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Spotlight on Spanish Activities
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Dual Language Education

CAL has produced several resources about dual language education, a group of educational models— including two-way immersion, heritage language, foreign language immersion, and developmental bilingual programs—that foster the development of both the native language and a second language. In the United States, English is always one of the languages of instruction; Spanish is most frequently the other language.

Realizing the VisionRealizing the Vision of Two-Way Immersion: Fostering Effective Programs and Classrooms, by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman, examines the role of program and classroom cultures in the development of bilingualism and biliteracy in two-way immersion students. Effective programs foster cultures of intellectualism, equity, and leadership. Drawing on a decade of research, the authors provide evidence of how these three cultures function as organizing principles for program and classroom practices adopted by four exemplary two-way immersion programs. This book is available at the CAL Store, either alone or as part of the Two-Way Immersion (TWI) Package.


Guiding Principles Book CoverGuiding Principles for Dual Language Education, by Elizabeth R. Howard, Julie Sugarman, Donna Christian, Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, and David Rogers, was developed by a national panel of experts as a tool to help dual language programs with planning and ongoing implementation. Grounded in evidence from research and best practices, the 2007 report addresses program issues in seven strands: Assessment and Accountability, Curriculum, Instruction, Staff Quality and Professional Development, Program Structure, Family and Community, and Support and Resources. The 128-page second edition includes Kathryn Lindholm-Leary's literature review, Effective Features of Dual Language Education Programs: A Review of Research and Best Practice, and is now available in print from the CAL Store, as part of the Two-Way Immersion (TWI) Package, and as a free downloadable PDF Adobe PDF icon.

Related resources include a two-page summary of the strands and principles Microsoft Word Doc and an editable version of the Action Plan Microsoft Word Document to use as a worksheet.

Two-Way Immersion 101Two-Way Immersion 101: Designing and Implementing a Two-Way Immersion Education Program at the Elementary Level, by Elizabeth R. Howard and Donna Christian, is based on more than 15 years of research on two-way immersion (TWI) programs. It provides an overview of key issues in implementing a successful TWI program at the elementary level and describes essential features of TWI programs as well as variable features for which practitioners must make deliberate programmatic decisions. This report incorporates advice from practitioners working in existing programs. Read it online or order a print copy from the CAL Store.

A Spanish version of the report, La Educación Bilingüe de Inmersión Recíproca: el diseño y la implementación de un programa a nivel de primaria, is also available online.


Implementing Two-WayImplementing Two-Way Immersion Programs in Secondary Schools, by Christopher L. Montone and Michael I. Loeb, offers practical advice for two-way immersion programs considering expansion into middle school and high school. It includes an overview of likely challenges, options for meeting those challenges based on the experiences of established secondary school programs, and portraits of seven articulated programs. Program planning, language distribution and allocation, student participation and motivation, attrition and late entries, curriculum and materials, scheduling, staffing, transportation, and parental involvement are discussed in detail. Order online at the CAL Store.

Impact of Two-WayImpact of Two-Way Bilingual Elementary Programs on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College, by Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato, examines the influence that participation in a two-way bilingual elementary program has had on high school students' attitudes toward school, college, and use of Spanish. English-Spanish bilingual students from the program—including Hispanic native-Spanish-speaking bilinguals, Hispanic native-English-speaking bilinguals, and Euro-American native-English-speaking bilinguals–were surveyed about their attitudes and proficiency in Spanish. Results show that most students had positive attitudes toward school and college, the two-way program, and bilingualism. Read the report online or order a print copy from the CAL Store.

Development of BilingualismDevelopment of Bilingualism and Biliteracy From Grade 3 to 5: A Summary of Findings From the CAL/CREDE Study of Two-Way Immersion Education, by Elizabeth R. Howard, Donna Christian, and Fred Genesee, describes the first two-way immersion study to look at the language and literacy development of both native Spanish speakers and native English speakers, over time, in a multidimensional way, and from a national perspective. The report presents the research design and analysis of data gathered in this CAL/CREDE study and offers a discussion of the study and its findings. Order this report online at the CAL Store.

Dual Language Program PlannerDual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs, by Elizabeth R. Howard, Natalie Olague, and David Rogers, offers a collection of tools, such as discussion prompts and graphic organizers, for use in planning or implementing a dual language program. Dual language program planning teams are encouraged to work through the guide together to assess levels of support and readiness in the community for a dual language program and to develop a solid plan for moving forward with program implementation. Order the guide online at the CAL Store.


Learning Together: Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs, produced by Jon Silver, is the result of a collaboration between CAL and other partners in the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. This 1996 video is designed for parents, educators, and administrators and presents a clear and concise overview of the rationale for two-way bilingual immersion, common features of two-way programs, and a discussion of criteria for successful implementation. Classroom scenes from two schools illustrate the discussion. Order online from the CAL Store.


Becoming Bilingual CoverBecoming Bilingual in the Amigos Two-Way Immersion Program, by Mary T. Cazabon, Elena Nicoladis, and Wallace E. Lambert, examines students' development in a two-way bilingual program, focusing on both their attitudes toward becoming bilingual/bicultural and their school achievement in both languages. Read the report online, order a print copy from the CAL Store, or browse other CREDE publications.

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Assessments related to Spanish.
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