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African American English Bibliography


Policy decisions, public controversy (including the Ebonics controversy), and AAE and the law.

Adger, C. T. (1997). Issues and implications of English dialects for teaching English as a second language. In TESOL Professional Papers no. 3. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Alim, H. S., & Baugh, J. (Eds.). (2007). Talkin black talk: Language, education, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Ball, A., & Lardner, T. (1997). Dispositions toward language: Constructs of teacher knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English case. College Composition and Communication, 48(4), 469-485.

Barnes, S. (2003). The Ebonics enigma: An analysis of attitudes on an urban campus. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(3), 247-263.

Baugh, J. (1991). The politicization of changing terms of self-reference among American slave descendents. American Speech, 66(2), 133-146.

Baugh, J. (1995). The law, linguistics, and education: Educational reform for African American language minority students. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 87-106.

Baugh, J. (1996). Perceptions within a variable paradigm: Black and white detection based on speech. In E. W. Schneider (Ed.), Focus on the USA (pp. 169-182). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the mouths of slaves: African American language and educational malpractice. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Baugh, J. (2000). Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Baugh, J. (2004). Ebonics and its controversy. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the US: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Baugh, J. (2004). Standard English and Academic English (dialect) learners in the African diaspora. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 197-209.

Baxter, F. V. (1981). Black English: Some legal implications of the judicial response to language. NOLPE School Law Journal, 10(1), 81-93.

Botan, C., & Smitherman, G. (1991). Black English in the integrated workplace. Journal of Black Studies, 22(2), 168-185.

Brasch, W. M. (1981). Black English and the mass media. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Chambers, J., Jr. (Ed.). (1983). Black English: Educational equity and the law. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma.

Condit, C. M., & Cucaites, J. L. (1993). Crafting equality: America's Anglo-African word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

DeBose, C. (2005). The sociology of African American language: A language planning perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: Norton.

Fields, C. D. (1997). Ebonics 101: What have we learned? Black Issues in Higher Education, 13(24), 18-29.

Hauck, M. C. (2001). Public discourse about language and education: An analysis of newspaper opinion writing on the Ebonics controversy. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(10), 3366. (AAT 3028528)

Irvine, J. J. (Ed.). (1990). Black students and school failure: Policies, practices, and prescriptions. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Joiner, C. (1979). The Ann Arbor decision: Memorandum opinion and order and the educational plan. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Labov, W. (1982). Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: The case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in Society, 11(2), 165-201.

Lanehart, S. (1998). African American Vernacular English and education: The dynamics of pedagogy, ideology, and identity. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 122-136.

Lanehart, S. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Lardner, D. F. (1991). Dreams deflected: The Ann Arbor King School "Black English" case. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 52(07), 2444. (AAT 9135629)

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routledge Publishing.

Long, M. (1997). Ebonics, language, and power. Social Anarchism, 24, 5-29.

Lucas, C. (1997). Ebonics and ASL: Teaching our children the codes of power. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 15(5), 12-13.

Makoni, S., Smitherman, G., Ball, A., & Spears, A. (Eds.). (2003). Black linguistics: Language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas. New York: Routledge.

Marback, R. (2001). Ebonics: Theorizing in public our attitudes toward literacy. College Composition and Communication, 53(1), 11-32.

Marlowe, J. (1997). Beyond Ebonics. American School Board Journal, 184(7), 30-31.

McWhorter, J. H. (1998). The word on the street: Fact and fable about American English. New York: Plenum.

McWhorter, J. H. (2000). African-American self-sabotage in action: The Ebonics controversy. In Losing the race: Self-sabotage in Black America (pp. 184-211). New York: The Free Press.

Monteith, M. (1980). Implications of the Ann Arbor Decision: Black English and the reading teacher. Journal of Reading, 23(6), 556-559.

Morgan, M. (1993). The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguists. In M. Morgan (Ed.), Language and the social construction of identity in creole situations (pp. 121-150). Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies Publications, UCLA.

Murray, D. (1997). TESOL speaks on Ebonics. TESOL Matters, 7(3), 1-22.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (Eds.). (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African American children. Boston: Beacon Press.

Perry, T., & Delpit, L. (1997). The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African children. Rethinking Schools: An Urban Educational Journal, 12(1), 1-36.

Ramirez, J. D., Wiley, T. G., de Klerk, G., Lee, E., & Wright, W. E. (Eds.). (2005). Ebonics: The urban education debate (2nd ed.). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Richardson, E. (1997). The anit-Ebonics movement: "Standard" English only. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 156-169.

Richardson, E. (2003). African American literacies. New York: Routledge.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Suite for ebony and phonics. Discover, 18(12), 82-87.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Unequal partnership: Sociolinguistics and the African American community. Language in Society, 26(2), 161-197.

Rickford, J. R. (1999). The Ebonics controversy in my backyard: A sociolinguist's experiences and reflections. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(2), 267-275.

Rickford, J. R. (2002). Linguistics, education, and the Ebonics firestorm. In J. E. Alatis, H. E. Hamilton & A.-H. Tan (Eds.), Round table on language and linguistics, 2000: Linguistics, language and the professions (pp. 25-45). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, R. J. (2000). Spoken soul: The story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ronkin, M., & Karn, H. E. (1999). Mock Ebonics: Linguistic racism in parodies of Ebonics on the internet. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(3), 360-380.

Seymour, H., Abdulkarim, L., & Johnson, V. (1999). The Ebonics controversy: An educational and clinical dilemma. Topics in Language Disorders, 19(4), 66-77.

Seymour, H., & Seymour, C. M. (1979). The symbolism of Black English: I'd rather switch than fight. Journal of Black Studies, 9(4), 397-410.

Sledd, J. (1969). Bi-dialectalism: The linguistics of white supremacy. The English Journal, 58(9), 1307-1315.

Sledd, J. (1982). Review article: The Ann Arbor Black English case. English World Wide, 3(2), 239-248.

Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (1981). Black English and the education of black children and youth: Proceedings of the National Symposium on the King Decision. Detroit, MI: Center for Black Studies, Wayne State University.

Smitherman, G. (1981). What go round come round: King in perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 51(1), 40-56.

Smitherman, G. (1983). Language and liberation. Journal of Negro Education, 52(1), 15-23.

Smitherman, G. (1995). Students' right to their own language: A retrospective. The English Journal, 84(1), 2-27.

Smitherman, G. (1998). "Dat teacher be hollin at us" - What is Ebonics? TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 139-143.

Smitherman, G. (1998). Ebonics, King, and Oakland: Some folk don't believe fat meat is greasy. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 97-107.

Smitherman, G. (1999). CCCC's role in the struggle for language rights. College Composition and Communication, 50(3), 349-376.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (2000). Talkin that talk: Language, culture and education in African American. London: Routledge.

Smitherman, G. (2004). Language and African Americans: Movin on up a lil higher. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 186-196.

Smitherman, G., & Baugh, J. (2002). The shot heard from Ann Arbor: Language research and public policy in African America. Howard Journal of Communications, 13(1), 5-24.

Tamura, E. H. (2002). African American Vernacular English and Hawai'i Creole English: A comparison of two school board controversies. Journal of Negro Education, 71(1-2), 17-30.

Taylor, O. (1998). Ebonics and educational policy: Some issues for the next millennium. Journal of Negro Education, 67(1), 35-42.

Taylor, O. L. (1997). The last word: The Ebonics debate; Separating fact from fallacy. Black Issues in Higher Education, 13(24), 84-87.

Thomas, S. B., & DeGuire, D. J. (1981). Legal update Black English: Not a black and white issue. Texas Tech Journal of Education, 8(3), 223-226.

Ward, J. W. (1989). Judges' attitudes toward standard English and Black English in the state of Texas. (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1989), Dissertation Abstracts International 50(07), 1850. (AAT 8922792)

Wassink, A. B., & Curzan, A. (2004). Addressing ideologies around African American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 171-185.

Whiteman, M. F. (Ed.). (1980). Reactions to Ann Arbor: Vernacular Black English and education. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Williams, R. L. (Ed.). (1975). Ebonics: The true language of black folks. St. Louis, MO: Robert L. Williams and Associates.

Williams, R. L. (1997). The Ebonics controversy. Journal of Black Psychology, 23(3), 208-214.

Wolfram, W. (1998). Language ideology and dialect: Understanding the Ebonics controversy. Journal of English Linguistics, 26(2), 108-121.

Wright, R. (1998). Sociolinguistic and ideological dynamics of the Ebonics controversy. Journal of Negro Education, 67(1), 5-15.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.