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The domain of modern linguistics, defined as the scientific study of language, has a rich and varied history spanning over two centuries. However, people have been concerned with studying language for a very long time. Linguistics is mentioned in the dialogues of Plato (c. 427-346 BC) and in Roman writings.
Modern linguistics can trace its beginnings to the 17th and 18th centuries when European scholars began to develop--among other forms of philosophy--the notion of grammars based on universalist principles, the belief that all languages share common features. In modern times, this philosophy of universal principles is best known through the work of Noam Chomsky, who has influenced an entire generation of scholars described as "generative linguists."
Modern linguistics is also influenced by another group of scholars who were interested in recording languages that did not have writing systems. In the United States, two men who created the models for recording and analyzing languages in the early part of the 20th century were Franz Boas and Edward Sapir. Their work focused on Native American languages but soon was carried to language groups around the world.
As the field of linguistics became more accepted as a discipline, other scholars from different fields began to incorporate language-related topics into their work. Linguistics found its way into sociology, anthropology, language arts, foreign language learning and teaching, English as a second language, translation and interpretation, literacy, and the development of language policy in countries around the world.
Today the field of linguistics has blossomed into an interdisciplinary science comprising a number of subfields and several schools of thought. Among the subfields are anthropological linguistics, applied linguistics, biological linguistics, clinical linguistics, computational linguistics, educational linguistics, ethnolinguistics, geographical linguistics, mathematical linguistics, neurolinguistics, philosophical linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, statistical linguistics, and theolinguistics.
The grounding for all of these interdisciplinary fields is formal linguistics--the study of the structures and processes of language, or how language works and is organized. Formal linguists study the structures of different languages, and by identifying and studying the elements common among them seek to discover the most effective ways to describe language in general. Major areas of study in this field are phonetics (the study of the sounds of languages and their physical properties); phonology (the study of how sounds function in a given language or dialect); morphology (the study of the structure of words); syntax (the study of the structure of sentences); semantics (the study of meaning in language); discourse analysis (the study of connected spoken and written discourse); and pragmatics (the study of the social meanings of utterances). Each of these areas also includes subfields. Languages are studied from a historical perspective (diachronic linguistics) or as they are used at a given time (synchronic linguistics). Like most disciplines, linguistics has its theoretical and applied scholars and practitioners.
What is interesting and unique about the field of linguistics is that it can also be included in the world of science (e.g., forensics and neurology) on the one hand, and in the worlds of philosophy and literary criticism on the other (Crystal, 1987). As Geoff Nunberg and Tom Wasow describe in Fields of Linguistics, language can best be studied as a formal system, as a human phenomenon, and as a social phenomenon.
Among the more popular areas of cross-disciplinary linguistic study are the following:
Applied Linguistics, which draws from theories of language acquisition to develop first and second language teaching methodologies and to implement successful literacy programs.
Computational Linguistics, or the application of the concepts of computer science to the analysis of language. This field is growing immensely, particularly in machine translation, information retrieval, and artificial intelligence.
Psycholinguistics, or the study of the relationships between linguistic and psychological behavior. Psycholinguists study first and second language acquisition and how humans store and retrieve linguistic information, referred to as verbal processing. Language acquisition is an area within this field.
Sociolinguistics is the study of the interrelationships between language and social structure, linguistic variation, and attitudes toward language.
Crystal, D. (1987). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nunberg, G. & Wasow, T. (1997). Fields of linguistics. Washington, DC: Linguistic Society of America.
ERIC/CLL is grateful to Douglas Demo and Joy Kreeft Peyton, Center for Applied Linguistics, for their valuable assistance in compiling this online resource guide.
The following publications, conferences, Web sites, and listservs offer additional information about linguistics. This Resource Guide concludes with an annotated bibliography of ERIC documents related to linguistics.
Digests are brief overviews of topics in education. ERIC/CLL has prepared many timely digests on topics related to language teaching and learning. The following ERIC/CLL titles are related to the areas of linguistics described above.
Literacy and Language Diversity in the United States: Considerations for Policy and Practice provides an introduction to those unfamiliar with issues in literacy and language diversity and poses problems for consideration for those who work in the field.
Adult Biliteracy in the United States explores the social, cognitive, and pedagogical aspects of becoming literate in two languages.
The American Bilingual Tradition offers an extensive analysis of the evolution of federal, state, and territorial language policies and of the general historical climate toward language minorities in the United States.
Making the Connection: Language and Academic Achievement Among African American Students. The chapters in this collection respond to the debate about African American Vernacular English (AAVE) with up-to-date, informative discussions about language variation among African American students that will help educators enhance their students' academic achievement.
Writing Our Lives: Reflections on Dialogue Journal Writing with Adults Learning English presents a rationale for making open and continuing dialogue a central part of any work with adults, and discusses various approaches to promoting this dialogue with students, tutors, and teachers in a variety of programs and is updated based on current research.
A sampling of current publications on Linguistics includes the following:
Fields of Linguistics from the Linguistic Society of America gives an excellent overview of the many ways that people use language and how those areas are studied. Experts provide brief chapters on writing, grammar, language and the brain, linguistics and literature, slips of the tongue, and neurolinguistics, to name a few.
Linguistics Abstracts contains abstracts in English of linguistics articles appearing in more than 140 journals from over 20 countries. Each abstract is classified and cross-classified according to area.
Linguistics and the Human Capital Initiative. A Report to the National Science Foundation identified a set of research questions for linguistics aimed to increase understanding of language proficiency as a human resource. An abstract and ordering information for this report are included in the "Search of the ERIC Database" section of this resource guide (below).
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics is a summary reference publication that focuses on one aspect of applied linguistics in each issue and reviews the research and state of the art. Contributions are authored by active researchers and scholars in the field. Recent issues have focused on "Multilingualism" (1997), "Foundations of Second Language Teaching" (1998), and "Applied Linguistics as an Emerging Discipline" (1999). Publisher: Cambridge University Press.
Seminal writings in Linguistics include (but are not limited to) the following books, papers, and articles:
Bloomfield, L. (1993). Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Boas, F. (1911). Handbook of American English languages. Bulletin 40. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton & Co.
Fries, C.C. (1940). American English grammar. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Lehmann, W.P. (1976). Descriptive linguistics. Second edition. New York: Random House.
Sapir, E. (1921). Language. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Saussure, F. de (1966). Course in general linguistics. Translated by Wade Baskin. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Note: Some of these journals are abstracted and indexed in Current Index to Journals in Education. Others have been included in order to provide a broader picture of the field of linguistics. Not included are the area-specific linguistic journals, such as those focusing on the linguistics of East Asian languages, American Indian languages, and American speech.General Linguistics
Journal of Linguistics is published by the Linguistics Association of Great Britain and by Cambridge University Press.
Language, a journal of the Linguistic Society of America is a quarterly journal offering technical articles dealing with problems of linguistic science, reviews of recently published linguistic works, and notes of interest to professional linguists.
Language Sciences is concerned with bringing to linguists' attention current thinking about language within disciplines other than linguistics itself. Contributions from anthropologists, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and other experts are included. Publisher: Elsevier.
Languages in Contrast is issued twice a year and focuses on contrastive linguistics, but also encourages articles that link contrastive linguistics with translation, lexicography, computational linguistics, language teaching, literary and linguistic computing, literary studies and cultural studies. Publisher: John Benjamins.
Linguistic Inquiry is a quarterly of research on current topics in linguistic theory. It includes full articles as well as shorter contributions (summary notes and discussions) and commentaries. An accompanying electronic forum, The "LI Notes and Letters" section features discussion threads pertaining to the journal articles and is open to all. Publisher: MIT Press.
Applied Linguistics is a quarterly journal that focuses on the relationship between theoretical and practical issues. Articles cover first and second language learning and teaching, critical linguistics, discourse analysis, language in education, language planning and testing, lexicography, multilingualism and multilingual education, stylistics and rhetoric, and translation. Publisher: Oxford University Press.
Language and Education. An International Journal is published quarterly and offers articles intended to reflect the role of linguistic science in education. The subject matter covers issues of concern to children and adults. Publisher: Multilingual Matters.
Linguistics and Education. An International Research Journal is a quarterly journal that publishes articles presenting significant research and scholarship on linguistics and education. Publisher: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Sign Language and Linguistics is issued twice a year. This journal aims to provide an academic forum for researchers to discuss sign languages in the larger context of natural language, both cross-linguistically and cross-modally (signed vs. spoken). It appears in print and electronic formats. Publisher: John Benjamins.
System. An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics is a quarterly journal that publishes the findings of the applications of educational technology and applied linguistics to problems of foreign language teaching and learning. Publisher: Elsevier.
Written Language and Literacy is issued three times a year. It is concerned with two major aspects of written language: the structures, histories, typologies, and functions of the writing systems (scripts) used by the languages of the world; and literacy, i.e. the institutionalized use of written language, from the interdisciplinary viewpoints of linguistics, anthropology, sociology, psychology, education, literature, and book arts. Publisher: John Benjamins.
Language Acquisition and Psycholinguistics
Applied Psycholinguistics: Psychological Studies of Language Processes is a quarterly journal that publishes original articles that address the development, use, and impairment of language, including spoken, signed, and written. Among the topics covered are language development, language disorders in children and adults, early literacy development, and psycholinguistic processing. Publisher: Cambridge University Press.
Brain and Language: A Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research publishes original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical studies, and scholarly notes. Articles are generally theoretical in nature and discuss different hypotheses, but they focus on human language and communication in relation to any aspect of the brain or brain function. Publisher: Academic Press.
Cognitive Linguistics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Cognitive Science presents a forum for linguistic research on the interaction between language and cognition. Publisher: Mouton De Gruyter.
Language Acquisition. A Journal of Developmental Linguistics is a quarterly journal that publishes articles that contribute to the understanding of how language is acquired. Articles reflect experimental, linguistic, and computational approaches to the field and cover the development of syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and phonology. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Language Awareness is a quarterly journal that encourages and disseminates work on the role of explicit knowledge in the process of language learning; how this explicit knowledge plays a role in language teaching; and how its role can be studied in language use, such as developing sensitivity to bias, critical language awareness, and literary use of language. The journal also seeks to build bridges between the language sciences and other disciplines. Publisher: Multilingual Matters.
Language Learning is a scientific journal dedicated to the understanding of language learning, broadly defined. Articles included in this journal systematically apply methods of inquiry from disciplines including psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, educational inquiry, neuroscience, ethnography, sociolinguistics, sociology, and semiotics. Publisher: Blackwell Publishers.
American Speech is the journal of the American Dialect Society. This journal offers articles, reviews, and other features about dialect issues.
Journal of Sociolinguistics is a quarterly forum for research on language and society. Articles cover ethnography, variation, and sociology of language. Also published are papers on the social psychology of language, anthropological linguistics, critical discourse analysis, language and gender studies, and pragmatics and conversational analysis. Publisher: Blackwell Publishers.
Language Problems and Language Planning is a quarterly journal that covers the political, sociological, and economic aspects of language and language use, particularly the relationships between and among language communities in international contexts. Articles deal with language policy, language management, language use in international organizations, theoretical studies on global communication, language interaction, and language conflict. Publisher: John Benjamins.
Language Variation and Change is published three times a year and offers original research reports based on data of language production, either oral or written, from contemporary or historical sources. Publisher: Cambridge University Press.
Computational Linguistics is a quarterly devoted exclusively to the design and analysis of natural language processing systems. Articles include computational aspects of research on language, linguistics, and the psychology of language processing and performance. Publisher: MIT Press.
Computer Speech and Language publishes original research and offers an interdisciplinary selection of articles dealing with recognizing, understanding, producing, and coding speech by humans and/or machines. Articles are authored by practitioners working in the fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, electronic engineering, linguistics, phonetics, and psychology. Publisher: Academic Press.
History of Linguistics
Historiographia Linguistica: International Journal for the History of the Language Sciences is published three times a year. It presents the origin and development of ideas, concepts, methods, schools of thought or trends in language, and discusses the methodological and philosophical foundations of historiography, the body of literature, and of the language sciences. Publisher: John Benjamins.
The following publishers offer linguistics textbooks and journals.
The LinguistList is a major listserv for those interested in any aspect of linguistics. Subscribe at the LinguistList subscription page. An extensive list of other linguistics-related listservs can also be found at this Web site.
The Linguistic Society of America offers information about programs in linguistics, job opportunities, events in the field of linguistics, publications, and professional development opportunities, including the annual LSA meeting. Extensive FAQs answer many questions about topics in linguistics.
The Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States (LACUS) offers the annual LACUS Forum that meets alternately at a university in Canada or the United States. Selected papers representing the proceedings of the Forum are published annually as The LACUS Forum.
The Canadian Linguistic Association (CLA, or ACL in French) promotes the study of languages and linguistics in Canada. The association organizes an annual conference and publishes a quarterly journal.
The International Phonetic Association (IPA) promotes the scientific study of phonetics and its various practical applications. This association is the source of the notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages, the International Phonetic Alphabet (also IPA). The IPA publishes a journal and has a monthly electronic newsletter. It holds a Congress of Phonetic Sciences approximately every 8-9 years.
The LinguistList Web site offers information about subscribing to the LinguistList listserv as well as an extensive list of links to conferences, publications, pedagogical resources, and references; a question-answering service; a mailing list archive with links to most of the listservs relevant to linguistics; and a virtual library.
The American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) is a professional membership organization of scholars who are interested in and actively contribute to the multi-disciplinary field of applied linguistics. AAAL publishes a newsletter and a journal and maintains a list of graduate programs in applied linguistics as well as job postings on its Web site. AAAL is an affiliate of and disseminates information about AILA (see below).
The Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL, or ACLA in French) promotes research, experimentation, teaching, and the diffusion of knowledge in all fields of applied linguistics, including the learning and teaching of first and second languages. CAAL is a membership organization. It holds an annual conference and publishes a quarterly journal.
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a nonprofit organization committed to improving communication through better understanding of language and culture. CAL's major activities involve research, professional development, assessment, and publishing in the fields of foreign language education, English as a second language, and second language literacy for school populations and adults.
The International Association of Applied Linguistics/Association Internationale de Linquistique Appliquée (AILA) is an international organization of linguists and affiliated linguistic and language-related organizations. AILA meets every three years and publishes a newsletter and a journal. AILA Scientific Commissions study topics such as Language and the Media, Language and Gender, and Literacy.
The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) provides opportunities for members to share their scholarly findings and teaching experiences with colleagues and to discuss trends in the academy. MLA members host an annual convention and other meetings, work with related organizations, and publish a journal and scholarly reports. MLA offers numerous awards.
The Applied Linguistics WWW Virtual Library offers links to publications, conference information, mailing lists, and employment opportunities.
SIL International, formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics, works with language communities worldwide to facilitate language-based development through research, translation, and literacy. SIL International publishes Ethnologue (a catalog of more than 6,700 languages spoken in 228 countries), as well as journals, research papers, textbooks, grammars, and other materials.
The American Dialect Society (ADS) . Founded more than a century ago, the American Dialect Society is a membership society dedicated to the study of the English language and its dialects in North America, and of other languages influencing English or influenced by it. ADS announces "The Word of the Year" and "The Word of the Decade" at its Web site. It also publishes a newsletter and a journal. The Dictionary of American Regional English is sponsored by ADS.
The Joint National Committee for Languages (JNCL) functions as a point of reference for the planning of national language policies and the identification of national needs. Affiliated with JNCL is the National Council for Languages and International Studies (NCLIS). The NCLIS home page is a sub-site of the JNCL Web site.
The Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) is an international scientific and professional membership society for people working on problems involving natural language and computation. It publishes a quarterly journal and has an annual meeting. ACL also maintains a natural language software registry.
The International Quantitative Linguistics Association (IQLA) promotes the development of all aspects of quantitative linguistics and aims to stimulate world-wide communication among scientists working in quantitative linguistics. Membership is individual and corporate. The IQLA publishes a newsletters, holds international conferences every 24-48 months, establishes chapters, and sponsors conferences and seminars.
Linguistics, Natural Language, and Computational Linguistics Meta-index is a guide to linguistic resources on the Web.
The American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) holds an annual conference.
The Linguistic Society of America (LSA) offers an annual conference.
The Linguist List provides an extensive list of conferences.
The Centre for Language Teaching and Research (University of Sydney, Australia) maintains a comprehensive worldwide conference list in applied linguistics and language learning.
Conference Schedules for Linguists, Translators, Interpreters, and Teachers of Languages provides information about quarterly and annual events.
The ERIC database of educational documents includes numerous books, papers, reports, journal articles, and other documents of interest. A sample of materials available on this topic appears below. Information on obtaining these materials appears after the search.
Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.
Biber, Douglas; And Others
Source: Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, v16 p115-36 1996
Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective teaching materials and activities. (58 references) (CK)
Descriptors: *Applied Linguistics; *Discourse Analysis; *Instructional Materials; Language Patterns; *Language Usage; *Lexicology; *Structural Linguistics
Source: Language Awareness, v4 n1 p3-14 1995
Focuses on language awareness as the ability to view a language objectively. The implications of certain ideas on language awareness for syllabus design and course planning are highlighted and some inadequacies of direct approaches to language teaching are discussed. (15 references) (Author/CK)
Descriptors: *Instructional Materials; *Language Fluency; *Learning Strategies; *Speech Communication; *Teacher Role; *Transformational Generative Grammar Identifiers: *Language Consciousness
What Is Applied Linguistics?
Source: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, v3 n1 p17-32 1993
Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)
Descriptors: *Applied Linguistics; *Definitions; *Language Research; *Linguistic Theory
What Are Applied Linguistics?
Sridhar, S. N.
Source: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, v3 n1 p3-16 1993
Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30 references) (Author/LB)
Descriptors: *Applied Linguistics; Definitions; Generative Grammar; Language Processing; *Language Research; *Linguistic Theory; Metalinguistics
Sociolinguistics. Oxford Introductions to Language Study.
Availability: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon St., Oxford OX2 6DP, England, United Kingdom.
This introduction to sociolinguistics is presented in four parts. The first part gives an overview of this branch of language study, its scope and principles of inquiry, and its basic and key concepts. This portion is written for individuals with no prior knowledge or expertise in the subject. Topics covered in this section include: the nature of the social study of language; the ethnography of speech and the structure of conversation; variations in speech; language styles, gender, and social class; bilinguals and bilingualism; societal multilingualism; and the scope of applied sociolinguistics. The second part consists of readings from specialist literature that focus on specific aspects of sociolinguistic study, accompanied by study questions that encourage the reader to direct attention to points in each text, how they compare across texts, and how they address issues presented in the overview. The third section contains a 40-item annotated bibliography keyed to the chapters in the first section, with the level of specialization noted for each citation. The fourth section is a glossary. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Dialects; Ethnography; Language Patterns; Language Research; *Language Role; Language Styles; Language Variation; *Linguistic Theory; *Multilingualism; Research Methodology; Sex Differences; Social Class; *Sociocultural Patterns; *Sociolinguistics; Speech
Linguistics and the Human Capital Initiative. A Report to the National Science Foundation.
Wolfram, Walt; Schilling-Estes, Natalie
This report identifies a set of research questions for linguistics related to the Human Capital Initiative (HCI) launched by the National Science Foundation to increase understanding of the nature and causes of problems related to improving human resources. It is argued that the broad scope of linguistic inquiry in the United States has significant consequences for the six designated HCI areas of concern: workforce; education; families; neighborhoods; disadvantage; and poverty. Specific research issues address: language acquisition, maintenance, and loss; caregiver language role; normative language development among minority language groups; factors in language acquisition and socialization; language acquisition and socialization as a lifelong process; communication breakdown (intergenerational, bilingual, related to disabilities); individual and group beliefs about linguistic diversity, both within and between languages; social groupings based on speech; communication patterns characterizing multicultural communities; language role in construction of identity; transfer of language skill; learning of appropriate language registers; language demands on students; literacy and literacy education; language norms; language patterns and needs in the workplace; language patterns and creation and maintenance of disadvantagement; and language dynamics and poverty. Methodological needs are also discussed briefly. (MSE)
DESCRIPTORS: Disadvantaged; Education; Family (Sociological Unit); *Human Resources; Labor Force; *Language Research; *Language Role; Linguistic Theory; *Linguistics; *Literacy; Neighborhoods; Poverty; Research Needs
IDENTIFIERS: National Science Foundation
The Study of Language. Second Edition.
Availability: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10001-4211 (paperback: ISBN-0-521-56851-X; hardback: 0-521-56053-5).
Target Audience: Students
The textbook surveys what is known about language and of the methods used by linguists in arriving at that knowledge. Each chapter addresses an aspect of linguistics, reviewing current knowledge and providing study questions, discussion topics and projects, and a list of additional reading. Chapter topics include: the origins of language; development of writing; properties of language; animals and human language; sounds of language; sound patterns; words and word formation processes; morphology; phrases and sentences/grammar; syntax; semantics; pragmatics; discourse analysis; language and machines; language and the brain; first language acquisition; second language learning; sign language; language history and change; language varieties; and language, society, and culture. This second edition incorporates developments in language study over a decade, and includes a new chapter on pragmatics and an expanded chapter on semantics. Suggested answers to study questions are appended, and contents are indexed. Contains almost 700 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: Animals; Articulation (Speech); Artificial Speech; Contrastive Linguistics; Diachronic Linguistics; Discourse Analysis; Foreign Countries; Grammar; Language Acquisition; *Language Patterns; Language Research; Language Variation; Linguistic Borrowing; *Linguistic Theory; Machine Translation; Morphology (Languages); Neurolinguistics; Oral Language; Phonetics; Phonology; Pragmatics; Psycholinguistics; Second Language Learning; *Second Languages; Semantics; Sign Language; Sociolinguistics; Syntax; Written Language
Vocabulary, Semantics, and Language Education.
Hatch, Evelyn; Brown, Cheryl
Availability: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011- 4211 (hardback: ISBN-0-521-47409-4; paperback: ISBN-0-521-47942-8).
Designed as a textbook for language teachers and students of linguistics, this volume explores the system underlying three related areas of language: semantics, lexicon, and vocabulary. The first part is concerned with semantics and semantic analysis, including semantic features and feature analysis, semantic field analysis, core meanings and prototype theory, relational models, figurative language, semantic space across languages, and script semantics and conceptual structure. Part 2 consists of two chapters on lexical processes by which the vocabulary of a language may be increased: adding to the lexicon through borrowing and other processes, and word building. The third part is concerned with word classification, morphology and derivations, and inflectional morphology. Part 4 discusses vocabulary choices made in language use (discourse) and how that choice is influenced by societal factors. The final part looks more closely at language acquisition, language learning, and language teaching: strategies and processes language learners employ to acquire and use vocabulary, and specific methods for assisting learners in the acquisition process. Contains a substantial bibliography and an index. (MSE)
Descriptors: Classification; Contrastive Linguistics; Diachronic Linguistics; Figurative Language; Language Research; *Lexicology; *Linguistic Theory; *Morphology (Languages); Second Language Instruction; Second Languages; *Semantics; *Structural Analysis (Linguistics); Textbooks; *Vocabulary Development
A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology.
Trask, R. L.
Availability: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 (hardback: ISBN-0-415-112060-5; paperback: ISBN-0-415-11261-3).
Target Audience: Teachers; Students; Practitioners
The dictionary, intended primarily for teachers and students of phonetics, contains almost 2,000 terms used in the field of phonetics. Areas covered include articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics, classical and generative phonology, distinctive features, the phonology of English, and phonological change and variation. Terminology is presented alphabetically, and the pronunciation given is typical of the south of England. The International Phonetic Alphabet and an extensive bibliography are appended. Contains references. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Articulation (Speech); Definitions; *Distinctive Features (Language); Generative Phonology; *Language Patterns; Language Research; *Linguistic Theory; *Phonetics; *Phonology; Vocabulary
Language: The Basics.
Trask, R. L.
Availability: Routledge, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001 (ISBN-0-415-12540-5, hardback; ISBN-0-415-12541-3, paperback--$13.95).
This book introduces beginning students of linguistics at all levels and general readers to the study of language, providing an overview of key topics and an explanation of basic terms and ideas. The book is also designed to encourage the reader to think about the way language works and reconsider some popular misconceptions about language and what linguists do. Chapter topics include: the uniqueness of human language; the grammatical backbone of language (English and other grammars); meaning and language; variation in language (geographic and other); language change over time; the interrelationship of language, mind, and neurological functions; language development and second language learning in children; and attitudes about language. Each chapter includes suggestions for additional reading, and a full bibliography is appended. (MSE)
Descriptors: Articulation (Speech); Child Language; Diachronic Linguistics; Foreign Countries; Grammar; *Language Acquisition; Language Attitudes; *Language Patterns; *Language Role; Language Variation; *Languages; *Linguistic Theory; *Neurolinguistics; Semantics
Language and Understanding.
Brown, Gillian, Ed.; And Others
Availability: Oxford University Press, Walton St., Oxford, OX2 6DP, England, United Kingdom (ISBN-0-19-437191-3).
This collection of 10 reports focuses on research in the area of language and understanding, with emphasis on the effects of such research on language teaching and applied linguistics. The reports address issues in psycholinguistics, pragmatics, second language acquisition, syntax, text linguistics, language testing, and sociolinguistics. The papers include: (1) "Modes of Understanding" (Gillian Brown); (2) "Understanding, Language, and Educational Processes" (Christopher Brumfit); (3) "Relevance and Understanding" (Deirdre Wilson); (4) "Syntactic Clues to Understanding" (Keith Brown); (5) "Understanding Words" (Jean Aitchison); (6) "Psychological Processes and Understanding" (Alan Garnham); (7) Towards an Explanation of Second Language Acquisition" (Ellen Bialystok); (8) "Comprehension Testing, Or Can Understanding Be Measured?" (Bernard Spolsky); (9) "Sociolinguistics and Second Language Learning" (Lesley Milroy); and (10) "Understanding Texts: Point of View" (Michael Short). (Contains 248 references.) (MDM)
Descriptors: Definitions; Foreign Countries; *Language Attitudes; Language Proficiency; *Language Research; Language Tests; Pragmatics; *Psycholinguistics; Second Language Instruction; *Second Language Learning; *Sociolinguistics; Syntax
Linguistics in the English Class.
Small, Robert C., Jr.
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English (77th, Los Angeles, CA, November 20-25, 1987).
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Designed for secondary school English teachers who want to help their students develop enthusiasm for words, their histories, and the way language structures words to produce meaning, this paper offers suggestions for a program of study employing dictionary projects and personal experience. The paper describes making a class dictionary of teen language, involving such activities as the following: (1) posting words on a class bulletin board; (2) interviewing students and parents to gather words; (3) examining dictionaries to see what words they contain; (4) examining textbooks for ways to present new terms; (5) examining dictionary histories; (6) deciding how to select words; (7) writing definitions; (8) determining spellings and variant spellings as well as pronunciation and usage; (9) debating decisions of correctness versus majority rule; and (10) accounting for changes in meanings of various words. The paper argues that this broader, deeper type of language study remedies past problems of paying exclusive attention to memorization and mechanical skill, because students begin to understand the nature of the language system they have mastered. The paper suggests additional language lesson plans based on different areas of linguistic studies, including units on generating spelling rules from observations of spelling patterns, proposing a reform of English spelling, illustrating a definition, compiling lists of morphemes, and compiling sequences of words with relative shades meaning. (JG)
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Class Activities; *Definitions; Dictionaries; English Curriculum; English Instruction; Etymology; *Experiential Learning; Grammar; Instructional Materials; Language Acquisition; *Lexicography; *Linguistics; Literacy; Motivation Techniques; Secondary Education; Spelling; Teaching Methods; Vocabulary Development; Word Lists; Writing Exercises
Myers, Doris T.
Availability: Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc., 52 Upper Montclair Plaza, P.O. Box 860, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043 ($10.50).
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Intended as a text to help teachers introduce college freshmen and sophomores to language through writing or to writing through introduction to language, this book emphasizes the relationship of linguistics to composition, literature, and the human condition. The nine chapters discuss the following topics: (1) three approaches to language, (2) where words come from, (3) language study based on phonology, (4) learning parts of speech, (5) syntax, (6) semantics, (7) writing beyond the sentence level, (8) dialects, and (9) the standardization of English. Chapters two through eight are self-contained, and can be presented to students in any order. (HTH)
Descriptors: College English; *English Instruction; Grammar; Higher Education; Integrated Activities; Language Standardization; *Language Usage; Linguistic Theory; *Linguistics; Morphology (Languages); Phonology; Semantics; Syntax; *Writing (Composition); Writing Instruction
Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.
Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen
Availability: Newbury House Publishers, Inc., Rowley, MA 01969 ($15.95). Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the view that language can be examined at different hierarchical levels (psycholinguistic plan levels) and that the lower levels can affect higher levels, research findings for the following levels are examined: (1) phonology; (2) morphology; (3) lexicon; (4) syntax and sentence comprehension models; (5) syntax and language acquisition; (6) discourse and sentence syntax; (7) discourse and communication; (8) input/interaction and language development; (9) individual factors- -age; (10) neurolinguistics and bilingualism; and (11) cognition, cognitive strategies, and language acquisition. By attending to factors related to second language acquisition, questions not covered in the psycholinguistic literature are discussed that may support linguistic rules or descriptions of language. While much of the review research primarily represents the reductionist school, unified explanations have also been addressed. The text may be appropriate for use in methods courses. (SW)
Descriptors: Age; Bilingualism; Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive Style; Language Acquisition; Language Research; Lexicology; *Linguistic Theory; Morphology (Languages); Neurolinguistics; Phonology; *Psycholinguistics; *Second Language Learning; Sentence Structure; *Speech Communication; Syntax; Vocabulary
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