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African American English Bibliography

Language and Ideology

Beliefs and attitudes about AAE or AAE language ideology.

Abdul-Hakim, I. (2002). Florida preservice teachers' attitudes toward African-American Vernacular English. (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 64(10). (AAT 3109259)

Adams, T. M., & Fuller, D. B. (2006). The words have changed but the ideology remains the same: Misogynistic lyrics in rap music. Journal of Black Studies, 36(6), 938-957.

Anderson , C., Fine, M., & Johnson, F. (1983). Black talk on television: A constructivist approach to viewer's perception of BEV in Roots II. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development, 4(2-3), 181-195.

Bailey, G., & Cukor-Avila, P. (2001). The effects of the race of the interviewer on sociolinguistic fieldwork. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 5(2), 254-270.

Balester, V. M. (1993). Cultural divide: A study of African American college-level writers. Portsmouth, NH: Boyton/Cook.

Ball, A., & Lardner, T. (1997). Dispositions toward language: Constructs of teacher knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English case. College Composition and Communication, 48(4), 469-485.

Barnes, S. (2003). The Ebonics enigma: An analysis of attitudes on an urban campus. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(3), 247-263.

Baugh, J. (1991). The politicization of changing terms of self-reference among American slave descendents. American Speech, 66(2), 133-146.

Baugh, J. (1996). Perceptions within a variable paradigm: Black and white detection based on speech. In E. W. Schneider (Ed.), Focus on the USA (pp. 169-182). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baugh, J. (2000). Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bennerson-Mohamed, T. A. (2002). An exploration of teachers' and African-American students' attitudes toward Ebonics in a community college writing program. (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(03). (AAT 3047701)

Bergin, K. R. (1988). The development of rating scales for Black English grammar, pronunciation, rhythym/intonation, and overall Black English usage. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee, 1988), Dissertation Abstracts International 50(02), 429. (AAT 8904033)

Billings , A. C. (1999). Perceptual profiles of race and dialect. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1999), Dissertation Abstracts International 60(06), 1831. (AAT 9935628)

Billings , A. C. (2005). Beyond the Ebonics debate: Attitudes about Black and Standard American English. Journal of Black Studies, 36(1), 68-81.

Blake, R., & Cutler, C. (2003). AAE and variation in teachers' attitudes: A question of the school philosophy? Linguistics and Education, 14(2), 163-194.

Botan, C., & Smitherman, G. (1991). Black English in the integrated workplace. Journal of Black Studies, 22(2), 168-185.

Bowler, C. M. (2001). The influence of teacher response on African American students' codeswitching. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Rhode Island and Rhose Island College, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(09), 2954. (AAT 3025533)

Boyd, G. A. (1996). Teacher attitudes toward African-American Vernacular English: The relationship to students' perceptions of classroom climate. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Memphis, 1996), Dissertation Abstracts International 57(09), 3816. (AAT 9705678)

Brasch, W. M. (1981). Black English and the mass media. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Brown, D. W. (2006). Girls and guys, ghetto and bougie: Metapragmatics, ideology, and the management of social identities. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10(5), 596-610.

Bucholtz, M. (1995). From mulatta to mestiza: Passing and the linguistic reshaping of ethnic identity. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp. 351-373). New York: Routledge.

Burling, R. (1973). English in black and white. New York: Holt, Linehart & Winston.

Campbell, L. R. (1993). Maintaining the integrity of home linguistic varieties: Black English Vernacular. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2, 11-12.

Campbell, L. R. (1994). Discourse diversity and Black English Vernacular. In D. N. Ripich & N. A. Creaghead (Eds.), School discourse problems (pp. 93-131). San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Chun, E. (2001). The construction of white, black, and Korean American identities through African American Vernacular English. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 11(1), 52-64.

Condit, C. M., & Cucaites, J. L. (1993). Crafting equality: America's Anglo-African word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dandy, E. (1991). Black communication: Breaking down the barriers. Chicago: African-American Images.

Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review, 58(3), 280-298.

Delpit, L., & Kilgour Dowdy, J. (Eds.). (2002). The skin that we speak: Thoughts on language and culture in the classroom. New York: The New Press.

Doss, R. C., & Gross, A. M. (1994). The effects of Black English and code-switching on intraracial perceptions. Journal of Black Psychology, 20(3), 282-293.

Edwards, W. F. (1992). Sociolinguistic behavior in a Detroit inner-city black neighborhood. Language in Society, 21(1), 93-115.

Ervin, S. C. (2005). The attitudes of higher education faculty toward African American Vernacular English. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2005), Dissertation Abstracts International 67(02). (AAT 3204075)

Folb, E. (1980). Runnin down some lines: The language and culture of black teenagers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fordham, S. (1988). Racelessness as a factor in black students' school success: Pragmatic strategy or pyrrhic victory? Harvard Educational Review, 58(1), 54-84.

Fordham, S. (1993). "Those loud black girls": (Black) women, silence, and gender "passing" in the academy. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 24(1), 3-32.

Fordham, S. (1998). Speaking standard English from nine to three: Language as guerrilla warfare at Capital High. In S. Hoyle & C. T. Adger (Eds.), Kids talk: Strategic language use in later childhood (pp. 205-216). New York: Oxford.

Fordham, S. (1999). Dissin' "the standard": Ebonics and guerilla warfare at Capital High. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 30(3), 272-293.

Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. (1986). Black students' school success: Coping with the "burden of 'acting white.'". Urban Review, 18(3), 176-206.

Gilbert, D. J. (1982). Attitude of speech pathologists toward Black English. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1982), Dissertation Abstracts International 43(01), 106. (AAT 8214096)

Gilmore, P. (1987). Sulking, stepping, and tracking: The effects of attitude assessment on access to literacy. In D. Bloome (Ed.), Literacy and schooling (pp. 99-120). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Gilyard, K. (Ed.). (1991). Let's flip the script: An African American discourse on language, literature, and learning. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Grant, G. W. (1973). The effect of text materials with relevant language, illustrations and content upon the reading achievement and reading preference (attitude) of black primary and intermediate inner-city students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1973), Dissertation Abstracts International 34(07), 3832. (AAT 7321156)

Green, L. J. (2002). African American English: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hamilton-Kelley, B. (1994). A measurement of attitudes held by African-American and Caucasian preservice teachers toward Black English Vernacular, Standard American English, English usage, and dialects. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1994), Dissertation Abstracts International 57(07), 2917. (AAT 9541497)

Harris, J., Kamhi, A., & Pollock, K. (Eds.). (2001). Literacy in African American communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Henderson, A. L. (2001). Is your money where your mouth is? Hiring managers' attitudes towards African American Vernacular English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(02), 552. (AAT 3003635)

Henderson, A. Y. (2001). The relationship between attitudes towards Black English and racial identity and self-esteem. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(03), 989. (AAT 3008629)

Holmes, D. G. (2004). Revisiting racialized voice: African American ethos in language and literature. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Hoover , M. R. (1978). Community attitudes towards Black English. Language in Society, 7(1), 65-87.

Hoover , M. R. (1990). A vindicationist perspective on the role of Ebonics (Black Language) and other aspects of ethnic studies in the university. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(2), 251-262.

Hopson, R. (2003). The problem of the language line: Cultural and social reproduction of hegemonic linguistic structures for learners of African descent in the USA. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(3), 227-245.

Horvat, E. M., & Lewis, K. S. (2003). Reassessing the "burden of 'acting white'": The importance of peer groups in managing academic success. Sociology of Education, 76(4), 265-280.

Humber , T. C. (1993). A sociolinguistic analysis of an urban language proficiency program for African American students, grades kindergarten through six. (Doctoral dissertation, Howard University, 1993), Dissertation Abstracts International 54(07), 2559. (AAT 9335220)

Jensen, A. R. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 39(1), 1-123.

Koch, L., Gross, A., & Kolts, R. (2001). Attitudes towards Black English and codeswitching. Journal of Black Psychology, 27(1), 29-42.

Kochman, T. (1974). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Labov, W. (1970). The logic of nonstandard English. In F. Williams (Ed.), Language and poverty: Perspectives on a theme (pp. 153-189). Chicago: Markham.

Labov, W. (1970). The study of nonstandard English. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city; Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1982). Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: The case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in Society, 11(2), 165-201.

Labov, W., & Robbins, C. (1969). A note on the relation of reading failure to peer-group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record, 70(5), 355-406.

Lanehart, S. (1998). African American Vernacular English and education: The dynamics of pedagogy, ideology, and identity. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 122-136.

Lanehart, S. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Lanehart, S. (2002). Goals and teaching English language classes. Journal of English Linguistics, 30(4), 328-338.

Lanehart, S. (2002). Sista, speak! Black women kinfolk talk about language and literacy. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Lawrence-Guthrie, N. (2005). Two African American teachers' beliefs about and practices with African American language and its influence on literacy. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 2005), Dissertation Abstracts International 66(03), 938. (AAT 3166980)

LeMoine, N. R. (2003). The impact of linguistic knowledge of African American Language/Ebonics on teacher attitude toward African American Language and the students who speak AAL/Ebonics. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 2003), Dissertation Abstracts International 64(09). (AAT 3103935)

Linn, M. D., & Piche, G. (1982). Black and white adolescent and preadolescent attitudes toward Black English. Research in the Teaching of English, 16(1), 53-69.

Linnes, K. (1998). Middle-class AAVE versus middle-class bilingualism: Contrasting speech communities. American Speech, 73(4), 339-368.

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routledge Publishing.

Lucas, C. (1997). Ebonics and ASL: Teaching our children the codes of power. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 15(5), 12-13.

Mackey, J. M. W. (1999). A study of pre-professional teachers' attitudes towards Black English. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Southern University, 1999), Dissertation Abstracts International 61(04), 1277. (AAT 9965422)

Mahiri, J. (1994). African American males and learning: What discourse in sports offers schooling. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 25(3), 364-375.

Makoni, S., Smitherman, G., Ball, A., & Spears, A. (Eds.). (2003). Black linguistics: Language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas. New York: Routledge.

Marback, R. (2001). Ebonics: Theorizing in public our attitudes toward literacy. College Composition and Communication, 53(1), 11-32.

Mays, L. F. (1977). Black children's perception of the use of their dialect. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, Inc.

McDavid, R. I. (1973). Go slow in ethnic attributions: Geographic mobility and dialect prejudices. In R. W. Bailey & J. L. Robinson (Eds.), Varieties of present-day English (pp. 259-270). New York: Macmillan.

McWhorter, J. H. (1998). The word on the street: Fact and fable about American English. New York: Plenum.

McWhorter, J. H. (2000). African-American self-sabotage in action: The Ebonics controversy. In Losing the race: Self-sabotage in Black America (pp. 184-211). New York: The Free Press.

McWhorter, J. H. (2000). Spreading the word: Language and dialect in America. New York: Heinemann.

Meacham, S. (2000). Black self-love, language, and the teacher education dilemma: The cultural denial and the cultural limbo of African American preservice teachers. Urban Education, 34(5), 571-596.

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1971). Language behavior in a black urban community (Vol. 2). Berkeley: Monographs of the Language-Behavior Research Laboratory.

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1972). On the status of Black English for native speakers: An assessment of attitudes and values. In C. Cazden, V. P. John & D. Hymes (Eds.), Functions of language in the classroom (pp. 195-210). New York: Teachers College Press.

Morgan, M. (1994). Theories and politics in African American English. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 325-345.

Morgan, M. (Ed.). (2002). Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moses, R., Daniels, H., & Gundlach, R. (1976). Teacher language attitudes and bidialectalism. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 8, 77-92.

Mufwene, S. S. (1992). Ideology and facts on African American English. Pragmatics, 2(2), 141-166.

Ogbu, J. (1991). Cultural diversity and school experience. In C. Walsh (Ed.), Literacy as praxis: Culture, language, and pedagogy (pp. 25-50). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Ogbu, J. (1992). Understanding cultural diversity and learning. Educational Researcher, 21(8), 5-14.

Ogbu, J. (1999). Beyond language: Ebonics, proper English, and identity in a Black-American speech community. American Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 147-184.

Ojo, A. A. (2001). Language beliefs, attitudes, opinions and choices: The case of self-identified bi-dialectal African-American undergraduates. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(09). (AAT 3025362)

Orbe, M. P. (1994). "Remember, it's always white's ball": Descriptions of African American male communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(3), 287-300.

Palacas, A. (2001). Liberating American Ebonics from Euro-English. College English, 63(3), 326-352.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (Eds.). (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African American children. Boston: Beacon Press.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African children. Rethinking Schools: An Urban Educational Journal, 12(1), 1-36.

Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. I. (2003). Young, gifted and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students. Boston: Beacon.

Piestrup, A. M. (1973). Black dialect interference and accommodation of reading instruction in first grade. Monographs of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory: University of California, Berkeley.

Pitts, W. (1986). Beyond hypercorrection: The use of the emphatic -z in BEV. Chicago Linguistic Society, 17, 303-310.

Politzer, R. L., & Hoover, M. (1974). On the use of attitude variables in research in the teaching of a second dialect. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 12(1), 43-51.

Preston , D. (1992). Talking black and talking white: A study in variety imitation. In J. H. Hall, N. Doane & D. Ringler (Eds.), Old English and new: Studies in language and linguistics in honor of Frederic G. Cassidy (pp. 327-355). New York: Garland.

Pullum, G. K. (1999). African American Vernacular English is not Standard English with mistakes. In R. Wheeler (Ed.), The workings of language: From prescriptions to perspectives (pp. 39-58). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Queen, R. (2004). 'Du has jar keene Ahnung': African American English dubbed into German. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(4), 515-537.

Reyes, A. (2005). Appropriation of African American slang by Asian American youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 509-532.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Suite for ebony and phonics. Discover, 18(12), 82-87.

Rickford, J. R. (1999). African American Vernacular English; Features, evolution, educational implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, A. E. (1995). Dialect readers revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, R. J. (2000). Spoken soul: The story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ronkin, M., & Karn, H. E. (1999). Mock Ebonics: Linguistic racism in parodies of Ebonics on the internet. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(3), 360-380.

Schilling-Estes, N. (2004). Constructing ethnicity in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(2), 163-195.

Seymour, H., Bland, L., & Green, L. (1998). Difference versus deficit in child African American English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 97-109.

Seymour, H., & Seymour, C. M. (1979). The symbolism of Black English: I'd rather switch than fight. Journal of Black Studies, 9(4), 397-410.

Simmons, E. (1991). Ain't we never gonna learn no grammar? The English Journal, 80(8), 48-51.

Sledd, J. (1969). Bi-dialectalism: The linguistics of white supremacy. The English Journal, 58(9), 1307-1315.

Smith, W. (1979). Toward a philosophy of education for the culturally and linguistically distinct. In V. L. Milton Van Brunt (Ed.), Black students, multicultural settings (pp. 32-37). San Diego, CA: Institute for Cultural Pluralism.

Smitherman, G. (1973). Grammar and goodness. The English Journal, 62(5), 774-777.

Smitherman, G. (1973). White English in blackface, or who do I be? Black Scholar, 4(8-9), 32-39.

Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (1981). Black English and the education of black children and youth: Proceedings of the National Symposium on the King Decision. Detroit, MI: Center for Black Studies, Wayne State University.

Smitherman, G. (1983). Language and liberation. Journal of Negro Education, 52(1), 15-23.

Smitherman, G. (1991). 'What is Africa to me?': Language, ideology, and African American. American Speech, 66(2), 115-132.

Smitherman, G. (1995). Students' right to their own language: A retrospective. The English Journal, 84(1), 2-27.

Smitherman, G. (1997). Black language and the education of black children -- One mo once. Black Scholar, 27(1), 28-35.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (2000). Talkin that talk: Language, culture and education in African American. London: Routledge.

Smitherman, G. (2004). Language and African Americans: Movin on up a lil higher. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 186-196.

Smitherman, G. (2006). Word from the mother: Language and African Americans. New York: Routledge.

Smitherman, G., & Cunningham, S. (1997). Moving beyond resistance: Ebonics and African American youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 23(3), 227-232.

Spears, A. K. (1988). Black American English. In J. B. Cole (Ed.), Anthropology for the nineties: Introductory readings (pp. 96-113). New York: The Free Press.

Speicher, B. L., & McMahon, S. M. (1992). Some African-American perspectives on Black English Vernacular. Language in Society, 21(3), 383-407.

Spencer, M. B., Noll, E., & Stolzfus, J. (2001). Identity and school adjustment: Revisiting the "acting white" assumption. Educational Psychologist, 36(1), 21-30.

Stewart, W. A. (1970). Understanding black language. In J. F. Szwed (Ed.), Black America (pp. 121-131). New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Stoller, P. (Ed.). (1975). Black American English: Its background and its usage in schools and in literature. New York City: Delta.

Tamura, E. H. (2002). African American Vernacular English and Hawai'i Creole English: A comparison of two school board controversies. Journal of Negro Education, 71(1-2), 17-30.

Taylor, H. U. (1991). Ambivalence toward Black English: Some tentative solutions. Writing Instructor, 10(3), 121-135.

Taylor, O. (1973). Teachers' attitudes toward Black and nonstandard English as measured by the Language Attitude Scale. In R. Shuy & R. Fasold (Eds.), Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects (pp. 174-201). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Thomas, G. (1983). The deficit, difference, and bicultural theories of black dialect and nonstandard English. Urban Review, 15(2), 107-118.

Troutman, D. (1998). The power of dialect: Ebonics personified. In C. Weaver (Ed.), Lessons to share on teaching grammar in context (pp. 209-227). Portsmouth, UK: Boynton/Cook.

Van Keulen, J., Weddington, G. T., & DeBose, C. (Eds.). (1998). Speech, language, learning, and the African American child. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Ward, J. W. (1989). Judges' attitudes toward standard English and Black English in the state of Texas. (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1989), Dissertation Abstracts International 50(07), 1850. (AAT 8922792)

Wassink, A. B., & Curzan, A. (2004). Addressing ideologies around African American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 171-185.

White, M. J., Vandiver, B. J., Becker, M. L., Overstreet, B. G., Temple, L. E., Hagan, K. L., & Mandelbaum, E. P. (1998). African American evaluations of Black English and Standard American English. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(1), 60-75.

Williams, F., & Whitehead, J. L. (1973). Language in the classroom: Studies of the Pygmalion effect. In J. DeStefano (Ed.), Language, society, and education: A profile of Black English (pp. 169-176). Worthington, OH: Jones Publishing.

Williams, R. L. (Ed.). (1975). Ebonics: The true language of black folks. St. Louis, MO: Robert L. Williams and Associates.

Williamson-Ige, D. K. (1984). Approaches to Black Language studies: A cultural critique. Journal of Black Studies, 15(1), 17-29.

Wolfram, W. (1998). Language ideology and dialect: Understanding the Ebonics controversy. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 108-121.

Wolfram, W. (1998). The myth of the verbally deprived black child. In L. Bauer & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Language myths (pp. 103-112). New York: Penguin.

Wolfram, W. (2001). From definition to policy: The ideological struggle of African American Vernacular English. In J. E. Alatis & A.-H. Tan (Eds.), Georgetown University Roundtable on Language and Linguistics (pp. 292-313). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Wolfram, W. (2004). Social varieties of American English. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 58-75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wolfram, W. (2007). Sociolinguistic folklore in the study of African American English. Language and Linguistic Compass, 1(4), 292-313.

Zephir, F. (1999). Challenges for multicultural education: Sociolinguistic parallels between African American English and Haitian Creole. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development, 20(2), 134-154.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.