African American English Bibliography
References on the assessment of speakers of AAE (often school-age children).
Coles-White, D. J. (2004). Negative concord in child African American English: Implications for specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(1), 212-222.
Exstrom, M. I. (1991). A study of the language skills of lower socioeconomic black preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 52(09), 4688. (AAT 9204566)
Gadsen, V., & Wagner, D. (Eds.). (1995). Literacy among African American youth: Issues in learning, teaching, and schooling. Creskill, NJ: Hampton.
Gilmore, P. (1987). Sulking, stepping, and tracking: The effects of attitude assessment on access to literacy. In D. Bloome (Ed.), Literacy and schooling (pp. 99-120). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Haskins, J., & Butts, M. D., Hugh F. (1973). The psychology of Black Language. New York: Hippocrene Books.
Hoover, M., & Taylor, O. (1987). Bias in reading tests for black language speakers: A sociolinguistic perspective. Negro Educational Review, 38(2), 81-98.
Horton-Ikard, R. (2002). Developmental and dialectal influences in early child language. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(07), 3268. (AAT 3060426)
Irvine, J. J. (Ed.). (1990). Black students and school failure: Policies, practices, and prescriptions. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Irvine, J. J. (Ed.). (2002). In search of wholeness: African American teachers and their culturally specific classroom practices. New York: Palgrave.
Johnson, V. E. (2005). Comprehension of third person singular /s/ in AAE-speaking children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36(2), 116-124.
Joiner, C. (1979). The Ann Arbor decision: Memorandum opinion and order and the educational plan. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Kamhi, A., Pollock, K., & Harris, J. (Eds.). (1996). Communication development and disorders in African American children: Research, assessment, and intervention. Baltimore: Brookes.
Labov, W. (1970). The logic of nonstandard English. In F. Williams (Ed.), Language and poverty: Perspectives on a theme (pp. 153-189). Chicago: Markham.
Labov, W., & Robbins, C. (1969). A note on the relation of reading failure to peer-group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record, 70(5), 355-406.
Mahiri, J. (1994). African American males and learning: What discourse in sports offers schooling. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 25(3), 364-375.
Moore, J. A. G. (1998). Black English speakers: An examination of language registers of high- and low-achieving black elementary school students. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University and San Diego State University, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(04), 1140. (AAT 9830213)
Ogbu, J. (1991). Cultural diversity and school experience. In C. Walsh (Ed.), Literacy as praxis: Culture, language, and pedagogy (pp. 25-50). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Pandey, A. (2000). TOEFL to the test: Are monodialectal AAL-speakers similar to ESL students? World Englishes, 19(1), 89-106.
Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. I. (2003). Young, gifted and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students. Boston: Beacon.
Politzer, R. L., Hoover, M., & Brown, D. (1974). A test of proficiency in black standard and nonstandard speech. TESOL Quarterly, 8(1), 27-35.
Rickford, A. E. (2002). The effects of teacher education on reading improvement. Journal of Reading Improvement, 38(4), 147-169.
Rickford, J. R. (1999). The Ebonics controversy in my backyard: A sociolinguist's experiences and reflections. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(2), 267-275.
Rickford, J. R. (2002). Linguistics, education, and the Ebonics firestorm. In J. E. Alatis, H. E. Hamilton & A.-H. Tan (Eds.), Round table on language and linguistics, 2000: Linguistics, language and the professions (pp. 25-45). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Seymour, H., Abdulkarim, L., & Johnson, V. (1999). The Ebonics controversy: An educational and clinical dilemma. Topics in Language Disorders, 19(4), 66-77.
Seymour, H., Bland, L., & Green, L. (1998). Difference versus deficit in child African American English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 97-109.
Seymour, H. N. (2004). The challenge of language assessment for African American English-speaking children: A historical perspective. Seminars in Speech and Language, 25(1), 3-12.
Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Smitherman, G. (1994). "The blacker the berry, the sweeter the juice": African American students writers in the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In A. H. Dyson & C. Genishi (Eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community (pp. 80-101). Urbana, IL: NCTE.
Smitherman, G. (1996). Educating African American males: The Detroit model. Chicago: Third World Press.
Smitherman, G. (1997). Black language and the education of black children -- One mo once. Black Scholar, 27(1), 28-35.
Smitherman, G., & Cunningham, S. (1997). Moving beyond resistance: Ebonics and African American youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 23(3), 227-232.
Snyder, P. A. T. (1995). Classroom interactions in features that contrast African-American language (AAL) and mainstream American English (MAE): A metalinguistic perspective of mediation strategies. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1995), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(08), 3191. (AAT 9541837)
Spencer, M. B., Noll, E., & Stolzfus, J. (2001). Identity and school adjustment: Revisiting the "acting white" assumption. Educational Psychologist, 36(1), 21-30.
Steele, C. (1992). Race and the schooling of black Americans. Atlantic Monthly, 68-78.
Stoller, P. (Ed.). (1975). Black American English: Its background and its usage in schools and in literature. New York City: Delta.
Thomas, G. (1983). The deficit, difference, and bicultural theories of black dialect and nonstandard English. Urban Review, 15(2), 107-118.
Torrey, J. (1970). Illiteracy in the ghetto. Harvard Educational Review, 40(2), 253-259.
Van Keulen, J., Weddington, G. T., & DeBose, C. (Eds.). (1998). Speech, language, learning, and the African American child. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Washington, J. A., & Craig, H. K. (1992). Articulation test performances of low-income, African-American pre-schoolers with communication impairments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 23(3), 203-207.
Wolfram, W. (1976). Levels of sociolinguistic bias in testing. In D. Harrison & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Black English: A seminar (pp. 263-287). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Wolfram, W. (1994). The phonology of a sociocultural variety: The case of African American Vernacular English. In J. E. Bernthal & N. Bankson (Eds.), Child phonology: Characteristics, assessment, and intervention with special population (pp. 227-244). New York: Thieme Medical Publishers.
Wolfram, W. (1998). The myth of the verbally deprived black child. In L. Bauer & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Language myths (pp. 103-112). New York: Penguin.
Wyatt, T. (1999). An Afro-centered view of communicative experience. In D. Kovarsky, J. Duchan & M. Maxwell (Eds.), Constructing (in)competence: Disabling evaluations in clinical and social interactions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Return to the AAE bibliography main page.
This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.