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African American English Bibliography


The history of AAE, including the creole/anglicist debates in sociolinguistics.

Alim, H. S., & Baugh, J. (Eds.). (2007). Talkin black talk: Language, education, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Alleyne, M. C. (1980). Comparative Afro-American: An historical comparative study of English-based Afro-American dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers.

Aucoin, M. M. (2002). The sociohistorical and linguistic development of African American English in Virginia and South Carolina. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(07). (AAT 3060190)

Bailey, G., Maynor, N., & Cukor-Avila, P. (1989). Variation in subject-verb concord in early Modern English. Language Variation and Change, 1(3), 285-300.

Bailey, G., Maynor, N., & Cukor-Avila, P. (Eds.). (1991). The emergence of Black English: Text and commentary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baugh, J. (1983). Black street speech; Its history, structure, and survival. Texas linguistics series. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the mouths of slaves: African American language and educational malpractice. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bernstein, C., Nunnally, T., & Sabino, R. (Eds.). (1997). Language variety in the South: Revisited. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Brasch, W. M. (1981). Black English and the mass media. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Brewer, J. (1979). Nonagreeing am and invariant be in early Black English. The SECOL Bulletin, 3, 81-100.

Cukor-Avila, P. (1995). The evolution of AAVE in a rural Texas community: An ethnolinguistic study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1995), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(12), 4747. (AAT 9610106)

Cukor-Avila, P. (2003). The complex grammatical history of African-American and white vernaculars in the South. In S. J. Nagle & S. L. Sanders (Eds.), English in the Southern United States (pp. 82-105). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dalby, D. (1972). The African element in American English. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 170-186). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Davis , S. (2003). "Is this Negroish or Irish?" African American English, the antebellum writings of Francis Lieber, and the origins controversy. American Speech, 78(3), 285-306.

Dillard, J. L. (1973). The history of Black English. Revista Interamericano/Interamerican Review, 2, 507-520.

Dillard, J. L. (Ed.). (1975). Perspectives on Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Dubois, S., & Horvath, B. M. (2003). Creoles and Cajuns: A portrait in black and white. American Speech, 78(2), 192-207.

Edwards, W. F., & Winford, D. (Eds.). (1991). Verb phrase patterns in Black English and creole. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Ewers, T. (1996). The origin of American Black English: Be-forms in the HOODOO texts. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fasold, R. W. (1981). The relation between black and white speech in the south. American Speech, 56(3), 163-188.

German, G. D. (2006). From British to African American Vernacular English: The strange odyssey of periphrastic habitual be and do. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, 14, 12-62.

Green, L. J. (2004). Research on African American English since 1998. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 210-229.

Gundaker, G. (1998). Signs of diaspora, diaspora of signs: Literacies, creolization, and vernacular practice in African America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harris, J. (2003). A study of a variant Black English vernacular developed by African American and White immigrant coal miners in the coal mining camp towns of central Alabama. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2003), Dissertation Abstracts International 64(02). (AAT 3080387)

Harris, K. J. (2003). Pan African language systems: Ebonics & African oral heritage. London: Karnak House.

Haskins, J., & Butts, M. D., Hugh F. (1973). The psychology of Black Language. New York: Hippocrene Books.

Holloway, J. E. (Ed.). (1990). Africanisms in American culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Holloway, J. E., & Vass, W. K. (1993). The African heritage of American English. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Holm, J. (1984). Variability of the copula in Black English and its creole kin. American Speech, 59(4), 291-309.

Kautzsch, A. (2000). Liberian letters and Virginian narratives: Negation patterns in two new sources of earlier African American English. American Speech, 75(1), 34-53.

Kautzsch, A. (2002). The historical evolution of earlier African American English: An emprical comparison of early sources. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lanehart, S. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Luelsdorff, P. (Ed.). (1975). Linguistic perspectives on Black English. Regensburg: Verlag Hans Carl Regensburg.

Mahar, W. J. (1985). Black English in early blackface minstrelsy: A new interpretation of the sources of the minstrel show dialect. American Quarterly, 37(2), 260-285.

Mallinson, C., & Wolfram, W. (2002). Dialect accommodation in a bi-ethnic mountain enclave community: More evidence on the development of African American English. Language in Society, 31(5), 743-775.

McCollie-Lewis, C. S. (1998). A sociohistorical study of the early development of African-American English in Virginia: 1619-1770s. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(06), 1998. (AAT 9839098)

McDavid, R. I., & Davis, L. M. (1972). The dialects of Negro Americans. In M. E. Smith (Ed.), Studies in linguistics in honor of George L. Trager (pp. 303-312). The Hague: Mouton.

McDavid, R. I., & McDavid, V. G. (1951). The relationship of the speech of American Negroes to the speech of whites. American Speech, 26(1), 3-17.

McWhorter, J. H. (2000). Spreading the word: Language and dialect in America. New York: Heinemann.

Miethaner, U. (2000). Orthographic transcriptions of non-standard varieties: The case of earlier African-American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(4), 534-560.

Miethaner, U. (2005). I can look through muddy water: Analyzing earlier African American English in blues lyrics (BLUR). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Mintz, S., & Price, R. (Eds.). (1976). An anthropological approach to the Afro-American past: A Caribbean perspective. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

Montgomery, M. B., & Bailey, G. (Eds.). (1986). Language variety in the South: Perspectives in black and white. University, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Montgomery, M. B., Fuller, J. M., & DeMarse, S. (1993). "The black men has wives and sweet harts [and third person plural -s] jest like the white men": Evidence for verbal -s from written documents on nineteenth century African-American speech. Language Variation and Change, 5(3), 335-357.

Morgan, M. (1994). Theories and politics in African American English. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 325-345.

Mufwene, S. S. (1992). Ideology and facts on African American English. Pragmatics, 2(2), 141-166.

Mufwene, S. S. (Ed.). (1993). Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.

Mufwene, S. S. (2003). The shared ancestry of African-American and American White Southern Englishes: Some speculations dictated by history. In S. J. Nagle & S. L. Sanders (Eds.), English in the Southern United States (pp. 64-81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Myhill, J. (1995). The use of features of present-day AAVE in the ex-slave recordings. American Speech, 70(2), 115-147.

Norment, N. (Ed.). (2003). Readings in African American language: Aspects, features and perspectives. New York: Peter Lang.

Norment, N. (Ed.). (2005). Readings in African American language: Aspects, features, and perspectives (Vol. 2). New York: Peter Lang.

Odlin, T. (2003). Looking for roots in the substrate: The cases of Ebonics and Anglo-Irish. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics, 57, 120-128.

Pardoe, T. E. (1937). A historical and phonetic study of Negro Dialect. (Doctoral dissertation, Louisianna State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 1937), Dissertation Abstracts International. (AAT 0139414)

Pfaff, C. (1971). Historical and structural aspects of sociolinguistic variation: The copula in Black English. Technological Report 37. Los Alamitos, CA: Southwest Regional Laboratory.

Poplack, S. (2000). The English history of African American English. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (1989). There's no tense like the present: Verbal -s inflection in early Black English. Language Variation and Change, 1(1), 47-84.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (1991). African-American English in the diaspora: Evidence from old-line Nova Scotians. Language Variation and Change, 3(3), 301-339.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (1994). -S or nothing: Marking the plural in the African-American diaspora. American Speech, 69(3), 227-259.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (2001). African American English in the diaspora. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Read, A. W. (1939). The speech of Negroes in colonial America. Journal of Negro History, 24(3), 247-258.

Rickford, J. R. (1977). The question of prior creolization in Black English. In A. Valdman (Ed.), Pidgin and creole linguistics (pp. 190-221). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Rickford, J. R. (1996). Copula variability in Jamaican Creole and African American Vernacular English: A reanalysis of DeCamp's texts. In G. R. Guy, J. Baugh, D. Schiffrin & C. Feagin (Eds.), Towards a social science of language: A festschrift for William Labov (pp. 357-372). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Prior creolization of African-American Vernacular English? Sociohistorical and textual evidence from the 17th and 18th centuries. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1(3), 315-336.

Rickford, J. R. (2006). Down for the count? The creole origins hypothesis of AAVE at the hands of the Ottawa circle, and their supporters. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 21(1), 97-155.

Rickford, J. R., & Blake, R. (1990). Copula contraction and absence in Barbadian English, Samana English and Vernacular Black English. In K. Hall, J. P. Koening, M. Meacham, S. Reinmann & L. Sutton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS 16). Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Schneider, E. W. (1981). American earlier Black English: Morphological and syntactic variables. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press.

Schneider, E. W. (1982). On the history of Black English in the USA: Some new evidence. English world-wide, 3(1), 18-46.

Schneider, E. W., & Miethaner, U. (2006). When I started to using BLUR: Accounting for unusual verb complementation patterns in an electronic corpus of earlier African American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 34(3), 233-256.

Schneider, H. J. (1990). Lexical Africanisms in American (Black) English: An emprical study. (Doctoral dissertation, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria), 1990), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(03), 395. (AAT C173416)

Singler, J. (1998). What's not new in AAVE. American Speech, 73(3), 227-256.

Spears, A. K. (1988). Black American English. In J. B. Cole (Ed.), Anthropology for the nineties: Introductory readings (pp. 96-113). New York: The Free Press.

Stewart, W. A. (1969). Historical and structural aspects of sociolinguistic variation: The copula in Black English. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Roundtable on languages and linguistics (pp. 215-233). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Stewart, W. A. (1970). Understanding black language. In J. F. Szwed (Ed.), Black America (pp. 121-131). New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Stewart, W. A. (1971). Continuity and change in American Negro dialects. In H. B. Allen & G. N. Underwood (Eds.), Readings in American dialectology (pp. 454-467). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Stewart, W. A. (1971). Sociolinguistic factors in the history of the American Negro dialects. In H. B. Allen & G. N. Underwood (Eds.), Readings in American dialectology (pp. 444-453). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Stewart, W. A. (1975). Acculturative processes and the language of the American Negro. In W. W. Gage (Ed.), Language in its social setting (pp. 1-47). Washington, D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.

Sutcliffe, D. (1992). System in black language. Multilingual Matters 77. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Tagliamonte, S. (1991). A matter of time: Past temporal reference verbal structures in Samana English and the Ex-Slave Recordings. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(03), 795. (AAT NN68011)

Tagliamonte, S. (1996). Has it ever been "perfect?" Uncovering the grammar of early Black English. York Papers in Linguistics, 17, 351-396.

Tagliamonte, S., & Poplack, S. (1993). The zero-marked verb: Testing the creole hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 8(2), 171-206.

Thomas, E. R., & Bailey, G. (1998). Parallels between vowel subsystems of African American Vernacular English and Caribbean Anglophone Creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 13(2), 267-296.

Thomas, E. R., & Carter, P. M. (2006). Prosodic rhythm and African American English. English world-wide, 27(3), 331-355.

Tottie, G., & Rey, M. (1997). Relativization strategies in early African American English. Language Variation and Change, 9(2), 219-247.

Troike, R. C. (2003). The earliest Gullah/AAVE texts: A case of 19th century mesolectal variation. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 18(2), 159-230.

Van Herk, G. (2002). A message from the past: Past temporal reference in early African American letters. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(09). (AAT NQ72830)

Van Herk, G., & Poplack, S. (2003). Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the Ottawa repository of early African American correspondence. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 18(2), 231-266.

Van Herk, G., & Walker, J. A. (2005). S marks the spot? Regional variation and early African American correspondence. Language Variation and Change, 17(2), 113-131.

Wade-Lewis, M. (1988). The African substratum in American English. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1988), Dissertation Abstracts International 49(10), 3016. (AAT 8825070)

Walker, J. A. (2000). Present accounted for: Prosody and aspect in early African American English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottowa, 2000), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(02), 556. (AAT NQ57075)

Walker, J. A. (2001). Using the past to explain the present: Tense and temporal reference in early African American English. Language Variation and Change, 13(1), 1-35.

Walker, J. A. (2005). The ain't constraint: Not-contraction in early African American English. Language Variation and Change, 17(1), 1-17.

Weldon, T. L. (1998). Exploring the AAVE-Gullah connection: A comparative study of copula variability. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(10), 3804. (AAT 9911288)

Weldon, T. L. (2003). Copula variability in Gullah. Language Variation and Change, 15(1), 37-72.

Weldon, T. L. (2003). Revisiting the creolist hypothesis: Copula variability in Gullah and southern rural AAVE. American Speech, 78(2), 171-191.

Winford, D. (1992). Another look at the copula in Black English and Caribbean creoles. American Speech, 67(1), 21-60.

Winford, D. (1992). Back to the past: The B[lack] E[nglish] V[ernacular]/Creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change, 4(3), 311-357.

Winford, D. (1997). On the origins of African American Vernacular English: A creolist perspective. Part 1: Sociohistorical background. Diachronica, 14(2), 305-344.

Winford, D. (1998). On the origins of African American Vernacular English: A creolist perspective. Part 2: Linguistic features. Diachronica, 15(1), 99-154.

Wolfram, W. (1974). The relationship of White Southern speech to Vernacular Black English. Language, 50(3), 498-527.

Wolfram, W. (2000). Issues in reconstructing earler African American English. World Englishes, 19(1), 39-58.

Wolfram, W. (2000). Tracing language history through consonant cluster reduction: Evidence from isolated dialects. Southern Journal of Linguistics, 24(1), 17-40.

Wolfram, W. (2003). Reexamining the development of African American English: Evidence from isolated communities. Language, 79(2), 282-316.

Wolfram, W. (2007). Sociolinguistic folklore in the study of African American English. Language and Linguistic Compass, 1(4), 292-313.

Wolfram, W., & Beckett, D. (2000). The role of the individual and group in earlier African American English. American Speech, 75(1), 3-33.

Wolfram, W., & Clarke, N. H. (Eds.). (1971). Black-white speech relationships.

Wolfram, W., & Thomas, E. R. (2002). The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wolfram, W., Thomas, E. R., & Green, E. W. (2000). The regional context of earlier African American speech: Evidence for reconstructing the development of AAVE. Language in Society, 29(3), 315-356.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.