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African American English Bibliography


The relationship between AAE and reading skills.

Adger, C. T., Christian, D., & Taylor, O. (Eds.). (1999). Making the connection: Language and academic achievement among African American students. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics/Delta.

Ames , W., Rosen, C., & Olsen, A. (1971). The effects of non-standard dialect on the oral reading behavior of fourth grade black children. In C. Braun (Ed.), Language, reading, and the communication process (pp. 63-70). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Ball, A. (1995). Language, learning, and linguistic competence of African American children: Torrey revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(1), 23-46.

Baratz, J., & Shuy, R. W. (Eds.). (1969). Teaching black children to read. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Bartel, N., & Axelrod, J. (1973). Nonstandard English usage and reading ability in black junior high students. Exceptional Children, 39, 653-655.

Bell , Y., & Clark, T. (1998). Culturally relevant reading material as related to comprehension and recall in African American children. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(4), 455-475.

Brooks, W. (2001). Reading, literature, and culture: A case study of middle school students' responses to African American fiction for children. (Doctoral dissertation, 2001), University of Pennsylvania 62(05), 1776. (AAT 30114301)

Charity, A. H., Scarborough, H. S., & Griffin, D. M. (2004). Familiarity with school English in African American children and its relation to early reading achievement. Child Development, 75(5), 1340-1356.

Connor, C. M., & Craig, H. K. (2006). African American preschoolers' language, emergent literacy skills, and use of African American English: A complex relation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(4), 771-792.

Craig, H. K., Thompson, C. A., Washington, J. A., & Potter, S. L. (2003). Phonological features of child African American English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46(3), 623-635.

Cullinan, B. (Ed.). (1974). Black dialects and reading. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Dillard, J. L. (1972). Black English: Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Fasold, R. W., & Shuy, R. (Eds.). (1970). Teaching Standard English in the inner city. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Foster, M. (1992). Sociolinguistics and the African-American community: Implications for literacy. Theory into Practice, 31, 301-311.

Gadsen, V., & Wagner, D. (Eds.). (1995). Literacy among African American youth: Issues in learning, teaching, and schooling. Creskill, NJ: Hampton.

Garris, M. C. (1990). A study of black students who participate in the Proficiency in English Program and their performance on reading tests. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University, 1990), Dissertation Abstracts International 51(04), 1179. (AAT 9025669)

Genshaft, J., & Hirt, M. (1974). Language differences between black children and white children. Developmental Psychology, 10(3), 431-446.

Grant, G. W. (1973). The effect of text materials with relevant language, illustrations and content upon the reading achievement and reading preference (attitude) of black primary and intermediate inner-city students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1973), Dissertation Abstracts International 34(07), 3832. (AAT 7321156)

Hall, S. L. (1982). Reading and the black child. (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1982), Dissertation Abstracts International 43(08), 2541. (AAT 8223209)

Hall, V., & Turner, R. (1973). The validity of the "different language explanation" for poor scholastic performance by black students. Review of Educational Research, 44(1), 69-81.

Hall, W., Reder, S., & Cole, M. (1975). Story recall in young black and white children: Effect of racial group membership, race of experimenter, and dialect. Developmental Psychology, 11(5), 628-634.

Harber, J., & Beatty, J. R. (1978). Reading and the black English speaking child. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Harris, J., Kamhi, A., & Pollock, K. (Eds.). (2001). Literacy in African American communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Harris, O., Anderson, V., Bloome, D., & Champion, T. (1995). A select bibliography of research on Africanized English and education. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 151-156.

Hester, E. J. (1997). An investigation of the relationship between narrative style, dialect and reading achievement in African-American children. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Marlyand College Park, 1997), Dissertation Abstracts International 58(06), 2138. (AAT 9736568)

Hobson, V. L. (1987). Some effects of Black Language on reading achievement in urban schools. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University, 1987), Dissertation Abstracts International 48(04), 886. (AAT 8709292)

Hoover , M., & Taylor, O. (1987). Bias in reading tests for black language speakers: A sociolinguistic perspective. Negro Educational Review, 38(2), 81-98.

Jones, D. (1979). Ebonics and reading. Journal of Black Studies, 9(4), 423-448.

Labov, W. (1967). Some sources of reading problems for speakers of the black English vernacular. In A. Frazier (Ed.), New directions in elementary English (pp. 140-167). Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city; Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1993). Recognizing Black English in the classroom. In L. M. Cleary & M. D. Linn (Eds.), Linguistics for Teachers (pp. 149-172). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Labov, W., & Robbins, C. (1969). A note on the relation of reading failure to peer-group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record, 70(5), 355-406.

Laffey, J., & Shuy, R. (Eds.). (1973). Language differences: Do they interfere? Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Lanehart, S. (1995). Language, literacy, and uses of identity. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1995), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(12), 4743. (AAT 9610177)

Lawrence-Guthrie, N. (2005). Two African American teachers' beliefs about and practices with African American language and its influence on literacy. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 2005), Dissertation Abstracts International 66(03), 938. (AAT 3166980)

Lee, C. D. (1993). Signifying as a scaffold for literary interpretation: The pedagogical implications of an African American discourse genre. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Lee, C. D. (1995). Signifying as a scaffold for literary interpretation. Journal of Black Psychology, 21(4), 357-381.

Lee, C. D. (1997). Bridging home and school literacies: A model of culturally responsive teaching. In J. Flood, S. B. Heath & D. Lapp (Eds.), Research on teaching the communicative and visual arts (pp. 330-341). New York: Macmillan.

Marwit, S., & Neumann, G. (1974). Black and white children's comprehension of Standard and nonstandard English passages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66(3), 329-332.

McWhorter, J. H. (1997). Wasting energy on an illusion: Six months later. Black Scholar, 27, 2-5.

Monteith, M. (1980). Implications of the Ann Arbor Decision: Black English and the reading teacher. Journal of Reading, 23(6), 556-559.

Ogbu, J. (1991). Cultural diversity and school experience. In C. Walsh (Ed.), Literacy as praxis: Culture, language, and pedagogy (pp. 25-50). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Padak, N. (1981). The language and educational needs of children who speak Black English. The Reading Teacher, 35(2), 144-151.

Piestrup, A. M. (1973). Black dialect interference and accommodation of reading instruction in first grade. Monographs of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory: University of California, Berkeley.

Richardson, E. (2003). African American literacies. New York: Routledge.

Richardson, E. (2006). Hip hop literacies. New York: Routledge.

Rickford, A. E. (1999). I can fly: Teaching reading comprehension to African American and other ethnic minority students. Landham, MD: University Press of American.

Rickford, A. E. (2002). The effect of cultural congruence and high order questioning on the reading enjoyment and comprehension of ethnic minority students. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6(4), 357-388.

Rickford, A. E. (2002). The effects of teacher education on reading improvement. Journal of Reading Improvement, 38(4), 147-169.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Suite for ebony and phonics. Discover, 18(12), 82-87.

Rickford, J. R. (1999). African American Vernacular English; Features, evolution, educational implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Rickford, J. R. (2002). Linguistics, education, and the Ebonics firestorm. In J. E. Alatis, H. E. Hamilton & A.-H. Tan (Eds.), Round table on language and linguistics, 2000: Linguistics, language and the professions (pp. 25-45). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, A. E. (1995). Dialect readers revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.

Rivers, A. N. (2001). The influence of elicitation procedures on the structure and content of African American English-speaking children's personal narratives and fictional stories and relationships between narratives and reading comprehension and expressive language. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(11), 3757. (AAT 3033555)

Simons, H. (1979). Black dialect reading interference, and classroom interaction. In L. Resnick & P. Weaver (Eds.), Theory and practice of early reading (pp. 111-129). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (1981). Black English and the education of black children and youth: Proceedings of the National Symposium on the King Decision. Detroit, MI: Center for Black Studies, Wayne State University.

Steffensen, M., Reynolds, R., McClure, E., & Guthrie, L. (1982). Black English vernacular and reading comprehension: A close study of third, sixth, and ninth graders. Journal of Reading Behavior, 14(3), 285-298.

Stoller, P. (Ed.). (1975). Black American English: Its background and its usage in schools and in literature. New York City: Delta.

Strickland, D. S., & Stewart, W. (1974). The use of dialect readers: A dialogue. In B. Cullinan (Ed.), Black dialects and reading (pp. 146-151). Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Terry, N. P. (2006). Relations between dialect variation, grammar, and early spelling skills. Reading and Writing, 19(9), 907-931.

Thompson, C. A., Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2004). Variable production of African American English across oracy and literacy contexts. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 35(3), 269-282.

Torrey, J. (1970). Illiteracy in the ghetto. Harvard Educational Review, 40(2), 253-259.

White, G. G. (1985). Black dialect in student writing: A correlation analysis of reading achievement, syntactic maturity, intelligence, grade level, and sex. (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, 1985), Dissertation Abstracts International 46(12), 3639. (AAT 8604738)

Wiley, T. G. (1996). The case of African American Language. In T. G. Wiley (Ed.), Literacy and language diversity in the United States (pp. 125-132). Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics/Delta.

Return to the AAE bibliography main page.

This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.