|CAL Resources Archive
The CAL Resources Archive was created to provide our visitors with access to older pages and content from our Web site that they may find useful. Please be aware that information within the CAL Resources Archive is historical in nature and will not be maintained or updated by CAL.
CAL Resource Guides Online
Online Journals and Magazines
Other Online Resources
The Internet offers a wealth of information for students and teachers seeking English as a second language (ESL) resources. Dozens of Digests (short information syntheses) are available online on a wide range of topics related to ESL. The Web sites of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics and the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education offer newsletters, bibliographies, FAQs, and resource guides on many topics of interest to ESL teachers. Other organizations in the field also maintain extensive, informative Web sites. Publications and curriculum materials abound, including a number of electronic journals and magazines. Numerous listservs are available to facilitate discussions among ESL teachers and other ESL professionals. Some of these lists have a specialized focus; others hold discussions of general interest to those working in the field of ESL.
One of the most extensive resources available on the Internet is the ERIC database of educational materials. You can search the database yourself for materials on a particular topic, or you can contact our User Services staff for assistance.
ERIC/CLL is grateful to Jean LeLoup (SUNY Cortland) and Deborah Short (Center for Applied Linguistics) for their valuable assistance in compiling this Resource Guide Online.
Digests are brief overviews of topics in education. ERIC/CLL and its adjunct, the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE), have prepared many timely digests on topic related to teaching English as a second language. Selected ERIC/CLL titles follow.
Be sure to see adult ESL digests from NCLE.
English as a Foreign Language Magazine includes articles, answers to frequently asked questions, a list of upcoming events and conferences, links to other EFL Web sites, a virtual bookshop and software store, product reviews, a notice board, a list of accrediting organizations, and more.
The Internet TESL Journal is a monthly Web journal that includes articles, research papers, lesson plans, classroom handouts, teaching ideas, links, and other information of interest.
iT's-Magazine is the online version of an international magazine for teachers and students of English around the world. The Internet edition includes practical teaching material, teaching activities related to breaking news stories, an archive of teaching material, and a penpal service.
Language Learning and Technology (LL&T) is a a refereed journal that seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the United States and around the world on issues related to technology and language education.
TESL-EJ, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language Electronic Journal, is an internationally recognized source of ESL and EFL information for people in scores of countries, from researchers to classroom teachers.
English for Science and Technology is a listserv for learners of English for scientific and technology applications. To join this listserv, send a message to EST-SLlistserv@asuvm.inrc.asu.edu.
MIDDLE-L is an electronic discussion group for secondary teachers (not necessarily ESL teachers). Join by sending a message to email@example.com. In the body of the message type the following:
NIFL-ESL is an e-mail forum with an adult ESL literacy focus, sponsored by the National Institute for Literacy and moderated by the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE).
TESL-L is an electronic discussion group for ESL teachers. Join by sending a message to firstname.lastname@example.org. In the body of the message type the following:
TESLK–12 is an electronic discussion group for K–12 ESL teachers. Join by sending a message to email@example.com. In the body of the message type the following:
Breaking News English Daily offers free world news and current affairs lessons for English language teachers and students. A new, free lesson is posted every day, and there are twenty or more communicative ideas per lesson.
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private nonprofit organization which seeks to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture. CAL is the host organization for the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. ESL information and resources from projects such as the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE) are available at CAL's Web site.
Dave's ESL Café offers an online bookstore, a discussion center, answers to frequently asked questions, an ESL Help Center, job announcements, a message exchange, and other resources for ESL teachers and learners.
English as a Second Language Home Page provides links to various Web sites of interest to ESL teachers and learners. For example, teachers can link to sites that provide lesson plans, job announcements, and discussion forums.
English Language Links provides links to a variety of ESL Web sites. ESL students and teachers can find resources and activities, online classes, dictionaries, and more.
English Now! offers lesson plans, teaching ideas, and news about jobs and conferences.
The ESL on the Web page from the DEIL/IEI LinguaCenter at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign has links to resources and exercises for grammar, reading, listening, speaking/pronunciation, writing, and vocabulary.
The Foreign Language Teaching Forum (FLTEACH) includes resources on teaching English as a second language. The site also provides information on subscribing to the FLTEACH listserv.
Free Instant Lessons from Reuters offers ESL lesson plans with articles from Reuters.
Interesting Things for ESL Students is a free online textbook and fun study site for students of English as a second language. Activities include vocabulary quizzes, anagrams, word games, and puzzles.
its-online is a free Internet service for teachers and students of ESL that offers a weekly e-zine with material for self-study and classroom use; an archive with a collection of teaching and self-study material; teaching notes explaining how all the material can be used by teachers in classroom situations; penpal and talk sections; and links to other sites.
Linguistic Funland-TESL has resources for ESL students and teachers, including job opportunities, FAQs, and games.
Multilingual Education Technology Consulting offers software reviews, staff development materials, and links to other technology resources. A software guide will feature a listing of software available in multiple languages that can be used for bilingual, ESL, and foreign language instruction.
Our Adjunct clearinghouse, the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE), offers many publications and resources on ESL education for adults, including full text of more than 60 Digests.
The National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) Web site provides information about legislation and public policies concerning the education of language minority students in the United States and includes links to NABE press releases and articles about bilingual education and language minority Americans from local and national media.
The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) Web site provides answers to frequently asked questions; an online library with hundreds of full-text articles and documents; links to national, regional, and state educational resources; a bibliographic database; lesson plans; and a wide range of additional resources.
The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (Comprehensive Center Region X) includes many resources of interest to teachers of students with limited English proficiency.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is an international professional association for teachers of English around the world. Benefits of membership include publications, an annual convention, and job placement and career services.
TESL/TEFL/TESOL/ESL/EFL/ESOL Links offers an extensive list of links for teachers and students of English as a second language.
Additional resources and links of interest to teachers of English to speakers of other languages may be found in our Resource Guide Online, Preparing to Teach English Abroad.
Clip Art Collection for Foreign Languages contains a growing collection of clip art (simple line-drawings) to be used by language instructors. Drawings are designed to be culturally and linguistically neutral as much as possible.
CNN Newsroom and Worldview for ESL features grammar and vocabulary exercises for ESL students. It is based upon a weekly Newsroom or WorldView Broadcast by Turner Educational Services Inc.
EF Englishtown offers online language instruction, English learning activities, a penpal club, chat rooms, and online shops with language learning and teching materials.
The World of Reading offers a large online catalogue that features foreign language and ESL software, films, books, and audiotapes.
To find out where to search the ERIC database in your community, call (1-800-276-9834) or email our User Services staff.
You may wish to search the ERIC database on the World Wide Web.
Information on retrieving documents from the database follows this section.
The search results below were retrieved by using the following combination of Descriptors:
English (Second Language) (as a major descriptor)
Internet or World Wide Web or Web Sites or
Online User Groups or Electronic Mail or Electronic Libraries or
Electronic Journals or Electronic Magazines or
Electronic Media or Electronic Newspapers or
Electronic Testing (all as major descriptors)
The Impact of WWW Texts on EFL Learning.
Computer Assisted Language Learning, v10 n5 p455-78 Nov 1997
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
A study investigated effectiveness of use of World Wide Web texts in a college English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) writing class, finding that the reading comprehension and writing skills of 15 students using the Web-based materials improved more than those of students not using the materials. Ethnographic observation also focused on four students. (Author/MSE)
Descriptors: *Computer Assisted Instruction; *English (Second Language); Ethnography; Higher Education; Instructional Materials; *Reading Comprehension; Second Language Instruction; Skill Development; *World Wide Web; *Writing Instruction; Writing Skills
The Design and Use of an Internet Resource for Business English Learners.
ELT Journal, v52 n1 p38-42 Jan 1998
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Details the design of a hypertext decision-making activity located on the Internet for business English students wishing to review techniques and vocabulary for conducting business meetings (World Wide Web address is given). Provides statistical data on students using the activity worldwide, and makes recommendations for further development of Internet resources for language learners. (Author/MSE)
Descriptors: *Business Communication; Class Activities; Computer Assisted Instruction; *Decision Making; *English (Second Language); Instructional Materials; *Internet; *Languages for Special Purposes; Meetings; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Learning; Vocabulary Development; World Wide Web
Using the Internet To Teach U.S. Business Research to Students of English as a Second Language.
Welch, Jeanie M.; King, William E.
Reference Librarian, n58 p5-12 1997
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
The English-as-a-Second-Language program at the American Graduate School of International Management (Glendale, AZ) includes a research project on a U.S. company. This article discusses course structure, collaboration between the course instructor and a business librarian, creation of a corporation information Web site, and Web site effects on student research. (PEN)
Descriptors: Course Descriptions; *English (Second Language); *Graduate Students; Higher Education; Instructional Effectiveness; *Internet; Librarian Teacher Cooperation; *Student Projects
Identifiers: American Graduate School International Management; Arizona (Glendale); Business Research; Home Pages
Academic Skills and Cultural Awareness through GlobaLearn.
Ritchey, Anne C.
TechTrends, v42 n6 p41-44 Nov-Dec 1997
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Describes how a sixth grade teacher of an ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) resource class used the GlobaLearn online program to promote cultural awareness and academic skills in social studies/geography. Discusses online communication with international host children, educational benefits, and other programs. (AEF)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Computer Assisted Instruction; *Computer Mediated Communication; *Cultural Awareness; Elementary Secondary Education; *English (Second Language); Geography; Global Education; Grade 6; Instructional Innovation; Intermediate Grades; Online Systems; Second Language Learning; Skill Development; Social Studies
Identifiers: *Web Sites
Computer Conferencing: Taking the Loneliness Out of Independent Learning. Marsh, Debra
Language Learning Journal, n15 p21-25 Mar 1997
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Describes how a project in Great Britain designed to promote learner independence in English-as-a-foreign-language students clarified issues regarding the need to provide guidance in any student training program. Notes how e-mail and computer conferencing were used to encourage learners to work together, independent of the tutor, to learn English. (25 references) (CK)
Descriptors: Course Content; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Guidelines; *Independent Study; *Learning Strategies; *Peer Teaching; Second Language Instruction; Student Motivation; *Teleconferencing; Tutoring
Identifiers: *Great Britain
Webspinning: Language Learning on the World Wide Web.
Green, James; And Others
Learning and Leading with Technology, v24 n6 p35-37 Mar 1997
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Provides a lesson plan for adult, high-intermediate, or advanced students of English as a Second Language that uses World Wide Web resources to simulate buying a new car. Students work in groups and relate foreign language texts to their own lives. Lists equipment needed; objectives; materials; procedures; warm-up, core, and closing activities; assessment; and follow-up. (PEN)
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; Behavioral Objectives; *English (Second Language); *Group Activities; Group Instruction; *Instructional Materials; *Lesson Plans; Reader Text Relationship; *Second Language Learning; Simulation; Student Evaluation; *World Wide Web
Identifiers: Nonnative Speakers
Teaching Pre K–8, v27 n5 p68-69 Feb 1997
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080) Lists Internet websites related to articles in this issue. Topics include multiage classrooms, writing projects, and students learning English as a Second Language. (AA)
Descriptors: Computer Uses in Education; Elementary Education; *English (Second Language); *Information Sources; *Internet; *Mixed Age Grouping; Teacher Student Relationship; Writing Exercises; *Writing Instruction
Identifiers: Online User Groups
What Can the World Wide Web Offer ESL Teachers?
Li, Rong-Chang; Hart, Robert S.
TESOL Journal, v6 n2 p5-10 Win 1996
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Examines how the World Wide Web, a system for accessing and viewing information on the Internet, can be utilized for English-as-a-Second-Language instruction. Notes that the Web is a tremendously effective means for disseminating instructional materials and can provide a context for efficient collaborative materials development. (11 references) (CK)
Descriptors: Courseware; *English (Second Language); *Information Dissemination; *Instructional Materials; Interactive Video; *Internet; *Material Development; Multimedia Materials; Second Language Instruction; *World Wide Web
Computer-Assisted Language Arts Instruction for the ESL Learner.
Cassidy, Jacquelyn A.
English Journal, v85 n8 p55-57 Dec 1996
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Describes a series of e-mail writing assignments and other online writing activities for English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students. Suggests that computers help improve ESL students' writing. (RS)
Descriptors: *Computer Assisted Instruction; *Computer Uses in Education; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Secondary Education; Writing Assignments; *Writing Improvement
A Look at the Use of Electronic Mail (e-mail) as a Learning Tool in the Writing Skills of Adult LEP Female Students.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
This study examined the utility of electronic mail (e-mail) as an instructional tool for limited-English-proficient (LEP) adult females who have made little progress in learning writing in English as a Second Language (ESL). Six subjects, aged 30-50 years, enrolled in a university ESL program produced 25 e-mail exchanges with the research over a 5-week period. Subjects fell into two groups: those under age 40 with e-mail experience, and those aged 40-50 who were unfamiliar with e-mail. Analysis of the messages focused on number of messages, word counts, acquisition of new vocabulary directly related to comprehensible input, and syntactic complexity resulting from the use of connectors in the subordination of clauses. Results indicate that supervised e-mail had a positive effect on the writing skills of adult learners who have few opportunities to interact with target language speakers, and can be used as an effective extracurricular learning tool, particularly with older students. Appended materials include a brief subject questionnaire, summary of subjects' responses to it, letter of consent, and tables summarizing characteristics of the data and subordination and connectors in the data. Contains 32 references. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Descriptors: Adult Students; Classroom Techniques; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Females; Higher Education; Instructional Effectiveness; *Limited English Speaking; Second Language Instruction; Skill Development; Teaching Methods; *Womens Education; *Writing Instruction; Writing Skills
Using Technology in the Classroom.
Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
Five conference papers on use of technology in the second language classroom are presented, including: "Concept-Acquisition: Tapping the Internet for Ideas" (Jack Kimball), which offers suggestions for locating and using appropriate Internet materials; "Making Reading More Manageable--The Choice Offered by OnLine Newspapers and Magazines" (Anthony Robins), on finding online sources for reading materials; "Computerized Test and Material Production" (John Bauman), on use of spreadsheet programs for entering and manipulating instructional materials and tests; "Designing Genre-Based Materials To Use with Videos" (Damian Lucantonio), a description of a teacher workshop on instructional material development; and "Content Video in the EFL Classroom" (Michael Furmanovsky), on selecting and customizing content-area videotape recordings of different types for English-as-a-second-language classroom use. Individual papers contain references. (MSE)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Computer Oriented Programs; Concept Formation; *Educational Technology; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; *Instructional Materials; *Internet; Language Tests; Material Development; Newspapers; Reading Materials; Second Language Instruction; *Second Languages; Serials; Videotape Recordings
Online English Learning Using Internet for English-as-a-Foreign-Language Students.
Wang, Lih-Ching Chen; Dalton, David W.
Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Learning to communicate in English is an essential tool to access many resources via worldwide networks in the global society. Like students from many other countries, students in Taiwan study English for years, but lack opportunities to practice. For English-as-a-Second-Language students, the World Wide Web provides a learning environment in which language skills can be developed through communication with native speakers of English. A framework, the Online American Culture Learning Center, was created to study cross cultural distance education through the Web. This experiment between Kent State University (Ohio) and the National Taiwan Normal University will create an English learning environment through the discussion of six major topics on the Internet: Thanksgiving, Yellowstone National Park, American Football, Rock 'n Roll, Shopping Malls, and Garage Sales. Training materials for these topics are being used in a pilot study to assess their efficiency. Preservice teachers from Kent State University will serve as tutors and monitor student progress. Each tutor will have one student, who will correspond via e-mail. The project will explore whether online distance education can enhance learning in a foreign language and whether such exchanges promote multicultural understanding. Evaluation questions will be administered online, and surveys from students and tutors will be used to assess the feasibility of the approach. (SLD)
Descriptors: *College Students; Distance Education; Education Majors; Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Internet; *Online Systems; *Second Language Learning; *Tutors
Identifiers: Kent State University OH; Preservice Teachers; *Taiwan
World Wide Web Resources for EFL/ESL.
Doshisha Studies in English, n68 p329-72 Mar 1997 Mar 1997
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); DIRECTORY (132)
This article discusses briefly the use of the Internet and World Wide Web as sources of information for teaching English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL), describes a directory of related World Wide Web resources, outlines some suggested uses of the resources, and presents the directory. Citations are presented in seven sections: general resources; lesson plans; teaching materials; student projects; reference materials for lessons; computer assisted language learning; and papers, articles, and essays for teachers. Web addresses are given for each item. (MSE)
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction; *Computer Networks; Educational Resources; Elementary Secondary Education; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; *Information Networks; *Instructional Materials; Internet; Lesson Plans; Second Language Instruction; *World Wide Web
ESL Online Action Research. Final Report.
Strunk, Sandra J.; Fowler-Frey, Jaclyn
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
The report describes a project designed to meet professional development needs of Pennsylvania's practitioners in adult basic and literacy education by: (1) creating an infrastructure for guiding practitioners through classroom research with support from colleagues; and (2) linking practitioners through telecommunications. The project allowed ten English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) educators to participate in action research with colleagues using the Internet as the primary communication vehicle, and coordinated with the National Professional Development Network for participation in an online action research database. As they pursued their projects, participants communicated regularly with a participant-partner and joined in a virtual meeting online once a month. It is concluded that online action research holds great potential for ongoing professional development of adult educators, by creating a sense of community among practitioners, exposing them to a wealth of information in their field, and giving them a systematic way to examine practice. The report details the project's origins, design, and results relating to four themes: communicating with a partner; using technology in a new way; becoming a researcher; and unexpected outcomes. Appended materials include the training outline and summaries of seven research projects. Contains 22 references. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Descriptors: Action Research; *Adult Basic Education; *Classroom Research; Computer Networks; Computer Uses in Education; *English (Second Language); Information Dissemination; Inservice Teacher Education; *Internet; *Literacy Education; Peer Relationship; *Professional Development
An Internet Guide for Language and Literacy Teachers and Researchers.
Available From: Language Australia Publications, level 9, 300 Flinders Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Target Audience: Teachers; Researchers; Practitioners
This guide, which is intended for language and literacy teachers and researchers who are becoming interested in the Internet, offers a brief overview of using the Internet and explains how to access various language and literacy resources. Part 1, which is devoted to Internet basics, examines the following topics: the Internet (e- mail, mailing lists, newsgroups, file transfer protocol, the World Wide Web); connection to the Internet (hardware and software needs, useful books and magazines, setting up a connection); Internet account selection (types of accounts, Internet service providers). Discussed in part 2 are using e-mail and mailing lists and using and searching the World Wide Web. In part 3 instructions are provided for accessing the following language and literacy databases/resources: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia database; ERIC database; and National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research resources. Part 4 is an annotated listing of eight Australian websites and eight international websites that are considered important to language and literacy teachers and researchers. Presented in part 5 are the Internet addresses of 55 language and literacy websites, 27 mailing lists, and 10 newsgroups and a glossary. (MN)
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education; *Adult Literacy; Annotated Bibliographies; *Computer Uses in Education; Databases; Educational Resources; Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); *English Instruction; Foreign Countries; Information Sources; *Internet; *Literacy Education; Online Vendors; Research Tools; World Wide Web
On-Campus E-Mail for Communicative Writing.
23 Dec 1996
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
A project using on-campus electronic mail (e-mail) to teach communicative writing in English as a Second Language to Japanese junior college students is described. The project had three stages: (1) planning; (2) piloting with a small group of students; and (3) implementation in three large classes (n=55, 28, 36). The aim was to help students write more communicatively and with less anxiety. Planning involved gaining student access to the campus e-mail system, first on a small scale and later with access to more computer services. The pilot involved nine second-year students in a graduation project. Students needed to be familiarized with two-way message exchanges. However, after exchanges began, student-teacher interactions became more interesting. Learning word processing and spell-checking in English and document transfer were initially a challenge. Implementation with three larger classes, in which most students were familiar with e-mail, began with a paired self-introduction writing activity. Partners questioned each other, commented on introductions, and made grammatical corrections, helping each other refine the final product. Teacher feedback was provided weekly. It was found that the method facilitated timely and comfortable communication. The experiments provided insights into advantages, difficulties, and effective procedures for computer-based communication. (MSE)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Class Size; *Communicative Competence (Languages); Computer Literacy; Computer Networks; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Interpersonal Communication; Large Group Instruction; Organizational Communication; Program Descriptions; Second Language Instruction; Student Attitudes; Teacher Student Relationship; Two Year Colleges; Two Year College Students; Word Processing; *Writing Apprehension; *Writing Instruction
Using the Internet on a Business English Course.
Murphy, Brian; Pascoe, Andrew
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); TEST, QUESTIONNAIRE (160)
A study investigated the attitudes of African students of business English at a British university (University of Brighton, England) toward use of the Internet as an educational resource. Students were given an introduction to Internet use for research on individual projects, surveyed concerning their attitudes toward and initial experiences with the Internet, and surveyed again just before the end of the course. Questionnaires are included in the report. Results indicate the students generally felt their initial experiences with the Internet were positive and found an enormous amount of useful information. They were impressed at the information's quantity, quality, multiple sources, worldwide provenance, accuracy, timeliness, and relevance, and appreciated the ease and speed of access and the implied communication with others. Some frustration with slowness of response was found. The second questionnaire revealed that only a slightly higher percentage of students had found useful information, and two-thirds said they had found better information in the library. Nearly all respondents had discovered other interesting material on the Internet, and all expected to use it after they returned to their home country. All felt the Internet should be part of future courses. Based on these responses, a more structured and aggressive approach to Internet use is recommended. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Access to Information; Attitude Change; *Business Communication; Classroom Techniques; Comparative Analysis; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Foreign Students; Higher Education; Information Networks; *Information Technology; *Internet; Library Collections; *Online Searching; Questionnaires; Relevance (Information Retrieval); Student Attitudes; Surveys
Identifiers:: Ivory Coast; University of Brighton (England)
Communicative Devices Used by EFL Students in E-Mail Writing.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
A study investigated the communication strategies used by students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in electronic mail interactions with native speakers of English. Subjects were 22 university students in Taiwan paired with a like number of pre-service EFL teacher trainees in the United States. The discourse of 87 e-mail entries by the Taiwanese students was analyzed over a period of a year, focusing on communicative strategies (avoidance/reduction, achievement/compensatory, time- gaining/stalling devices) and interactive speech acts (questions and answers, statements and imperatives, discourse management). The mean entry length was 13 sentences. It was found that the EFL students used most of the communication strategies commonly found in oral communication, including approximation, literal translation, foreignizing, asking for help, using all-purpose words, using fillers, circumlocution, word coinage, and nonlinguistic means. The students showed active participation in the correspondence by using a variety of interactive speech acts. An additional device noticed was purposeful choice of discussion topics of common interest. Use of time-gaining devices was an unanticipated finding. Findings were borne out in students' essays about the experience. Contains 30 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: College Students; *Communication Skills; *Communicative Competence (Languages); Comparative Analysis; Discourse Analysis; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Intercultural Communication; *Language Patterns; Language Usage; Native Speakers; Oral Language; Second Language Learning; Teacher Education; Written Language
E-Mail Dialogue Journaling in an ESL Reading and Writing Classroom.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
This case study involved designing an electronic-based environment to explore the effectiveness of electronic mail (e-mail) as a writing tool for dialogue journaling. The setting for this study was an intermediate-level reading and writing class in the American English Institute Program on the campus of a large public university. Over a period of 9 weeks, six randomly chosen English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) students in the class wrote dialogue journals to their instructor using e-mail while the rest of the students in the class wrote dialogue journals to the instructor using paper and pencil. The issues investigated were: What were the students' attitudes toward dialogue journal writing via e-mail? What was the instructor's perception regarding e- mail dialogue journal writing? What problems occurred in the process of using e-mail as a tool for doing dialogue journal writing? In what ways were e-mail journals different from paper journals? The findings of the study show that a variety of factors combined to exert an influence on the participants' attitudes towards e-mail. Limited knowledge about e-mail systems prevented some students from taking a full advantage of e-mail as a unique communication tool. Comparison of e-mail journals and paper journals reveals that e-mail created a different writing style than that of paper and pencil. For example, in the journal entries, participants in the e-mail group tended to: (1) use formula functions like opening and closing greetings (none of the students in the paper group used any); (2) use more requesting functions (asking questions) than those in the paper group; and (3) produce more language functions per writing session. In addition, e-mail communication was more spontaneous than paper dialogue. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/SWC)
Descriptors: *Computer Uses in Education; *Dialog Journals; *Electronic Mail; *English (Second Language); Higher Education; Instructional Effectiveness; *Media Selection; Student Attitudes; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; Writing Assignments; Writing Processes
Identifiers: Communication Channels; Communication Styles
Using the Internet for Teaching English.
Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
This article details some of the many ways to use the Internet in the English-as-a- Second-Language classroom for both students and teachers. The Internet can be used for gathering information for use in class time planning, for finding teacher-related information, and for exchanging information with other teachers. Complete texts of newsletters and journals may be found on the Internet. Student uses include keypal or computer penpal exchanges for students; class project information gathering; reference resources, such as encyclopedias and dictionaries; and provision of additional English language materials for language practice. Students can subscribe to the IECC-Survey, which will help them conduct class project surveys. Both students and teachers can find news information, including more than 30 teaching resource lists, such as TESLCA-L and TESL-L as well as student-oriented lists in different levels of English. Another Internet news source is the "Daily Brief," which summarizes the world news every weekday morning, and many foreign language newspapers also have English-language versions on the World Wide Web. Simple web pages can also be designed and posted by students; a brief sample is described. (NAV)
Descriptors: *Computer Assisted Instruction; Educational Resources; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; *Instructional Materials; *Internet; Second Language Instruction; Technological Advancement; *World Wide Web
The full text of most materials in the ERIC database with an "ED" followed by six digits is available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche, by email, or in paper copy. Approximately 80% of ERIC documents from 1993 to the present are available for online ordering and electronic delivery through the EDRS Web site. You can read ERIC documents on microfiche for free at many libraries with monthly subscriptions or specialized collections. To find an ERIC center near you, contact our User Services staff.
The full text of journal articles may be available from one or more of the following sources:
To obtain journals that do not permit reprints and are not available from your library, write directly to the publisher. Addresses of publishers are listed in the front of each issue of Current Index to Journals in Education and can now be accessed online through the CIJE Source Journal Index.
If you would like additional information about this or any topic related to language education or linguistics, contact our User Services Staff.
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