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Dialects

African American English Bibliography

Divergence

Is African American English diverging from other American English varieties?

Anderson, B. L. (2002). Dialect leveling and /ai/ monophthongization among African American Detroiters. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6(1), 86-98.

Anderson, B. L. (2003). An acoustic study of Southeastern Michigan Appalachian and African-American southern migrant vowel systems. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 2003), Dissertation Abstracts International 64(09). (AAT 3106006)

Bailey, G., & Maynor, N. (1987). Decreolization? Language in Society, 16(4), 449-473.

Bailey, G., & Maynor, N. (1989). The divergence controversy. American Speech, 64(1), 12-39.

Bernstein, C., Nunnally, T., & Sabino, R. (Eds.). (1997). Language variety in the South: Revisited. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Botan, C., & Smitherman, G. (1991). Black English in the integrated workplace. Journal of Black Studies, 22(2), 168-185.

Bucholtz, M. (1997). Borrowed blackness: African-American Vernacular English and European-American youth identities. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1997), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(03), 802. (AAT 9828619)

Bucholtz, M. (1999). You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 443-460.

Butters, R. R. (1986). Linguistic convergence in a North Carolina community. In K. Denning, S. Inkelas, F. C. McNair-Knox & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Variation in language: NWAV-XV at Stanford (pp. 52-60). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Linguistics Department.

Butters, R. R. (1990). The death of Black English: Divergence and convergence in black and white vernaculars. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Peter Lang.

Carpenter, J. (2005). The invisible community of the lost colony: African American English on Roanoke Island. American Speech, 80(3), 227-255.

Carpenter, J., & Hilliard, S. (2005). Shifting parameters of individual and group variation. Journal of English Linguistics, 33(2), 161-184.

Childs, B., & Mallinson, C. (2004). African American English in Appalachia: Dialect accommodation and substrate influence. English world-wide, 25(1), 27-50.

Chun, E. (2001). The construction of white, black, and Korean American identities through African American Vernacular English. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 11(1), 52-64.

Cukor-Avila, P. (1995). The evolution of AAVE in a rural Texas community: An ethnolinguistic study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1995), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(12), 4747. (AAT 9610106)

Cukor-Avila, P. (2003). The complex grammatical history of African-American and white vernaculars in the South. In S. J. Nagle & S. L. Sanders (Eds.), English in the Southern United States (pp. 82-105). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cukor-Avila, P., & Bailey, G. (1996). The spread of urban AAVE: A case study. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter & J. Solomon (Eds.), Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, theory, and analysis (Selected Papers from NWAV 32 at Stanford) (pp. 469-486). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Cutler, C. A. (1997). Yorkville crossing: A case-study of the influence of hip-hop culture on the speech of [a] white middle class adolescent in New York City. London: Thames Valley University, Centre for Applied Linguistic Research.

Cutler, C. A. (1999). Yorkville crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 428-442.

Cutler, C. A. (2002). Crossing over: White youth, hip-hop and African American English. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(08). (AAT 3062805)

Cutler, C. A. (2003). The authentic speaker revisited: A look at ethnic perception data from white hip-hoppers. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 9(2), 49-60.

Cutler, C. A. (2003). "Keepin' it real": White hip-hoppers' discourse of language, race, and ethnicity. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 13(2), 211-233.

Denning, K. (1989). Convergence with divergence: A sound change in Vernacular Black English. Language Variation and Change, 1(2), 145-167.

Dillard, J. L. (1968). Non-standard Negro dialects: Convergence or divergence? The Florida FL Reporter, 6(2), 9-12.

Dorrill, G. T. (1982). Black and white speech in the south: Evidence from the linguistic atlas of the middle and south Atlantic states. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1982), Dissertation Abstracts International 43(07), 2335. (AAT 82228507)

Fasold, R. W. (1981). The relation between black and white speech in the south. American Speech, 56(3), 163-188.

Fasold, R. W., Labov, W., Vaughn-Cooke, A. F., Bailey, G., Wolfram, W., Spears, A. K., & Rickford, J. R. (1987). Are black and white vernacular varieties diverging? Papers from the NWAVE-16 panel discussion. American Speech, 56, 3-80.

Fridland, V. (2003). Network strength and the realization of the southern vowel shift among African Americans in Memphis, Tennessee. American Speech, 78(1), 3-30.

Fridland, V. (2003). 'Tie, tied and tight': The expansion of /ai/ monophthongization in African-American and European-American speech in Memphis, Tennessee. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7(3), 279-298.

Gann, R. R. (2002). "We're not here": Linguistic accommodation between AAVE and WAVE-speaking youngsters in an urban middle school. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(05). (AAT 3053834)

Hewitt, R. (1986). White talk, black talk: Inter-racial friendship and communication amongst adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huang, X. (1994). African-American English in " middletown": A syntactic and phonological study with time-depth data to test the linguistic convergence and divergence hypothesis. (Doctoral dissertation, Ball State University, 1994), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(01), 177. (AAT 9516475)

Jones, J. (2003). African Americans in Lansing and the Northern cities vowel shift: Language contact and accommodation. (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 2003), Dissertation Abstracts International 64(08). (AAT 3100439)

Mallinson, C., & Childs, B. (2005). Communities of practice in sociolinguistic description: African American women's language in Appalachia. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 10(2), 1-14.

Mallinson, C., & Wolfram, W. (2002). Dialect accommodation in a bi-ethnic mountain enclave community: More evidence on the development of African American English. Language in Society, 31(5), 743-775.

Montgomery, M. B., & Bailey, G. (Eds.). (1986). Language variety in the South: Perspectives in black and white. University, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Morgan, M. (1993). The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguists. In M. Morgan (Ed.), Language and the social construction of identity in creole situations (pp. 121-150). Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies Publications, UCLA.

Nguyen, J. G. (2006). The changing social and linguistic orientation of the African American middle class. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 2006), Dissertation Abstracts International 67(02), PhD. (AAT 3208524)

Nguyen, J. G. (2006). Real-time changes in social stratification: Status and gender in trajectories of change for AAE variables. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 12(2), 159-171.

Nichols, P. (1983). Black and white speaking in the rural south: Difference in the pronominal system. American Speech, 58(3), 201-215.

Pharr , P., C. (1993). Onomastic divergence: A study of given-name trends among African-Americans. American Speech, 68(4), 400-409.

Richardson, C. (1991). Habitual structures among blacks and whites in the 1990s. American Speech, 66(3), 292-302.

Rickford, J. R. (1985). Ethnicity as a sociolinguistic boundary. American Speech, 60(2), 99-125.

Rickford, J. R. (1992). Grammatical variation and divergence in Vernacular Black English. In M. Gerritsen & D. Stein (Eds.), Internal and external factors in syntactic change (pp. 175-200). Berlin: Mouton.

Schneider, E. W. (1995). Black-white language contact through the centuries: Diachronic aspects of linguistic convergence or divergence in the United States of America. In J. Fisiak (Ed.), Linguistic change under contact conditions (pp. 237-252). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Smitherman, G. (1992). Black English, diverging or converging? The view from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Language and Education, 6(1), 47-61.

Spears, A. K. (1988). Black American English. In J. B. Cole (Ed.), Anthropology for the nineties: Introductory readings (pp. 96-113). New York: The Free Press.

Tagliamonte, S., & Poplack, S. (1988). How Black English past got to the present: Evidence from Samana. Language in Society, 17(4), 513-533.

Thomas, E. R., & Carter, P. M. (2006). Prosodic rhythm and African American English. English world-wide, 27(3), 331-355.

Thomas, E. R., & Reaser, J. (2004). Delimiting perceptual cues used for the ethnic labeling of African American and European American voices. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(1), 54-87.

Wolfram, W. (1974). The relationship of White Southern speech to Vernacular Black English. Language, 50(3), 498-527.

Wolfram, W. (2003). Reexamining the development of African American English: Evidence from isolated communities. Language, 79(2), 282-316.

Wolfram, W. (2007). Sociolinguistic folklore in the study of African American English. Language and Linguistic Compass, 1(4), 292-313.

Wolfram, W., & Clarke, N. H. (Eds.). (1971). Black-white speech relationships.

Wolfram, W., Hazen, K., & Tamburro, J. R. (1997). Isolation within isolation: A solitary century of African-American Vernacular English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1(1), 7-38.

Wolfram, W., & Thomas, E. R. (2002). The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wolfram, W., Thomas, E. R., & Green, E. W. (2000). The regional context of earlier African American speech: Evidence for reconstructing the development of AAVE. Language in Society, 29(3), 315-356.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.