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African American English Bibliography


AAE at the level of discourse; ways of communicating, narrative styles, and cultural practices.

Abrahams, R. D. (1962). Playing the dozens. Journal of American Folklore, 75, 209-218.

Abrahams, R. D. (1964). Deep down in the jungle...: Negro narrative folklore from the streets of Philadelphia. Hatboro, PA: Folklore Associates.

Abrahams, R. D. (1970). Rapping and capping: Black talk as art. In J. F. Szwed (Ed.), Black American (pp. 132-142). New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Abrahams, R. D. (1972). Joking: The training of the man of words in talking broad. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 215-240). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Abrahams, R. D. (1974). Black talking on the streets. In R. Bauman & J. Sherzer (Eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking (pp. 240-262). London: Cambridge University Press.

Abrahams, R. D. (1975). Negotiating respect: Patterns of presentation among black women. In C. R. Farrer (Ed.), Women and folklore (pp. 58-80). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Abrahams, R. D. (1976). Talking black. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Abrahams, R. D. (1993). Black talking on the streets. In L. M. Cleary & M. D. Linn (Eds.), Linguistics for teachers (pp. 173-198). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Adger, C. T. (1998). Register shifting with dialect resources in instructional discourse. In S. Hoyle & C. T. Adger (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 151-169). New York: Oxford.

Alim, H. S. (2002). Street-conscious copula variation in the hip hop nation. American Speech, 77(3), 288-304.

Alim, H. S. (2003). On some serious next millenium rap ishhh: Pharoake Monch, hip hop poetics, and the internal rhymes of Internal Affairs. Journal of English Linguistics, 31(1), 60-84.

Alim, H. S. (2004). Hip Hop Nation Language. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 387-409). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alim, H. S. (2005). You know my Steez: An ethnographic and sociolinguistic study of styleshifting in a Black American speech community. Publications of the American Dialect Society 89. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.

Alim, H. S. (2006). Roc the mic right: The language of hip hop culture. New York: Routledge.

Alim, H. S., & Baugh, J. (Eds.). (2007). Talkin black talk: Language, education, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Anderson, E. (1990). Some ways to use the rhetorical skills of black American folk tradition to teach rhetoric and composition [Electronic Version]. ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED328919.

Bailey, B. (1997). Communication of respect in interethnic service encounters. Language in Society, 26(3), 327-356.

Ball, A. (1992). Cultural preference and the expository writing of African American adolescents. Written Communication, 9(4), 501-532.

Ball, A. (1995). Text design patterns in the writing of urban African American students: Teaching to the strengths of students in multicultural settings. Urban Education, 30(3), 253-289.

Ball, A. F., & Lardner, T. (2005). African American literacies unleashed: Vernacular English and the composition classroom. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Bohn, A. P. (2003). Familar voices: Using Ebonics communication techniques in the primary classroom. Urban Education, 38(6), 688-707.

Boone, P. (1999). Call and reponse communication in the historically black college and university (HCBU) classroom. (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1999), Dissertation Abstracts International 60(08), 2735. (AAT 9944425)

Boone, P. (2003). When the "Amen Corner" comes to class: An examination of the pedagogical and cultural impact of call-response communication in the black college classroom. Communication Education, 52(3-4), 212-229.

Borders-Simmons, D. G. (1985). Contextual variability and communicative competence: Reference and cohesion strategies in narrative discourse by black working-class children. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 1985), Dissertation Abstracts International 47(03), 885. (AAT 8611664)

Bridgeforth, C. D. (1988). The identification and use of language functions in the speech of 3- and 4 1/2-year-old black children from working class families. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, 1988), Dissertation Abstracts International 50(04), 935. (AAT 8913258)

Brooks, W. (2001). Reading, literature, and culture: A case study of middle school students' responses to African American fiction for children. (Doctoral dissertation, 2001), University of Pennsylvania 62(05), 1776. (AAT 30114301)

Brown, D. W. (2006). Girls and guys, ghetto and bougie: Metapragmatics, ideology, and the management of social identities. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10(5), 596-610.

Bryan, A. (1989). Cohesion analysis of the speaking and writing of four black college students. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1989), Dissertation Abstracts International 51(08), 2616. (AAT 9016432)

Bucholtz, M. (1995). From mulatta to mestiza: Passing and the linguistic reshaping of ethnic identity. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp. 351-373). New York: Routledge.

Bucholtz, M. (1997). Borrowed blackness: African-American Vernacular English and European-American youth identities. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1997), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(03), 802. (AAT 9828619)

Bucholtz, M. (1999). You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 443-460.

Buford May, R. A. (2001). Talking at Trena's: Everyday conversations at an African American tavern. New York: New York University Press.

Butters, R. R. (2000). "What is about to take place is a murder": Construing the racist subtext in a small-town Virginia courtroom. In J. K. Peyton, P. Griffin, W. Wolfram & R. W. Fasold (Eds.), Language in action: New studies of language in society (pp. 362-388). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Camitta, M. (1993). Vernacular writing: Varieties of literacy among Philadelphia high school students. In B. Street (Ed.), Cross-cultural approaches to literacy (pp. 228-246). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, K. (1993). The rhetoric of Black English Vernacular: A study of the oral and written discourse practices of African American male college students. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993), Dissertation Abstracts International 54(08), 3010. (AAT 9401224)

Campbell, L. R. (1994). Discourse diversity and Black English Vernacular. In D. N. Ripich & N. A. Creaghead (Eds.), School discourse problems (pp. 93-131). San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Champion, T. (1998). Tell me something good: A description of narrative structures among African American children. Linguistics and Education, 9(3), 251-286.

Champion, T. (2003). Understanding the narrative structures used among African American children: A journey from Africa to America. Mawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2006). Malik goes to school: Examining the language skills of African American students from preschool to 5th grade. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cukor-Avila, P. (2002). She say, she go, she be like: Verbs of quotation over time in African American Vernacular English. American Speech, 77(1), 3-31.

Cutler, C. A. (2002). Crossing over: White youth, hip-hop and African American English. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(08). (AAT 3062805)

Cutler, C. A. (2003). "Keepin' it real": White hip-hoppers' discourse of language, race, and ethnicity. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 13(2), 211-233.

Dance, D. C. (1978). Shuckin' and jivin': Folklore from contemporary black Americans. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Dandy, E. (1991). Black communication: Breaking down the barriers. Chicago: African-American Images.

Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review, 58(3), 280-298.

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: Norton.

Dillard, J. L. (1970). Lexicon of Black English. New York: Seabury Press.

Dundes, A. (1981). Mother wit from the laughing barrel: Readings in the interpretation of Afro-American folklore. New York: Garland.

Emihovich, C. (1998). Bodytalk: Discourse of sexuality among adolescent African American girls. In C. T. Adger & S. Hoyle (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 113-133). New York: Oxford University Press.

Erickson, F. (1984). Rhetoric, anecdote, and rhapsody: Coherence strategies in a conversation among black American adolescents. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Coherence in spoken and written discourse (Vol. XII). Norwood, NJ: ABLEX Publishing Corporation.

Fecho, B. (2004). Is this English? Race, language, and culture in the classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fine, M., & Anderson, C. (1980). Dialectal features of black characters in situation comedies on television. Phylon, 41(4), 396-409.

Fisher, M. (2003). Open mics and open minds: Spoken word poetry in African Diaspora Participatory Literacy Communities. Harvard Educational Review, 73(3), 362-389.

Folb, E. (1980). Runnin down some lines: The language and culture of black teenagers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fordham, S. (1993). "Those loud black girls": (Black) women, silence, and gender "passing" in the academy. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 24(1), 3-32.

Fordham, S. (1996). Blacked out: Dilemmas of race, identity, and success at Capital High. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fordham, S. (1998). Speaking standard English from nine to three: Language as guerrilla warfare at Capital High. In S. Hoyle & C. T. Adger (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 205-216). New York: Oxford.

Fordham, S. (1999). Dissin' "the standard": Ebonics and guerilla warfare at Capital High. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 30(3), 272-293.

Foster, H. (1986). Ribbin', jivin', and playin' the dozens: The persistent dilemma in our schools. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Foster, M. (1989). "It's cookin' now": A performance analysis of the speech events of a black teacher in an urban community college. Language in Society, 18(1), 1-29.

Foster, M. (1992). Sociolinguistics and the African-American community: Implications for literacy. Theory into Practice, 31, 301-311.

Foster, M. (1995). Talking that talk: The language of control, curriculum, and critique. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.

Gadsen, V., & Wagner, D. (Eds.). (1995). Literacy among African American youth: Issues in learning, teaching, and schooling. Creskill, NJ: Hampton.

Gee, J. (1989). Two styles of narrative construction and their linguistic and educational implications. Journal of Education, 171(1), 97-115.

Gilyard, K. (Ed.). (1991). Let's flip the script: An African American discourse on language, literature, and learning. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Goodwin, M. H. (1992). Orchestrating participation in events: Powerful talk among African American girls. In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz & B. Moonwomon (Eds.), Locating power: Proceedings of the 1992 Berkeley Women and Language Group (pp. 182-196). Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group, University of California, Linguistics Department.

Goodwin, M. H. (1998). Games of stance: Conflict and footing in hopscotch. In C. T. Adger & S. Hoyle (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 23-46). New York: Oxford University Press.

Grant, G. W. (1973). The effect of text materials with relevant language, illustrations and content upon the reading achievement and reading preference (attitude) of black primary and intermediate inner-city students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1973), Dissertation Abstracts International 34(07), 3832. (AAT 7321156)

Gundaker, G. (1998). Signs of diaspora, diaspora of signs: Literacies, creolization, and vernacular practice in African America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gwaltney, J. L. (1993). Drylongso: A self-portrait of Black America. New York: The New Press.

Hall, D. T., & Damico, J. (2007). Black youth employ African American Vernacular English in creating digital texts. Journal of Negro Education, 76(1), 80-89.

Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Henderson, A. (1996). Compliments, compliment responses, and politeness in an African-American community. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter & J. Solomon (Eds.), Sociolinguistic variation: Data, theory, and analysis (Selected papers from NWAV 32 at Stanford) (pp. 195-208). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Hester, E. J. (1997). An investigation of the relationship between narrative style, dialect and reading achievement in African-American children. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Marlyand College Park, 1997), Dissertation Abstracts International 58(06), 2138. (AAT 9736568)

Hewitt, R. (1986). White talk, black talk: Inter-racial friendship and communication amongst adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holt, G. S. (1972). Stylin' outta the black pulpit. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 189-204). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Holtgraves, T., & Dulin, J. (1994). The Muhammad Ali effect: Differences between African Americans and European Americans in their perceptions of a truthful bragger. Language & Communication, 14(3), 275-285.

Holton, S. W. (1991). Using the ethnography of African-American communications in teaching composition to bidialectal students. In M. McGroarty & C. Faltis (Eds.), Languages in schools and society: Policy and pedagogy (pp. 465-485). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Houston , M., & Davis, O. I. (Eds.). (2002). Centering ourselves: African American feminist and womanist studies of discourse. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.

Howard, G. (1999). We can't teach what we don't know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hudson, B. H. (2001). African American female speech communities: Varieties of talk. Portsmouth, NH: Greenwood.

Hyon, S., & Sulzby, E. (1994). African American kindergartners' spoken narratives: Topic associating and topic-centered styles. Linguistics and Education, 6(2), 121-152.

Hyter, Y. D. (1994). A cross-channel description of reference in the narratives of African-American Vernacular English speakers. (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1994), Dissertation Abstracts International 55(12), 5309. (AAT 9512832)

Irvine , J. J. (Ed.). (1990). Black students and school failure: Policies, practices, and prescriptions. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Irvine , J. J. (Ed.). (2002). In search of wholeness: African American teachers and their culturally specific classroom practices. New York: Palgrave.

Irvine , J. J. (2003). Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. New York: Teachers College Press.

Jacobs-Huey, L. (2006). From the kitchen to the parlor: Language and becoming in African American women's hair care. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kochman, T. (1970). Toward an ethnography of black American speech behavior. In J. Whitten, Norman E. & J. F. Szwed (Eds.), Afro-American anthropology: Contemporary perspectives (pp. 145-162). New York: The Free Press.

Kochman, T. (1974). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kochman, T. (1983). The boundary between play and nonplay in black verbal dueling. Language in Society, 12(3), 329-337.

Kochman, T. (1986). Strategic ambiguity in black speech genres: Cross-cultural interference in participant-observation research. Text, 6(2), 153-170.

Kochman, T. (1989). Black and white cultural styles in pluralistic perspective. In B. R. Gifford (Ed.), Test policy and test performance: Education, language, and culture (pp. 259-296). Boston: Kluwer.

Labov, T. (1982). Social structure and peer terminology in a black adolescent gang. Language in Society, 11(3), 391-411.

Labov, W. (1970). The study of nonstandard English. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city; Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1972). Rules for ritual insults. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 265-314). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Labov, W., & Robbins, C. (1969). A note on the relation of reading failure to peer-group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record, 70(5), 355-406.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lanehart, S. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Lanehart, S. (2002). Sista, speak! Black women kinfolk talk about language and literacy. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Lee, C. D. (1993). Signifying as a scaffold for literary interpretation: The pedagogical implications of an African American discourse genre. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Lee, C. D. (1995). Signifying as a scaffold for literary interpretation. Journal of Black Psychology, 21(4), 357-381.

Lee, C. D. (1997). Bridging home and school literacies: A model of culturally responsive teaching. In J. Flood, S. B. Heath & D. Lapp (Eds.), Research on teaching the communicative and visual arts (pp. 330-341). New York: Macmillan.

Loman, B. (1967). Conversations in a Negro American Dialect. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Mahiri, J. (1994). African American males and learning: What discourse in sports offers schooling. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 25(3), 364-375.

Mainess, K., Champion, T., & McCabe, A. (2002). Telling the unknown story: Complex and explicit narration by African American preadolescents -- Preliminary examination of gender and socioeconomic issues. Linguistics and Education, 13(2), 151-173.

Makoni, S., Smitherman, G., Ball, A., & Spears, A. (Eds.). (2003). Black linguistics: Language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas. New York: Routledge.

Martin, J. N., Hecht, M. L., & Larkey, L. K. (1994). Conversational improvement strategies for interethnic communication: African American and European American perspectives. Communication Monographs, 61, 236-255.

Michaels, S. (1981). "Sharing time": Children's narrative styles and differential access to literacy. Language in Society, 10, 423-442.

Michaels, S., & Collins, J. (1984). Oral discourse styles: Classroom interaction and the acquisition of literacy. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Coherence in spoken and written discourse (pp. 219-244). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Middleton, L. D. (1992). An examination of language functions among selected African-American English speakers in the home setting: An ethnographic approach. (Doctoral dissertation, Howard University, 1992), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(09), 3131. (AAT 9239179)

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1971). Language behavior in a black urban community (Vol. 2). Berkeley: Monographs of the Language-Behavior Research Laboratory.

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1972). Signifying and marking: Two Afro-American speech acts. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics (pp. 161-179). New York: Blackwell.

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1972). Signifying, loud-talking, and marking. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 315-335). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Morgan, M. (1989). From down South to up South: The language behavior of three generations of Black women residing in Chicago. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1989), Dissertation Abstracts International 51(01), 154. (AAT 9015140)

Morgan, M. (1991). Indirectness and interpretation in African American women's discourse. Pragmatics, 1(4), 421-452.

Morgan, M. (1994). Theories and politics in African American English. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 325-345.

Morgan, M. (1996). Conversational signifying: Grammar and indirectness among African American women. In E. Ochs, E. E. Schlegoff & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), Interaction and Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, M. (1999). No woman no cry: Claiming African American women's place. In M. Bucholtz, A. C. Liang & L. A. Sutton (Eds.), Reinventing identities: The gendered self in discourse (pp. 27-45). New York: Oxford University Press.

Morgan, M. (Ed.). (2002). Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mufwene, S. S., Rickford, J. R., Bailey, G., & Baugh, J. (Eds.). (1998). African American English: Structure, history and use. London: Routledge.

Murray, S. O. (1983). Ritual and personal insults in stigmatized subcultures: gay < black < Jew. Maledicta, 7, 189-211.

Nelson, L. W. (1992). Cultural context and cultural code in the oral life narratives of African-American women: An ethnography of speaking. (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 1992), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(02), 544. (AAT 9219952)

Nichols, P. C. (1983). Linguistic options and choices for black women in the rural south. In B. Thorne, C. Kramarae & N. Henley (Eds.), Language, gender and society (pp. 54-68). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Nichols, P. C. (1989). Storytelling in Carolina: Continuities and contrasts. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 20(3), 232-245.

Ogbu, J. (1999). Beyond language: Ebonics, proper English, and identity in a Black-American speech community. American Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 147-184.

Orbe, M. P. (1994). "Remember, it's always white's ball": Descriptions of African American male communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(3), 287-300.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (Eds.). (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African American children. Boston: Beacon Press.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African children. Rethinking Schools: An Urban Educational Journal, 12(1), 1-36.

Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. I. (2003). Young, gifted and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students. Boston: Beacon.

Phillips, R. S. C. (1994). Infant-directed speech in African-American mothers. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994), Dissertation Abstracts International 55(12), 5574. (AAT 9512514)

Rahman, J. (2004). It's a serious business: The linguistic construction of middle-class white characters by African American narrative comedians. (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 2004), Dissertation Abstracts International 65(09). (AAT 3145601)

Rahman, J. (2007). An ay for an ah: Language of survival in African American narrative comedy. American Speech, 82(1), 65-96.

Rickford, A. E. (1999). I can fly: Teaching reading comprehension to African American and other ethnic minority students. Landham, MD: University Press of American.

Rickford, A. E. (2002). The effect of cultural congruence and high order questioning on the reading enjoyment and comprehension of ethnic minority students. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6(4), 357-388.

Rickford, J. R., & McNair-Knox, F. (1994). Addressee- and topic-influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study. In D. Biber & E. Finegan (Eds.), Sociolinguistics perspectives on register (pp. 235-275). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rickford, J. R., & Rafal, C. T. (1996). Preterit had + V-ed in the narratives of African-American preadolescents. American Speech, 71(3), 227-254.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, A. E. (1995). Dialect readers revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, R. J. (2000). Spoken soul: The story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rivers, A. N. (2001). The influence of elicitation procedures on the structure and content of African American English-speaking children's personal narratives and fictional stories and relationships between narratives and reading comprehension and expressive language. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(11), 3757. (AAT 3033555)

Robins, K. N., & Adenika, T. J. (1987). Informal conversation topics among urban Afro-American women. In J. Penfield (Ed.), Women and language in transition (pp. 180-196). New York: State University of New York Press.

Ross, S. H., Oetting, J. B., & Stapleton, B. (2004). Preterite had + ed: A developmental narrative structure of African American English. American Speech, 79(2), 167-193.

Scott, J. L. C. (1998). The serious side of Ebonics humor. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 137-155.

Smith, W. (1979). Toward a philosophy of education for the culturally and linguistically distinct. In V. L. Milton Van Brunt (Ed.), Black students, multicultural settings (pp. 32-37). San Diego, CA: Institute for Cultural Pluralism.

Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (1992). Black English, diverging or converging? The view from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Language and Education, 6(1), 47-61.

Smitherman, G. (1994). "The blacker the berry, the sweeter the juice": African American students writers in the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In A. H. Dyson & C. Genishi (Eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community (pp. 80-101). Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Smitherman, G. (2006). Word from the mother: Language and African Americans. New York: Routledge.

Smitherman, G., & Cunningham, S. (1997). Moving beyond resistance: Ebonics and African American youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 23(3), 227-232.

Tarone, E. E. (1973). Aspects of intonation in Black English. American Speech, 48(1/2), 29-36.

Taylor , M., & Ortony, A. (1980). Rhetorical devices in Black English: Some psycholinguistic and educational observations. Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 2(2), 21-26.

Taylor, O., & Matsuda, M. M. (1988). Storytelling and classroom discrimination. In G. Smitherman & T. A. van Dijk (Eds.), Discourse and discrimination (pp. 206-220). Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Tomlin, C. (1999). Black language in sacred and secular contexts. Brooklyn, NY: Caribben Diaspora Press, Medgar Evers College (CUNY).

Troutman, D. (1997). Whose voice is it anyway? Marked features in the writing of black English speakers. In C. Severino, J. C. Guerra & J. E. Butler (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings (pp. 27-39). New York: Modern Language Association.

Troutman, D. (1998). The power of dialect: Ebonics personified. In C. Weaver (Ed.), Lessons to share on teaching grammar in context (pp. 209-227). Portsmouth, UK: Boynton/Cook.

Troutman-Robinson, D. E. (1987). Oral and written discourse: A study of feature transfer (Black English). (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1987), Dissertation Abstracts International 48(03), 641. (AAT 8714373)

Vernon-Feagans, L. (1996). Children's talk in communities and classrooms. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Visor, J. N. (1987). The impact of American Black English oral tradition features on decontextualization skills in college writing. (Doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University, 1987), Dissertation Abstracts International 49(03), 452. (AAT 8806870)

Wharry, C. (2003). Amen and hallelujah preaching: Discourse functions in African American sermons. Language in Society, 32(2), 203-226.

Wharton-Boyd, L. F. (1983). The significance of black American children's singing games in an educational setting. Journal of Negro Education, 52(1), 46-56.

Williams, R. L. (Ed.). (1975). Ebonics: The true language of black folks. St. Louis, MO: Robert L. Williams and Associates.

Zephir, F. (1999). Challenges for multicultural education: Sociolinguistic parallels between African American English and Haitian Creole. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development, 20(2), 134-154.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.