Sample Search of the ERIC Database
These documents were identified by searching the ERIC database using
the following combination of ERIC descriptors and keywords:
English (Second Language) or Limited English Speaking
High School Students or Secondary Education or Grade 9 or Grade 10 or Grade
11 or Grade 12
Literacy or Literacy Skills or Literacy Education or Biliteracy or Reading/DF
or Reading Instruction [as major descriptors]
Not Foreign Countries
Title: Changing Lives: Teaching English and Literature to ESL Students.
Author(s) Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Moore, Monica; Maloney, Carol
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v46 n2 p116-28 Oct 2002
Provides teachers with selected background knowledge and strategies that enhance
the learning process for English as a Second Language (ESL) students in secondary
classrooms. Discusses the stages of language development and cultural adaptation
that all second-language learners navigate through. Outlines important linguistic
and cultural processes. Suggests effective activities for students in various
stages within those processes.
Title: Russian Bilingual Science Learning: Perspectives from Secondary Students.
Author(s) Lemberger, Nancy; Vinogradova, Olga
Source: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, v5 n1
Describes one secondary Russian/English bilingual science teacher's practice
and her literate students' experiences as they learn science and adapt to a
new school. Discusses the notion of whether literacy skills in the native language
are transferable to a second language.
Title: Teaching Reading Strategies: "It Takes Time!"
Author(s) Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Source: Reading in a Foreign Language, v13 n2 p631-46 Spr 2001
Outlines a case study of how one teacher attempted to incorporate strategy
training into his secondary school English reading classes. The teacher attempted
strategy training in questioning, clarifying, and predicting strategies and
vocabulary recognition techniques for less proficient English students with
mixed success. The teacher was successful in getting students to achieve some
metacognitive awareness of their reading processes.
Title: The Process of Becoming a Participant in Small-Group Critical Discussions:
A Case Study.
Author(s) Nussbaum, E. Michael
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v45 n6 p488-97 Mar 2002
Presents a case study of one classroom teacher's attempt to develop critical
discourse in students, focusing particularly on the ability of language-minority
students to participate in critical discussions. Suggests that allowing students
to explore topics of personal relevance--as may occur in a critical literacy
curriculum--is one way of stimulating motivation and therefore complex discussion.
Title: Teaching Reading to Low-Literate Language Minority High School Students.
Author(s) Thomas, Thomas
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
This paper, written from the perspective of a classroom teacher who is also
the child of immigrant parents, examines issues related to teaching reading
to low-literate minority students for whom English is not their first language.
The paper presents background issues, examines the process of language acquisition,
and focuses on the following: the political context (this country is in the
middle of a controversy over bilingual issues, with several states arguing
over how to teach new immigrants and various federal mandates about bilingual
education); educational factors that affect the process of gaining English
proficiency (teacher effectiveness and student motivation); cultural factors
that influence immigrants' adjustment to U.S. education (including language);
key principles of second language acquisition (e.g., literacy in the first
language); age and second language acquisition; language and meaning (the importance
of cultural relevance); and instructional strategies (environment, meaning
and the language experience approach, content-centered approach, and cooperative
Title: Learning Language and Critical Literacy: Adolescent ESL Students.
Author(s) Alford, Jennifer
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v45 n3 p238-42 Nov 2001
Addresses two interrelated factors needed to be resolved at the commencement
of any Critical Literacy approach in the mainstream subject classroom--the
nature of the texts presented and the concept of resistance. Lists three strategies
that help to build background knowledge: activating existing prior knowledge;
building on that knowledge from a contemporary localized perspective; and adding
new information during reading.
Title: A Meaning-based ESL Reading Program.
Author(s) Kruger, Arnold
Source: Reading Improvement, v37 n2 p50-55 Sum 2000
Outlines a meaning-based reading program for English-as-a-second-language teenagers
in grades 8-12 aimed at promoting analytic thinking, cultural integration,
and creative processing skills, as well as increased English proficiency. Discusses
general and specific objectives, reading materials, types of reading programs,
integrated and followup activities, feedback, timeframe, and manpower and funding
Title: Enabling Academic Success for Secondary Students with Limited Formal
Schooling: A Study of the Haitian Literacy Program at Hyde Park High School
Author(s) Walsh, Catherine E.
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
This publication documents a successful literacy program for a specific at-risk
group, the Haitian Literacy Program at Hyde Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts.
In operation since 1988, the Haitian Literacy Program is the longest running
high school literacy program in the region for bilingual students with limited
formal education. Through a case study approach, the educational success of
these students and the program traits that staff and students believe have
enabled academic achievement, high school graduation, and participation in
higher education are examined. The program is designed for secondary school
students with less than a fourth-grade level of formal education or no literacy
skills in their native language or English. It is an intensive, self-contained
program focused on developing the skills needed to participate in bilingual
education classes. In its 9 years of operation, the program has averaged 20
students each year. Data were collected through case study and collaborative
approaches from document reviews, ethnographic observations, interviews, and
focus group discussions. Key elements of program success were identified as:
(1) the commitment and dedication of the native language teacher; (2) the relationship
between English as a second language and native language teachers and instruction;
(3) the interdisciplinary, thematic, and self-contained instructional format;
and (4) the self-determination of the students. Three appendixes contain discussions
of data sources and initial literacy assessments and a literacy checklist.
Title: Previewing Challenging Reading Selections for ESL Students.
Author(s) Chen, Hsiu-Chieh Sophia; Graves, Michael F.
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v41 n7 p570-71 Apr 1998
Describes a simple previewing procedure that provides support for second-language
students dealing with challenging reading selections. Describes a preview,
gives an example, and suggests why they are effective. Summarizes results of
a study, and concludes with suggestions for using previews in the classroom.
Title: The Everyday Literacy Behavior of an Adolescent Mother for Whom English
Is a Second Language.
Author(s) McNemar, Britta S.
Source: National Reading Conference Yearbook, v47 p274-84 1998
Availability: National Reading Conference, Inc., 122 S. Michigan Ave., Ste.
1776, Chicago, IL 60603.
Presents a case study on the ways a low-income adolescent mother for whom English
is a second language uses literacy at home, in school, and in the community.
Traces her development in her interactions with her child, her transactions
with texts that enabled her to fulfill responsibilities as a mother, and her
use of multiple literacies to communicate with others.
Title: Academic Success for Long-Term ESL Students.
Author(s) Newell, Jessica; Smith, Joye
Publication Date: March 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
The study examines the population of long-term students of English as a second
language (ESL), those who are enrolled in ESL programs for four to eight years
but have not mastered the cognitive and academic skills in English to compete
at grade level, in one New York City (New York) high school, and the efforts
being made to address this population's needs. Background information is offered
on student entry into and progress in the school system's ESL programs, and
possible general factors in the lack of progress of long-term ESL (LTL) students.
The procedures for identifying LTL students at the high school in question
are described, using student writing samples as illustration. The program of
literacy instruction designed to address these students' needs is elaborated,
again using case examples. The program includes reading and writing components,
note-taking skill development, native language arts instruction, several forms
of assessment, and active support of this population by teachers and administrators.
Title: Creating "Vietnamerican" Discourse: Ethnic Identity in the
Author(s) Allendoerfer, Cheryl
Publication Date: April 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
An ethnographic study examined how learning English and becoming more literate
in the dominant discourse affects the identity or self-concept of Vietnamese
immigrant students, and how new discourse may be created as students negotiate
multiple literacies. It was conducted in a Seattle area high school and focused
on 22 Vietnamese students in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program,
all of whom had lived in the United States for one to four years. Data were
gathered using observation, informal conversations, a photography and writing
project undertaken with the students, and formal interviews with students,
teachers, and administrators. Analysis explored several issues: how students
perceived their ethnic identities; what "Americanization" means to
the students, their parents, and their teachers; how definitions of the concept
differ among the groups, and the conflicts that may arise therefrom; and whether
immigrant students need to identify with the dominant discourse or majority
culture to succeed in American schools. Results challenge the assumption that
assimilation means adopting elements of the new culture alongside the native
culture, and suggest that a third culture is constructed with elements resembling
elements of the first two but fundamentally different from either. Contains
Title: Language and Literacy Issues Related to Mexican-American Secondary Students.
Author(s) Perez, Bertha
Source: High School Journal, v78 n4 p236-43 Apr-May 1995
Journal availability: University of North Carolina Press, Box 2288, Chapel
Hill, NC 27515- 2288 (annual subscription: $20 U.S., $15 foreign; individual
issues: $6.00 U.S., $7.50 foreign).
Reviews the limited research on language and literacy instruction of Mexican-American
secondary students. Emerging themes indicate that secondary bilingual programs
are few; English-as-a-Second-Language is the most widely used approach for
developing language skills; schools that are effective with limited-English-speaking
students use more integrated, holistic approaches. Contains 35 references.
Title: Literature-Based ESL for Secondary School Students.
Author(s) Custodio, Brenda; Sutton, Marilyn Jean
Source: TESOL Journal, v7 n5 p19-23 Aut 1998
Describes how to use literature based instruction to develop literacy skills
and to prepare secondary-level second-language learners for mainstream classrooms,
focusing on advantages to a literature-based approach (it promotes literacy
development, provides language models, and integrates language skills); discussing
why content-based instruction is effective; and noting ways to use literature-based
Title: Professional Development from the Inside Out.
Author(s) Jaramillo, Ann
Source: TESOL Journal, v7 n5 p12-18 Aut 1998
Describes a teacher-driven, teacher-defined professional-development process
designed to create an immigrant-responsive high school. The project involved
English-as-a-Second-Language and content teachers who collaborated to improve
students' literacy. They examined other models, their own needs, and student
data, then created an accelerated literacy approach and an observation tool
for monitoring each others' classrooms.
Title: Enhancing ESL Reading Through Reader Strategy Training.
Author(s) Wright, Lora
Source: Prospect, v12 n3 p15-28 Dec 1997
Seven high school students of English as a Second Language (ESL) underwent
a short course of reading strategy training, including learner needs assessment,
focus on why and when strategies are used, and carefully selected reading texts.
Six of seven improved reading comprehension in at least one of two measures,
supporting the notion that reading strategy training can be effective.
Title: Literacy Acquisition through Literature (Literacy Issues in Focus).
Author(s) Langer, Judith A.
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v40 n8 p606-14 May 1997
Discusses a project and study that focused on literacy acquisition among middle
school students from the Dominican Republic attending a school on Manhattan's
lower East Side. Describes how a book writing project focusing on "stories
from home" engaged students, taught them ways to discuss and ways to think,
and fostered their literacy acquisition through literature.
Title: Literacy Strategies.
Publication Date: 1997
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
The literacy strategies in this guide provide practical suggestions for teachers,
regardless of discipline, to help middle school and high school students move
to Levels III and IV on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Reading/Competency
Tests. The strategies in the guide are designed for use with "inefficient" readers
(not nonreaders). After an introduction, sections of the guide include: The
Nature of Literacy; A Focus on Reading; Student Reactions to End-of-Grade Tests;
End-of-Grade Testlets: Analysis; What Is Reading?; Strategies for Reading;
Preparation-Engagement-Reflection; Scaffolding Reading Experiences; Prereading,
Engagement, Reflection Activities for "Out of the Wild"; Instructional
Activities: Prereading, Engagement, Reflection; Questioning for Comprehension;
In the Classroom: Putting It All Together; Best Practices: Instructional Activities
for Improved Reading; Working with Limited English Proficient Students: Strategies
for Regular Classroom teachers; Students with Special Needs: Instructional
Methods Teachers Can Use; and Metacognitive Strategies. Contains 51 references.
Title: The Vocational Classroom: A Great Place To Learn English.
Author(s) Platt, Elizabeth
Publication Date: 1996
Availability: NCLE, 1118 22nd Street N.W., Washington, DC 20037.
This guide discusses the ways in which educators in technical and vocational
education programs can maximize opportunities for limited-English-proficient
students to learn English language skills. Vocational classrooms are viewed
as potentially excellent environments for language learning because of the
hands-on nature of the work, undertaken in pairs of small groups, using authentic
materials and equipment, and requiring interpersonal communication. In addition,
learners are often highly motivated. An introductory section reviews this approach
and the literature supporting it. The second section looks at the role of the
vocational curriculum in language teaching, including the types of language
curricula (grammar-based, functional, and process-based) that can be used as
referents in developing vocational-based language instruction, elements of
vocational curricula that may be exploited for language learning, student need
analysis and placement issues, and implications for implementation by vocational
teachers, language teachers, and administrators. The third section offers more
detailed suggestions for developing content-based language teaching activities,
based on principles of scaffolding vocational instruction and fostering independent
learning, at each of four proficiency levels from pre-speaking to high-intermediate/low-advanced.
Examples of authentic activities are offered. Contains 63 references.
Title: Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language.
Author(s) Goldman, Susan R., Ed.; Trueba, Henry T., Ed.
Publication Date: 1987
Availability: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ
A collection of articles on English-as-a-Second-Language literacy and literacy
education include: "Contextual Issues in the Study of Second Language
Literacy" (Susan R. Goldman); "Mexican Adult Literacy: New Directions
for Immigrants" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "Factors Affecting Development
of Second Language Literacy" (Richard Duran); "Reading in a Second
Language: Studies with Adult and Child Learners" (Barry McLaughlin); "Patterns
of Performance Among Bilingual Children Who Score Low in Reading" (Mary
Sue Ammon); "Comprehension of Content Area Passages: A Study of Spanish/English
Readers in Third and Fourth Grade" (Marie de la Luz Reyes); "Oral
Reading Miscues of Hispanic Good and Learning Disabled Students: Implications
for Second Language Reading" (Ofelia Miramontes); "The Development
of Writing Skills Among Hispanic High School Students" (Benji Wald); "Metapragmatic
Knowledge of School-Age Mexican-American Children" (Louise Cherry Wilkinson,
Celia Genishi); "Teacher Language Use in a Chinese Bilingual Classroom" (Larry
F. Guthrie, Grace Pung Guthrie); and "Organizing Classroom Instruction
in Specific Sociocultural Contexts: Teaching Mexican Youth To Write in English" (Henry
T. Trueba). Author and subject indexes are included.
Title: "My Trouble Is My English": Asian Students and the American
Author(s) Fu, Danling
Publication Date: 1995
Availability: Boynton/Cook, Heinemann, 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912
Examining the learning experiences of four Laotian students at a mainstream
secondary school, this book describes and interprets the students' learning
situations and reveals their perspectives along with those of their teachers.
The book introduces readers to the Savang family, refugees who left Laos. The
book also shows how open journal writing assignments began to tap the rich
stories this family had to tell. The book provides information on how students
with different cultural backgrounds and learning styles react, behave, and
learn in a classroom and how teachers can use that knowledge to create a community
of learners. The first chapter provides background on the four siblings: their
family and life in their home country, in their refugee camps, and in the United
States. Chapter 2 of the book describes the four adolescents and their general
situation at school. Chapters 3 though 6 are case studies of the four with
a focus on their reading and writing experiences at school. The case studies
in the book are organized thematically rather than chronologically (according
to their ages). The concluding chapter reflects on the study and discusses
issues related to literacy instruction and multiculturalism in the field of
Title: Leer y Escribir Hoy (Reading and Writing Today).
Author(s) Dean, Peggy; Uribe, Teresa Figueroa
Publication Date: 1990
Availability: Linmore Publishing, Box 1545, Palatine, IL 60078.
The literacy workbook is designed for native Spanish-speaking secondary students
or adults with pre-reading skills and basic understanding of Spanish sound-symbol
relationships. The materials' goals are to develop reading skills to bridge
the gap between minimal reading abilities and literacy approaching the level
of popular usage in newspapers and magazines, provide practice with the type
of materials used in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and Spanish high school
equivalency classes, accelerate acquisition of ESL by developing transferable
literacy skills, and improve self-confidence. The book is intended for use
by individuals living in North America. It is divided into three units containing
a total of eight lessons. Each lesson contains vocabulary, reading passages,
and skill application exercises geared to the student's own experiences. Reading
for meaning is encouraged. Each lesson contains six to eight different activities.
Pre- and post-unit activities are also included.
Title: Stories from LIFE at Falls Church High School. Literacy Is For Everyone
(LIFE) Final Report.
Author(s) Cruz, Jane
Publication Date: 1993
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
The report describes the development and implementation of Literacy Is For
Everyone (LIFE), an English-as-a-Second-Language literacy program for limited-English-speaking
immigrant families of students at Falls Church High School (Virginia). Participating
families attended evening classes, groups, and workshops to develop literacy
skills and become empowered to participate in their children's school and activities.
Program components include 2-hour semi-weekly evening classes, access to two
computer laboratories with software for language skill and critical thinking
skill acquisition, peer tutoring with volunteers from the National Honor Society
and Spanish Honor Society, child care provided by the high school child development
program, collaborative activities for adults and high school and middle school
students, and field trips. The report details program structure, student and
facilitator participation, program strengths and challenges, and related resources
available to instructors and participants. Anecdotes of program events and
personal experiences are included throughout. Appended materials, which form
the bulk of the report, contain supporting documentation for each chapter and
a budget outline.
Title: ESL Resource Center. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources
for Vocational Preparation for Limited English Proficient Students.
Author(s) Binder, Andrea, Comp.; And Others
Publication Date: April 1993
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
This annotated bibliography contains publication data and information on the
content and availability of 58 resource materials that are recommended for
use in vocational preparation programs for individuals with limited English
proficiency. Descriptions of the resource materials are organized into sections
on the following topics: English as a Second Language (ESL), career guidance,
vocational training, vocational English as a Second Language, and workplace
literacy. Each resource description contains some or all of the following:
record number; title; author; editors; edition; publisher; place of publication;
month/year of publication; price; location; ERIC code; format; source of information
about the resource material; and description of the resource material's content,
intended audience, and intended/recommended use(s). Included among the types
of resource materials listed are the following: software/courseware, bibliographies,
textbooks, teacher guides/handbooks, picture cards, practice books, inventories,
test batteries, and videos. Materials for use in secondary-level and adult
basic education programs are described. Also included is information about
the ESL Resource Center database and various codes used in the database.
Title: Assessment and Teacher Perceptions of ESL Student Achievement.
Author(s) Klesmer, Harold
Source: English Quarterly, v26 n3 p8-11 Spr 1994
Presents data from a study of 12-year-old English-as-a-Second-Language students
in metropolitan Toronto and their significantly unsatisfactory educational
development in language and literacy skills. Discusses implications of these
findings, particularly with regard to educational change to help marginalized
student groups. Finds that ESL students require at least six years to approach
native speakers' norms.
Title: Library Literacy Programs and the At-Risk Adolescent.
Author(s) Feehan, Patricia
Source: Catholic Library World, v64 n2-3 p51-56 Oct-Mar 1993-94
Notes: Theme issue topic: "Literacy, the Library and the Family." Paper
presented at the Saint John's University Congress for Librarians (Jamaica,
NY, February 17, 1992).
Defines at-risk adolescent students, including remedial readers, pregnant teenagers,
handicapped students, speakers of English as a Second Language, and public
library dropouts; and describes literacy programs that enhance self-esteem
and establish the library as an alternative learning source, many developed
in a literacy course at the University of South Carolina.
Title: Biliteracy Practices and Issues in Secondary Schools.
Author(s) Perez, Bertha
Source: Peabody Journal of Education, v69 n1 p117-35 Fall 1993
Literacy is a major focus of attention in the education of linguistically and
culturally diverse youth. The article focuses on identifying literature that
impacts the literacy processes of secondary school students, highlighting studies
that suggest a vision of literacy as empowerment for bilingual and limited
English proficient students.
Title: Sustained Silent Reading with English as a Second Language High School
Students: Impact on Reading Comprehension, Reading Frequency, and Reading
Author(s) Pilgreen, Janice; Krashen, Stephen
Source: School Library Media Quarterly, v22 n1 p21-23 Fall 1993
High school English as a Second Language (ESL) students in a 16-week sustained
silent reading program showed gains in reading comprehension, reported greater
frequency and enjoyment of reading, and utilized more sources of books. Results
suggest that free reading is an effective means of literacy development with
Title: Guide for Native Language and Content Area Literacy Programs for High
School Haitian Creole-Speaking Students.
Publication Date: 1992
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
The guide consists of a series of sample lesson plans designed for teachers
and supervisors delivering instructional services to students with limited
English proficiency and native language literacy in Haitian bilingual programs.
The guides contain 14 sample lesson plans; five native language instruction
sample lesson plans and nine content area (social studies, mathematics, science)
sample lesson plans. Materials are based on the principle of promotion of dual
literacy, and are designed to capitalize on students' prior knowledge. The
guide also encourages use of the whole language approach in both native language
and content area components. Lessons are designated for one of two student
skill levels: (1) limited or no formal education; and (2) some basic native
language literacy skills, comparable to a student in grades 3-5. An introductory
section outlines the guiding principles of instruction on which the plans are
based. Each lesson plan contains a topic, instructional materials needed, specific
performance objectives, class activities, sample questions, and in some cases,
a passage or poem in Haitian Creole. A list of appropriate instructional materials
and a list of organizational, print, and nonprint resources are appended.
Title: Computer Pilot: Learning 100 On-Line System, 1991-92.
Publication Date: 1992
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
During the spring 1992 term, James Monroe High School piloted Learning 100
On-Line, a remedial reading/literacy computer program developed by Educational
Developmental Laboratories, Inc. The program, which was developed for junior
high and high school students and adults reading at or below grade level, was
implemented in two English- as-a-Second-Language, three Special Education,
and four English classes. It is noted that Learning 100 On-Line is an integrated
instruction and management system that diagnoses, prescribes, instructs, provides
practice and reinforcement in, and evaluates mastery of reading, writing, vocabulary,
and language competencies. It is noted further that it provides a multisensory,
individualized approach which is designed to accommodate a variety of learning
styles and educational backgrounds. An evaluation of the impact of the program
on student attendance and academic achievement found the pilot to be successful
on several levels. Several specific recommendations for schools that may wish
to purchase the program are included. This report is presented in four sections:
(1) Introduction--program background, evaluation methodology and scope of the
report; (2) Program Implementation--use of the system, perceptions of the system
and its strengths and weaknesses; (3) Student Outcomes--reading performance
and attendance; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. Two tables present
summaries of students' pre- and posttest scores on the reading comprehension
subtest and spring 1992 percentage of attendance by group and gender.
Title: Discourse and Social Practice: Learning To Use Language in Bilingual
Author(s) Warren, Beth; Rosenberg, Ann S.
Publication Date: January 12, 1991
Notes: Paper presented at a Colloquium on Biliteracy Theory and Practice (Washington,
DC, January 12, 1991).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
A study of biliteracy focuses on discourse as the unit of analysis needed to
understand the task facing bilingual students. It investigated the way in which
22 high school students representing six different language groups in a bilingual
basic skills course struggled with scientific language in an experiment on
the community's drinking water. Most students were not literate and had had
no previous science experience. During the investigation, students began to
appropriate the intentional possibilities of language in order to construct
scientific meanings and resolve a dilemma posed by the evidence at hand. It
is concluded that while in traditional book-based bilingual education, students
are expected to assimilate decontextualized language, this active learning
approach causes students to construct both language and content knowledge by
confronting authentic dilemmas. A 34-item bibliography is included.