African American English Bibliography
References on dialect shifting and teaching Standard English.
Adger, C. T. (1997). Issues and implications of English dialects for teaching English as a second language. In TESOL Professional Papers no. 3. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Adger, C. T. (1998). Register shifting with dialect resources in instructional discourse. In S. Hoyle & C. T. Adger (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 151-169). New York: Oxford.
Anderson, E. (1990). Some ways to use the rhetorical skills of black American folk tradition to teach rhetoric and composition [Electronic Version]. ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED328919.
Baratz, J. (1969). A bidialectal task for determining language proficiency in economically disadvantaged Negro children. Child Development, 40(3), 889-901.
Baugh, J. (1979). Linguistic style-shifting in Black English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1979), Dissertation Abstracts International 40(06), 3269. (AAT 7928106)
Baugh, J. (1992). Hypocorrection: Mistakes in the production of African American Vernacular English as a second dialect. Language and Communication, 12(304), 317-326.
Baugh, J. (2004). Ebonics and its controversy. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the US: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baugh, J. (2004). Standard English and Academic English (dialect) learners in the African diaspora. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 197-209.
Burling, R. (1973). English in black and white. New York: Holt, Linehart & Winston.
Campbell, E. D. (1994). Empowering students through bidialectalism: Encouraging Standard English in a Black English environment [Electronic Version]. ERIC Document Reproducation Service no. ED386034.
Campbell, K. (1997). "Real Niggaz's don't die": African American students speaking themselves in their writing. In C. Severino, J. C. Guerra & J. E. Butler (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings. New York: Modern Language Association.
Crowell, S., & Kolba, E. (1974). Contrastive analysis in the junior high school. In B. Cullinan (Ed.), Black dialects and reading (pp. 69-98). Urbana, IL: NCTE.
Crowell, S., Kolba, E., Stewart, W., & Johnson, K. (1974). Talkacross: Bridging two dialects. Chicago: Instructional Dynamics.
Dandy, E. (1991). Black communication: Breaking down the barriers. Chicago: African-American Images.
DeBose, C. (1992). Codeswitching: Black English and Standard English in the African American linguistic repertoire. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development, 13(1-2), 157-167.
Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review, 58(3), 280-298.
Dillard, J. L. (1978). Bidialectal education: Black English and Standard English in the United States. In B. Spolsky & R. Cooper (Eds.), Case studies in bilingual education (pp. 293-311). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Elifson, J. M. (1976). Effecting bidialectal shift in speakers of nonstandard English through a sequenced curriculum. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1976), Dissertation Abstracts International 37(08), 5091. (AAT 7701542)
Etter-Lewis, G. (1985). Sociolinguistic patterns of code-switching in the language of preschool black children. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985), Dissertation Abstracts International 46(07), 1920. (AAT 8520894)
Flowers, D. A. (2000). Codeswitching and Ebonics in urban adult basic education classrooms. Education and Urban Society, 32(2), 221-236.
Fogel, H., & Ehri, L. C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: Effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 212-223.
Gilyard, K. (Ed.). (1991). Let's flip the script: An African American discourse on language, literature, and learning. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Harris, J., Kamhi, A., & Pollock, K. (Eds.). (2001). Literacy in African American communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Holmes, D. G. (1999). Fighting back by writing black: Beyond racially reductive composition theory. In K. Gilyard (Ed.), Race, rhetoric and composition (pp. 53-66). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Holton, S. W. (1989). The 1-2-3 method: A writing process for bidialectal students. Edina, MN: Bellweather Press.
Holton, S. W. (1991). Using the ethnography of African-American communications in teaching composition to bidialectal students. In M. McGroarty & C. Faltis (Eds.), Languages in schools and society: Policy and pedagogy (pp. 465-485). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Hoover , M., Lewis, S., Politzer, R., Ford, J., McNair-Knox, F., Hicks, S., & Williams, D. (1996). Tests of African American English for teachers of bidialectal students. In R. Jones (Ed.), Handbook of tests and measurements for black populations (pp. 367-381). Hampton, VA: Cobb and Henry.
Hoover , M. R. (1991). Using the ethnography of African-American communities in teaching composition to bidialectal students. In M. E. McGroarty & C. J. Faltis (Eds.), Language in schools and society: Policy and pedagogy (pp. 465-485). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Hopson, R. (2003). The problem of the language line: Cultural and social reproduction of hegemonic linguistic structures for learners of African descent in the USA. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(3), 227-245.
Koch, L., Gross, A., & Kolts, R. (2001). Attitudes towards Black English and codeswitching. Journal of Black Psychology, 27(1), 29-42.
Laffey, J., & Shuy, R. (Eds.). (1973). Language differences: Do they interfere? Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Lewnau, L. E. B. (1973). Bidialectal skills of black children. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1973), Dissertation Abstracts International 34(05), 2171. (AAT 7325161)
Linnes, K. (1998). Middle-class AAVE versus middle-class bilingualism: Contrasting speech communities. American Speech, 73(4), 339-368.
Linnes, K. L. (1993). Contrasting patterns in the code-mixing of African American bilectals and German-English bilinguals in Texas. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1993), Dissertation Abstracts International 54(08), 3013. (AAT 9400937)
Love, T. A. (1991). A guide for teaching Standard English to black dialect speakers: ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED340248.
Mantell, A. (1972). An assessment of two curriculum strategies for increasing bidialectal proficiency of speakers of non-standard dialect in the fifth grade in the New York Metropolitan area. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1972), Dissertation Abstracts International 33(04), 1419. (AAT 7226605)
Mays, L. F. (1977). Black children's perception of the use of their dialect. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, Inc.
McWhorter, J. H. (1997). Wasting energy on an illusion: Six months later. Black Scholar, 27, 2-5.
Morgan, M. (1993). The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguists. In M. Morgan (Ed.), Language and the social construction of identity in creole situations (pp. 121-150). Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies Publications, UCLA.
Morgan, M. (Ed.). (2002). Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moses, R., Daniels, H., & Gundlach, R. (1976). Teacher language attitudes and bidialectalism. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 8, 77-92.
Murray, D. (1997). TESOL speaks on Ebonics. TESOL Matters, 7(3), 1-22.
Ojo, A. A. (2001). Language beliefs, attitudes, opinions and choices: The case of self-identified bi-dialectal African-American undergraduates. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(09). (AAT 3025362)
Palacas, A. (2001). Liberating American Ebonics from Euro-English. College English, 63(3), 326-352.
Pandey, A. (2000). TOEFL to the test: Are monodialectal AAL-speakers similar to ESL students? World Englishes, 19(1), 89-106.
Perez, S. A. (2000). Using Ebonics or Black English as a bridge to teaching Standard English. Contemporary Education 71(4), 34-37.
Politzer, R. L., & Hoover, M. (1974). On the use of attitude variables in research in the teaching of a second dialect. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 12(1), 43-51.
Price, M. R. (1993). Case studies of the acquisition of standard American English by speakers of Black English vernacular. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993), Dissertation Abstracts International 54(11), 4015. (AAT 9412040)
Rickford, J. R. (1999). African American Vernacular English; Features, evolution, educational implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Rickford, J. R. (2002). Linguistics, education, and the Ebonics firestorm. In J. E. Alatis, H. E. Hamilton & A.-H. Tan (Eds.), Round table on language and linguistics, 2000: Linguistics, language and the professions (pp. 25-45). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, A. E. (1995). Dialect readers revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.
Secret, C. (1997). Embracing Ebonics and teaching Standard English. Rethinking Schools: An Urban Educational Journal, 12(1), 18-34.
Seymour, H., & Seymour, C. M. (1979). The symbolism of Black English: I'd rather switch than fight. Journal of Black Studies, 9(4), 397-410.
Shannon-Morla, C. E. (1992). Effect of emotion of African-American Black English and Standard English code-shifting bilinguals. (Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology - San Diego, 1992), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(04), 2075. (AAT 9225283)
Simmons, E. (1991). Ain't we never gonna learn no grammar? The English Journal, 80(8), 48-51.
Sledd, J. (1969). Bi-dialectalism: The linguistics of white supremacy. The English Journal, 58(9), 1307-1315.
Smith, B. (1979). It ain't what you say, it's the way you say it: Exercises for teaching mainstream American English to Ebonics-speaking children. Journal of Black Studies, 9(4), 489-493.
Smith, E. (1995). Bilingualism and the African American child. In M. A. Ice & M. A. Saunders-Lucas (Eds.), Reading: The blending of theory and practice (Vol. 3). Bakersfield: California State University.
Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Stanback, M. H. (1983). Code-switching in black women's speech. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1983), Dissertation Abstracts International 44(10), 2927. (AAT 8401105)
Stoller, P. (Ed.). (1975). Black American English: Its background and its usage in schools and in literature. New York City: Delta.
Taylor, H. U. (1986). Bidialectalism in a small liberal arts college (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1986), Dissertation Abstracts International 47(06), 2147. (AAT 8620977)
Taylor, H. U. (1989). Standard English, Black English, and bidialectalism. New York: Peter Lang.
Thomas, G. (1983). The deficit, difference, and bicultural theories of black dialect and nonstandard English. Urban Review, 15(2), 107-118.
Troike, R. (1974). Receptive bidialectalism: Implications for second-dialect teaching. In R. D. Abrahams & R. Troike (Eds.), Language and cultural diversity in American Education (pp. 305-310). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Van Keulen, J., Weddington, G. T., & DeBose, C. (Eds.). (1998). Speech, language, learning, and the African American child. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Wheeler, R. (2004). Codeswitching: Tools of language and culture transform the dialectally diverse classroom. Language Arts, 81(6), 470-480.
Williams, R. L. (Ed.). (1975). Ebonics: The true language of black folks. St. Louis, MO: Robert L. Williams and Associates.
Young, V. A. (2004). Your average Nigga. College Composition and Communication, 55(4), 693-715.
Return to the AAE bibliography main page.
This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.