. The strategies included accelerated learning environments,
long-term teacher–student cohorts, critical thinking, material presented
in a meaningful context, and respect for students’ cultural backgrounds.
Title: Helping Hispanic Students Reach High Academic Standards:
An Idea Book.
Authors: Weiner, Lisa; Leighton, Mary; Funkhouser, Janie
Publication Date: September 01, 2000
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel:
877-433-7827 (Toll Free); Tel: 800-872-5327 (Toll Free); Fax: 301-470-1244;
For full text: ttp://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/PES/evallibrary.htm#ideabooks.
This report is part of a series of Idea Books designed to help schools
and communities work together to strengthen education so all students
can achieve high academic
standards. It is specifically designed to help administrators and teachers
seeking to understand how Title I, Title VII, and other programs assist
helping Hispanic students and Spanish-speaking English language learners
achieve high standards. It describes promising practices that have been
illustrating how they can operate in schools and other community settings
with Hispanic students. The book describes how effective schools serve
in four ways: implementing effective, aligned, standards-based programs;
building teacher and organizational capacity to serve Hispanic students;
and community resources; and building firm foundations for postsecondary
education. Each section of the book ends with a checklist that educators
can use to see
how well their schools and districts are meeting the needs of Hispanic
students. A final chapter presents lessons learned from experience based
on the four methods
of serving Hispanic students. The three appendixes present an overview
of profiled programs, resources for serving Hispanic students and their
families, and additional
Title: Curriculum Development for Multicultural and Multilingual
Author: Andrews, Lanna
Source: Multicultural Education, v9 n3 p15-18 Spr 2002
Addressed the need to train teachers to work with culturally/linguistically
diverse students, using a classroom case and online feedback from the
case teacher and
building a database of adapted lessons. Although cases were useful
in promoting application of knowledge and skills, feedback and
were essential. Computers facilitated teacher training and expanded
their use of new skills.
Title: Curriculum Innovations in Intensive English Programs: An
Author: Casey, Judy
Source: Journal of Intensive English Studies, v13 p79-97 Spr-Fall
Discusses curriculum design and development for intensive English
programs (IEP). Describes a study on recent and future curricular
in IEP programs.
Makes suggestions for successful IEP programs, including useful orientations,
accurate assessment and bridge programs, faculty and staff training
in diversity awareness, better student advising, and scholarships.
Title: Gallery of ESOL Lesson Plans.
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: For full text: http://www.lacnyc.org/resources/workshops/adultinstruction.htm.
This collection of lesson plans for teaching English as a Second Language
includes the following: “You Scratched Me!” which has students
examine verbs in three forms (base, past, and progressive) together with
questions, accelerating the memorization and understanding of verb forms
and tenses; “Getting Acquainted/Inferential Thinking,” which
provides an exercise in inference and has students apply the knowledge
to how body language, words, and actions help people understand what
is happening in a play even if they do not understand the language well; “Let’s
Create Job Biographies,” which helps adult learners relate their
knowledge of work in their home countries to a workplace in the United
States; “Let’s Talk about Work!” which helps adult
learners explore career options through oral interaction with peers after
a visit to a work place; “Student-Generated Sentences,” which
encourages students to use and internalize grammatical structures in
English; “Community Language Learning,” which encourages
and promotes real conversations in English with beginning language learners;
and “Where Is the Monkey?” which has students answer yes/no
questions using the verb “be” with prepositions.
Title: Make It and Take It: Computer-Based Resources for Lesson Planning.
Authors: Brown, Tasha; Cargill, Debby; Hostetler, Jan; Joyner, Susan;
Publication Date: August 01, 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
This document is part lesson planner and idea resource and part annotated
bibliography of electronic resources. The lesson planner is divided
into four parts. Part one, “Tables to Go,” contains different
tables that can be used for a variety of exercises at all levels of the
English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom. Part two, “Exploring
the Internet for Conversation Ideas” provides many ideas for subjects
of conversation practice, including mock job interviews and news reporter
interviews of newsmakers or witnesses, and can be used at any level of
instruction and learner proficiency. Part three provides a number of
activities designed to engage students directly in the target language,
including such games as “Alphabet Soup,” “Grammar Bingo” and “Vocabulary
Journal.” The final part introduces creative and innovative ways
to use student writing to enhance student oral skills. An annotated
bibliography of Internet resources is listed by subject.
Title: Project-Based Learning and Assessment: A Resource Manual for
Publication Date: 1997
Availability: Virginia Adult Education Resource Centers, Oliver Hall,
VCU, 1015 W. Main Street, P.O. Box 842020, Richmond, VA 23284-2020.
The idea behind this guide is that assessing student performance
through projects not only allows for the observation of affective
and cognitive strategies that affect learning, but also helps to
fully responsive to students’ needs. This resource kit was
developed to assist teachers in understanding the purpose of project
a practical and meaningful way of learning and assessing the progress
learning English. The main focus of this kit is to guide teachers
in developing projects for learning and assessment of their adult
The kit includes an introduction, a guide for developing and implementing
projects (including background information, project framework, pre-project
activities, assessment, and sample projects), abstracts of projects
for different levels, and a bibliography. Numerous diagrams, figures,
rubrics, checklists, and lesson plans are included.
Title: Same Old Dog, New Tricks: Lesson Planning as Friend Not Foe.
Author: Propst, David
Source: Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997
Presents a lesson-planning instrument for English-as-a-Second-Language
courses to help clarify the role of lesson planning in teaching. The
instrument can be used by teacher trainers to introduce trainees to
lesson planning or by teachers looking for a change of pace.
Title: Into, Through, and Beyond. A Framework to Develop Content-Based
Authors: Brinton, Donna M.; Holten, Christine
Source: Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997
Describes a lesson planning framework that content-based instruction
teachers can adapt to their instructional materials, student populations,
and classroom settings. Applying the framework to an authentic reading
passage, the sample lesson illustrates how teachers can develop activities
that supplement the content, increase student access to and comprehension
of core materials, and foster students’ linguistic skills.
Title: Planning Successful Writing Lessons.
Authors: Lederfein, Batya; Karhash, Ayellet; Guetta, Arianna; Cohen,
Mira; Dey, Dafna; Azaria, Galia; Ellen, Ruthie; Komarovsky, Sharon
Source: English Teachers’ Journal (Israel), v52 p21-29 Oct 1998
Presents nine tips for planning effective second-language writing lessons.
Tips are based on three principles (writing is a means of communication,
writing is a process, and eliciting oral or written production of foreign
language varies according to the degree of guidance teachers give to
students). The paper offers six sample writing lessons for elementary
and junior high school students.
Title: Planning a Computer-Assisted Lesson.
Authors: Mor, Nili; Bracha, Tamar; Heilweil, Ida; Freidenreich, Orit
Source: English Teachers’ Journal (Israel), p6-10 Mar 1997
Describes how to plan computer-based activities for second-language
classrooms, noting ways that computer use differs in such classrooms.
to plan a lesson, focusing on the activity, grade level, time requirements,
software, preparation time, teaching method, pre- and post-computer
work, skills used, and teacher’s role. Sample lessons and units
Title: The Effect of Culture on the Teaching of English.
Author: Lawrence, Brian
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v4 n1 p18-30 Oct 2000
Describes the nature of culture, and examines the cultural and learning
differences between Japan and Great Britain in relation to the communicative
approach. Warns of stereotyping that ignores sub-cultures and individual
Title: The Cultural Conundrum: Cultural Literacy in the Classroom.
Author: Malone, Stephen
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v5 n3 p277-82
Focuses on the potential pitfalls of exposing students from a non-Western
culture, such as Thailand, to literature in English with its accompanying
baggage of cultural references. Referencing Ed Hirsch, Jr.’s, “Cultural
Literacy—What Every American Needs to Know,” the importance
of cultural literacy as opposed to mere lexical literacy is emphasized.
Title: Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative
Author: Courtney, John
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v5 n3 p256-64 Jul
Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative
language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign
Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration,
to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures.
Title: Tending School: A Forum on the Experiences of Refugee and
Immigrant Students in the United States System.
Authors: Roberts, Amy; Locke, Steven
Source: Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, v32 n4 p375-93
Discusses refugee and immigrant students’ education, highlighting
three high school students’ experiences based on the notion that
such students’ school life can be examined from a critical and
political perspective. Face-to-face encounters in school settings made
new politics of truth for these students by their assumption of control
over personal interpretations of the U.S. system.
Title: Cross-Cultural Varieties of Politeness.
Authors: Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget
Source: Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, v6 n1 p163-170
The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of
the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural
in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to
the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant
for both students and educators. This paper explores the culturally
based variations of a particular speech act (the compliment). A review
literature on the subject among the speakers of five languages (American
English, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian Arabic, and Spanish) illustrates
contrasting patterns of discourse. The review indicates that if communicative
is a learning objective, the language curriculum needs to include
treatment of such sociolinguistic features. Implications for today’s
classroom include the important role teachers play in implementing
the use of compliments in the target culture.
Title: Reflecting Latino Culture in Our Classrooms: A Quick Start
Authors: Canning, Christine; Salazar-Guenther, Mary; Polanco-Noboa,
Publication Date: February 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
This paper describes how the University of Northern Iowa’s San
Antonio Regional Student Teaching Program developed a course to provide
information on Hispanic Americans for its predominantly white student
teachers. The course was delivered over 2 semesters, with students
doing most work
in five 2-hour meetings on campus. During the student teaching semester,
they implemented the ideas and activities that they had created during
the course. The paper presents the course syllabus, which offers a
background on Hispanics and five sessions that emphasize how to reach
Mexican and Mexican American culture (holidays, food, art, and music);
literature for students and teachers/exemplary authors, books, and
activities; Mexican American historical perspectives and Mexican American
and bilingual education and other critical issues. The sessions include
field trips, handouts, and assignments.
Title: Problems and Recommendations: Enhancing Communication with Culturally
and Linguistically Diverse Students.
Authors: Kader, Shereen Abdel; Yawkey, Thomas D.
Source: Reading Improvement, v39 n1 p43-51 Spr 2002
Notes that communication between teachers and culturally and linguistically
diverse (CLD) students need serious consideration especially in recognizing
potential sources of miscommunication and misinterpretation. Considers
sources of miscommunication within verbal and nonverbal communication.
Discusses each element and offers examples in CLD classroom settings.
Title: A Good Start: A Progressive, Transactional Approach to Diversity
in Preservice Teacher Education.
Authors: Arias, M. Beatriz; Poynor, Leslie
Source: Bilingual Research Journal, v25 n4 p417-34 Fall 2001
A study examined what three English-as-second-language preservice
teachers learned in a progressive, transactional methods course about
culturally and linguistically diverse children. Although the course
did not instill
the deep cross-cultural understanding necessary for bicultural competence,
it did cultivate the student teachers’ desire to value and
respect other cultures.
Title: A Cross-Cultural Study of Mexico and the United States: Perceived
Roles of Teachers.
Authors: Nelson, Gayle; Lutenbacher, Cindy; Lopez, Maria Elena
Source: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v22
n6 p463-74 2001
Investigated one area that may affect Mexicans’ performance
in American schools: cultural differences in appropriate school behavior.
data were collected from 40 students and 20 teachers in Mexico in
by native Spanish speakers, and from 20 native English-speaking students,
20 Mexican English-as-a-Second-Language students, 20 content area
teachers, and 20 native English speakers in the United States.
Title: A Critical “Checkbook” for Culture Teaching and
Author: Guest, Michael
Source: ELT Journal, v56 n2 p154-61 Apr 2002
Attempts to offer insight that will help teachers bring a balanced
awareness of the role and usage of culture into the English-as-a-Foreign-Language
Title: U.S. Culture: What You Need To Know To Survive.
Author: Sjolie, Dennis
Publication Date: October 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
This paper addresses the issue of encouraging students to read and
experience culture first hand, rather than read about culture as defined
by or channeled
through textbooks. Students new to the United States learn about the
culture through a variety of publications: “Sun,” “The National
Enquirer,” “People Weekly,” “Newsweek,” and “Time.” Utilizing
this series of print media, students touch the pulse of mainstream U.S.
culture and understand that a large percentage of U.S. citizens believe “first
hand accounts” of UFO abductions, “learn about the future” through
fortune tellers, and discover what their favorite Hollywood celebrities
eat for breakfast. Likewise, students learn how a large percentage
of U.S. citizens focus on world events, global political situations,
that bears consequence to all. As the broad and varied aspects of U.S.
culture reveal themselves to students, follow-up language/culture learning
activities are limited only by the creativity of the instructor.
Title: LEARN: A Community Study about Latino Immigrants
Authors: McLaughlin, H. James; Liljestrom, Anna; Lim, Jae Hoon; Meyers,
Source: Education and Urban Society, v34 n2 p212-32 Feb 2002
Examines the perceptions of parents, educators, and students regarding
the educational needs of new English learners, particularly Latinos.
Overall, foreign-born students may not know how to relate to American
peers, and educators may not understand students’ prior educational
experiences and cultural influences. Language is a frequently noted barrier
to teacher–student–family communication and educational
Title: A Lesson in Culture.
Author: Tseng, Yueh-Hung
Source: ELT Journal, v56 n1 p11-21 Jan 2002
Argues for a new interpretation of culture that potentially challenges
traditional views of the culture common in discussions of foreign and
second language learning. Proposes ways to restructure curriculum around
new interpretation. Suggestions for creating a classroom environment
consistent with these new views are explored.
Title: Cultural Awareness and the Negotiation of Meaning in Intercultural
Author: Littlewood, William
Source: Language Awareness, v10 n2-3 p189-99 2001
Focuses on a number of episodes in intercultural communication in which
there is some degree of mismatch between the intentions and interpretations
of the interlocutors. Three concepts are used to illustrate the nature
of these mismatches: the concept of common ground, the principle of
indexicaity, and the concept of cultural models.
Title: Handling “Culture Bumps”
Author: Jiang, Wenying
Source: ELT Journal, v55 n4 p382-90 Oct 2001
Reviews Archer’s and Thorp’s ideas about the most frequently
encountered culture bumps or “confused encounters,” and
offers alternative ways of perceiving and handling them. Also stresses
the fundamental values of a nation should be considered in dealing
cultural variations and suggests six principles for perceiving and
Title: Teaching English as an International Language:
Implications for Cultural Materials in the Classroom.
Author: McKay, Sandra Lee
Source: TESOL Journal, v9 n4 p7-11 Win 2000
Explores the link between culture and international language and examines
what is meant by international language. The role of culture in language
teaching is discussed. and a description of the various levels of culture
that can be included in teaching materials is provided. Concludes by
suggesting that there are many benefits to including a variety of cultures,
Western cultures, in classroom materials.
Title: Project Homeland: Crossing Cultural Boundaries in the ESL
Author: Ortmeier, Christina M.
Source: TESOL Journal, v9 n1 p10-17 Spr 2000
Describes how a writing project and oral presentation engage middle
school English-as-Second-Language students in collaborative activities
develop their understanding of and respect for one another’s
heritage and an appreciation for their valuable cultural contributions
Title: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and Culture.
Author: Atkinson, Dwight
Source: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly,
v33 n4 p625-54 Win 1999
Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching
English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the
toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent “TESOL
Quarterly” articles, and concludes that different views of culture
exist in the field.