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CAL Digest Series
CAL offers selected digests in print collections. Add these valuable resources to your reference library. Learn more about our digest collections.

CAELA Network Briefs
Download summaries of current evidence-based information on issues related to adult English language acquisition.

CAELA Briefs Archive
Browse our archived collection of briefs related to adult English language learning. These briefs were created as part of the Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA) project, 2004 - 2007.

Resources

Online Resources: Digests

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ACTFL Speaking Proficiency Guidelines
Charles W. Stansfield, Center for Applied Linguistics, September 1992

Action Research
Richard Donato, University of Pittsburgh, December 2003

African Languages at the K–12 Level
Patricia Kuntz, University of Wisconsin-Madison, October 1996

Alternative Assessment and Second Language Study: What and Why?
Charles R. Hancock, The Ohio State University, July 1994

American Sign Language as a Foreign Language
Sherman Wilcox, University of New Mexico; Joy Kreeft Peyton, Center for Applied Linguistics, February 1999

Assessment Literacy for Language Educators
Margaret E. Malone, Center for Applied Linguistics, October 2011

Assessment Portfolios: Including English Language Learners in Large-Scale Assessments
Emily Gómez, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2000

Attaining High Levels of Proficiency: Challenges for Foreign Language Education in the United States
Margaret E. Malone, Center for Applied Linguistics; Benjamin Rifkin, Temple University; Donna Christian and Dora E. Johnson, Center for Applied Linguistics, 2005

Brain Research: Implications for Second Language Learning
Fred Genesee, McGill University, December 2000

Changing Misconceptions About Dialect Diversity: The Role of Public Education
Walt Wolfram, North Carolina State University, March 2011

Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States
Theresa Hsu Chao, National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools, June 1997

Coaching Language Teachers
Arieh (Ari) Sherris, Center for Applied Linguistics, July 2010

Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction and Sample Activities
Ann Galloway, Center for Applied Linguistics, June 1993

Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Current Programs and Projects
Chris Higgins, Gallaudet University, April 1993

Considerations in Developing and Using Computer-Adaptive Tests to Assess Second Language Proficiency
Patricia A. Dunkel, Georgia State University, October 1999

Content-Centered Language Learning
Joann Crandall, University of Maryland Baltimore County, January 1994

Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition
Aída Walqui, West Ed, San Francisco, CA, September 2000

Creating Drama with Poetry: Teaching English as a Second Language Through Dramatization and Improvisation
Marie Gasparro, Pelham Public Schools, NY, and Bernadette Falletta, New Rochelle City Public Schools and College of New Rochelle, NY, April 1994

La crianza de niños bilingües: preocupaciones comunes de los padres y las investigaciones actuales
Kendall King and Lyn Fogle, Georgetown University, February 2009

Cross-Age Tutoring in the Literacy Club
Carolyn Urzúa, September 1995

Cultural Diversity and Language Socialization in the Early Years
Eunjin Park, New York University, and Kendall King, Georgetown University, December 2003

Cultural Orientation for Refugees
Anne Costello and Sanja Bebic, Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006

Culture in Second Language Teaching
Elizabeth Peterson and Bronwyn Coltrane, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2003

Curricular Models for University African Language Programs
David Dwyer, Michigan State University, December 2003

Developing Language Proficiency and Connecting School to Students' Lives: Two Standards for Effective Teaching
Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, Santa Cruz, CA, November 1998

Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy
Joy Kreeft Peyton, National Clearinghouse on Literacy Education, April 1993

Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers
Douglas A. Demo, Center for Applied Linguistics, September 2001

Does the United States Need a Language Policy?
Bernard Spolsky, Professor Emeritus, Bar-Ilan University, Israel, March 2011

Dropout Intervention and Language Minority Youth
Adriana Vaznaugh, Center for Applied Linguistics, March 1995

Early Childhood Programs for Language Minority Students
Helen Nissani, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, April 1993

Ebonic Need Not Be English
Ralph W. Fasold, Georgetown University, December 1999

Effects of Instructional Hours and Intensity of Instruction on NRS Level Gain in Listening and Speaking
Sarah Young, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2007

Enhancing Authentic Language Learning Experiences Through Internet Technology
Jean W. LeLoup and Robert Ponterio, SUNY Cortland; Moderators, FLTEACH, May 2000

English Language Learners and High-Stakes Tests: An Overview of the Issues
Bronwyn Coltrane, Center for Applied Linguistics, November 2002

English Language Learners With Special Needs: Effective Instructional Strategies
Alba Ortiz, University of Texas at Austin, December 2001

ESL and Bilingual Program Models
Jeanne Rennie, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, September 1993

The ESL Standards: Bridging the Academic Gap for English Language Learners
Deborah J. Short, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2000

Establishing an Effective Newcomer Program
Deborah J. Short and Beverly A. Boyson, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2003

Examining Latino Paraeducators' Interactions With Latino Students
Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, December 2000

Foreign Language Exploratory Programs: Introduction to Language Learning
Kathleen Marcos, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages And Linguistics, June 1996

Foreign Language Immersion Programs
Myriam Met, Montgomery County Public Schools, MD, November 1993

Foreign Language Immersion Programs: Features and Trends Over 35 Years
Ashley Lenker and Nancy Rhodes, Center for Applied Linguistics, February 2007

Foreign Language Requirements and Students With Learning Disabilities
Vickie Barr, HEATH Resource Center, April 1993

Foreign Languages and International Business
Geoffrey M. Voght and Ray Schaub, Eastern Michigan University, September 1992

Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, October 1995

From At-Risk to Excellence: Principles for Practice
Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, October 1997

Funds of Knowledge: Learning From Language Minority Households
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, February 1994

Generation 1.5 Students and College Writing
Linda Harklau, University of Georgia, October 2003

A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
G. Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University, August 1999

Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths
Diane Larsen-Freeman, School for International Training (VT), March 1997

Guidelines for Starting an Elementary School Foreign Language Program
Marcia Rosenbusch, National K–12 Foreign Language Resource Center, June 1995

Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies
Zennia Hancock, University of Maryland, College Park, October 2002

Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College
Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato, San Jose State University, May 2002

Implementing a District-Wide Foreign Language Program
Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University, and Richard Donato, University of Pittsburgh, September 2001

Integrated Skills in the ESL/EFL Classroom
Rebecca Oxford, University of Maryland, September 2001

In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences
Elizabeth R. Howard and Michael I. Loeb, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 1998

Instructional Conversations in Native American Classrooms
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, December 1994

Integrated Content and Language Instruction
Arieh (Ari) Sherris, Center for Applied Linguistics, September 2008

Integrating Foreign Language and Content Instruction in Grades K–8
Helena Curtain, Milwaukee Public Schools, and Mari Haas, Teachers College, Columbia University, April 1995

Integrating Language and Content: Lessons From Immersion
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, December 1995

Integrating Language and Culture in Middle School American History Classes
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, February 1994

Interactive Language Learning on the Web
Sally Morrison, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, December 2002

Internet for Language Teachers
Kathleen Marcos, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, December 1994

Involuntary Language Loss Among Immigrants: Asian-American Linguistic Autobiographies
Leanne Hinton, University of California, Berkeley, December 1999

Language, Diversity, and Learning: Lessons for Education in the 21st Century
Sonia Nieto, August 2010

Language Learning Strategies: An Update
Rebecca Oxford, University of Alabama, October 1994

Languages Across the Curriculum
H. Stephen Straight, October 1998

Language Minority Students In School Reform: The Role of Collaboration
Carolyn Temple Adger, Center for Applied Linguistics, October 1996

Language Teaching Methodology
Ted Rodgers, University of Hawaii, September 2001

Lexical Approach to Second Language Teaching
Olga Moudraia, Walailak University, Thailand, June 2001

Meeting the National Standards: Now What Do I Do?
Jean Leloup and Robert Ponterio, SUNY Cortland, December 1998

Middle Schools and Foreign Languages: A View for the Future
Myriam Met, Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools, February 1996

Model Early Foreign Language Programs: Key Elements
Douglas F. Gilzow, Foreign Service Institute, December 2002

More Than Just the Internet: Technology for Language Teaching
Samantha Earp, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, December 1997

Multilingual Education Policy and Practice: Lessons From Indigenous Experience
Nancy H. Hornberger, University of Pennsylvania, January 2010

Myths and Misconceptions about Second Language Learning
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning,
December 1992

Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers in the English Teaching Profession
Rosie Maum, JCPS Adult and Continuing Education, December 2002

Official English and English Plus: An Update
Vickie W. Lewelling, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, May 1997

Oral Proficiency Assessment: The Use of Technology in Test Development and Rater Training
Margaret E. Malone, Center for Applied Linguistics

Partners in Pedagogy: Collaboration Between University and Secondary School Foreign Language Teachers
Lina Lee, University of New Hampshire, October 1999

Planning for Success: Common Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs
Helena Curtain, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and Carol Ann Pesola Dahlberg, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN, December 2000

Practical Ideas On Alternative Assessment For ESL Students
Jo-Ellen Tannenbaum, Montgomery County Public Schools (MD), May 1996

Principles of Instructed Second Language Acquisition
Rod Ellis, University of Auckland, New Zealand
2008 Ferguson Fellow, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2008

Professional Development for Teachers in Culturally Diverse Schools
Nancy Clair and Carolyn Temple Adger, Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University, October 1999

Professional Development of Foreign Language Teachers
Joy Kreeft Peyton, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 1997

Professional Development for Language Teachers
Gabriel H. Diaz-Maggioli, National Administration of Public Education, Uruguay, August 2003

Proficiency Plus: The Next Step
Claire Kramsch, University of California-Berkeley, December 1996

Programs That Prepare Teachers to Work Effectively With Students Learning English
Josué M. González and Linda Darling-Hammond, December 2000

Promoting a Language Proficient Society: What You Can Do
Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, April 2000

Promoting Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement Through Cooperation
Margarita Espino Calderón, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk, The Johns Hopkins University, December 1999

Promoting Secondary School Transitions for Immigrant Adolescents
Tamara Lucas, Montclair State University, NJ, December 1996

Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students
October 1999

Qualities of Effective Programs for Immigrant Adolescents With Limited Schooling
Betty Mace-Matluck, Rosalind Alexander-Kasparik, and Robin M. Queen, July 1998

Raising Bilingual Children: Common Parental Concerns and Current Research
Kendall King and Lyn Fogle, Georgetown University, 2006

Reading With a Purpose: Communicative Reading Tasks for the Foreign Language Classroom
Elizabeth K. Knutson, U.S. Naval Academy, December 1998

Reforming Mathematics Instruction for ESL Literacy Students
Keith Buchanan and Mary Helman, Fairfax County Public Schools, (VA), December 1997

Research Insights on Second Language Writing Instruction
Ilona Leki, University of Tennessee, December 2003

The Role of Metacognition in Second Language Teaching and Learning
Neil J. Anderson, Brigham Young University, April 2002

Scheduling Foreign Languages on the Block
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, October 1998

Second Language Learning in a Social Context
Rose Marie Beebe, Santa Clara University, and Kathy Leonard, Iowa State University, January 1994

Secondary Newcomer Programs: Helping Recent Immigrants Prepare for School Success
Deborah J. Short, Center for Applied Linguistics, March 1998

Second Language Acquisition and Technology: A Review of the Research
Jean W. LeLoup and Robert Ponterio, SUNY Cortland; Moderators, FLTeach, December 2003

Selecting Materials to Teach Spanish to Spanish Speakers
Paula Winke, Center for Applied Linguistics, and Cathy Stafford, Georgetown University, May 2002

Serving Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Strategies for the School Librarian
Melvina Azar Dame, Central Falls School System (RI) and Community College of Rhode Island, November 1995

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol: A Tool for Teacher-Researcher Collaboration and Professional Development
Deborah J. Short, Center for Applied Linguistics, and Jana Echevarria, California State University, Long Beach, December 1999

Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews: Recent Developments
Margaret Malone, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2000

Singable Books: Sing and Read Your Way to English Proficiency
Betty Ansin Smallwood, Center for Applied Linguistics, and Erin Flynn Haynes, University of California, Berkeley, September 2008

Spanish for Native Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency
Joy Kreeft Peyton, Vickie W. Lewelling, and Paula Winke, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, December 2001

Spanish-Language Ads and Public Service Announcements in the Foreign Language Classroom
David Ross Gerling, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas, January 1994

Strategies for Success: Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary Schools
Aída Walqui, West Ed, San Francisco, June 2000

Strategy Training for Second Language Learners
Andrew Cohen, Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota, August 2003

Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States
Richard D. Brecht and Catherine W. Ingold, National Foreign Language Center, Washington, DC, May 2002

Teaching About Dialects
Kirk Hazen, West Virginia University, October 2001

Teaching Educators About Language: Principles, Structures, and Challenges
Nancy Clair, Center for Applied Linguistics, November 2000

Teaching English Abroad: An Introduction
Don Snow, Amity Foundation, Overseas Coordination Office, May 1997

Teaching Foreign Languages to At-Risk Learners
Elke Schneider, Miami University of Ohio, December 1996

Teaching Foreign Languages to Children Through Video
Nancy Rhodes and Ingrid Puhfahl, Center for Applied Linguistics, December 2003

Textbook Selection for the ESL Classroom
Dawn Garinger, Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, December 2002

Ten Common Fallacies About Bilingual Education
James Crawford, Washington, DC, November 1998

Thematic, Communicative Language Teaching in the K–8 Classroom
Mari Haas, Teachers College, Columbia University, September 2000

Thematic Literature and Curriculum for English Language Learners in Early Childhood Education
Betty Ansin Smallwood, Center for Applied Linguistics, November 2002

Think-Aloud Protocols:Teaching Reading Processes to Young Bilingual Students
Magaly Lavadenz, Loyola Marymount University, December 2003

Translating and Interpreting Programs: A Scottish Example
Margaret Lang, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 1992

Two or More Languages in Early Childhood
Annick De Houwer, University of Antwerp and Science Foundation of Flanders, Belgium, July 1999

Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Local Perspective
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, December 1994

Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics
Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman, Center for Applied Linguistics, March 2001

Using Call-and-Response to Facilitate Language Mastery and Literacy Acquisition Among African American Students
Michèle Foster, July 2002

Using Cognitive Strategies to Develop English Language and Literacy
JoAnn Crandall, University of Maryland Baltimore County; Ann Jaramillo and Laurie Olsen, California Tomorrow; and Joy Kreeft Peyton, Center for Applied Linguistics, October 2002

Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools
Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics, May 1997

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom
Spencer Kagan, Kagan Cooperative Learning, May 1995

What Early Childhood Teachers Need to Know About Language
November 2000

What Elementary Teachers Need to Know About Language
November 2000

What Is Linguistics?
Center for Applied Linguistics, December 1992

What Parents Want to Know About Foreign Language Immersion Programs
Tara W. Fortune, Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota, and Diane J. Tedick, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Minnesota, August 2003

Will the National Education Goals Improve the Progress of English Language Learners?
Charlene Rivera and Mark LaCelle-Peterson, Evaluation Assistance Center, The George Washington University, October 1993

What We Can Learn From Foreign Language Teaching in Other Countries
Ingrid Pufahl, Nancy C. Rhodes, and Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics, September 2001

Working With Young English Language Learners: Some Considerations
Bronwyn Coltrane, Center for Applied Linguistics, May 2003