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African American English Bibliography


Linguistic variation in AAE at the levels of phonology, morphology, and syntax.

Alim, H. S. (2002). Street-conscious copula variation in the hip hop nation. American Speech, 77(3), 288-304.

Alim, H. S. (2004). Hip Hop Nation Language. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 387-409). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alleyne, M. C. (1980). Comparative Afro-American: An historical comparative study of English-based Afro-American dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers.

Anderson, B. L. (2002). Dialect leveling and /ai/ monophthongization among African American Detroiters. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6(1), 86-98.

Anshen, F. S. (1969). Speech variation among Negroes in a small southern community. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1969), Dissertation Abstracts International 30(06), 2509. (AAT 6921234)

Aucoin, M. M. (2002). The sociohistorical and linguistic development of African American English in Virginia and South Carolina. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2002), Dissertation Abstracts International 63(07). (AAT 3060190)

Bailey, B. L. (1965). Toward a new perspective in Negro English dialectology. American Speech, 40(3), 171-177.

Bailey, G., & Cukor-Avila, P. (2001). The effects of the race of the interviewer on sociolinguistic fieldwork. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 5(2), 254-270.

Bailey, G., & Maynor, N. (1985). The present tense of be in southern black folk speech. American Speech, 60(3), 195-213.

Bailey, G., & Maynor, N. (1987). Decreolization? Language in Society, 16(4), 449-473.

Bailey, G., Maynor, N., & Cukor-Avila, P. (1989). Variation in subject-verb concord in early Modern English. Language Variation and Change, 1(3), 285-300.

Bailey, G., & Schnebly, C. (1988). Auxiliary deletion in Black English Vernacular. In K. Ferrara (Ed.), Linguistic change and contact: Proceedings of the sixteenth annual conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation. Austin, TX: University of Texas, Department of Linguistics.

Baker, C. P. (1985). Acquisition of /t,d/ deletion in Vernacular Black English: A study of Head Start preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1985), Dissertation Abstracts International 46(08), 2280. (AAT 8521044)

Baugh, J. (1979). Linguistic style-shifting in Black English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1979), Dissertation Abstracts International 40(06), 3269. (AAT 7928106)

Baugh, J. (1980). A re-examination of the Black English copula. In W. Labov (Ed.), Locating language in time and space (pp. 83-106). New York: Academic.

Baugh, J. (1983). Black street speech; Its history, structure, and survival. Texas linguistics series. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Baugh, J. (1984). Steady: Progressive aspect in Black Vernacular English. American Speech, 59(1), 3-12.

Bender, E. M. (2001). Syntactic variation and linguistic competence: The case of AAVE copula absence. (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 2001), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(01), 143. (AAT 300010)

Bernstein, C., Nunnally, T., & Sabino, R. (Eds.). (1997). Language variety in the South: Revisited. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Blake, R. (1997). Defining the envelope of linguistic variation: The case of "don't count" forms in the copula analysis of African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change, 9(1), 57-79.

Brewer, J. (1979). Nonagreeing am and invariant be in early Black English. The SECOL Bulletin, 3, 81-100.

Burling, R. (1973). English in black and white. New York: Holt, Linehart & Winston.

Butters, R. R. (1973). Black English {-Z}; Some theoretical implications. American Speech, 48(1/2), 37-45.

Butters, R. R. (1986). Linguistic convergence in a North Carolina community. In K. Denning, S. Inkelas, F. C. McNair-Knox & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Variation in language: NWAV-XV at Stanford (pp. 52-60). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Linguistics Department.

Butters, R. R. (1990). The death of Black English: Divergence and convergence in black and white vernaculars. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Peter Lang.

Carpenter, J. (2005). The invisible community of the lost colony: African American English on Roanoke Island. American Speech, 80(3), 227-255.

Childs, B., & Mallinson, C. (2004). African American English in Appalachia: Dialect accommodation and substrate influence. English world-wide, 25(1), 27-50.

Claerbaut, D. (1972). Black jargon in white America. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Coles, D. J. R. (1998). Barrier constraints on negative concord in African-American English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(07), 2471. (AAT 9841855)

Craig, H. K., Thompson, C. A., Washington, J. A., & Potter, S. L. (2003). Phonological features of child African American English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46(3), 623-635.

Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2006). Malik goes to school: Examining the language skills of African American students from preschool to 5th grade. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cukor-Avila, P. (1995). The evolution of AAVE in a rural Texas community: An ethnolinguistic study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1995), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(12), 4747. (AAT 9610106)

Cukor-Avila, P. (2002). She say, she go, she be like: Verbs of quotation over time in African American Vernacular English. American Speech, 77(1), 3-31.

Cukor-Avila, P. (2003). The complex grammatical history of African-American and white vernaculars in the South. In S. J. Nagle & S. L. Sanders (Eds.), English in the Southern United States (pp. 82-105). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cukor-Avila, P., & Bailey, G. (1996). The spread of urban AAVE: A case study. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter & J. Solomon (Eds.), Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, theory, and analysis (Selected Papers from NWAV 32 at Stanford) (pp. 469-486). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Cutler, C. A. (1999). Yorkville crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 428-442.

Dalby, D. (1972). The African element in American English. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 170-186). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Dalgish, G. M. (1972). A dictionary of Africanisms: Contributions of Sub-Saharan Africa to the English language. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Dandy, E. (1991). Black communication: Breaking down the barriers. Chicago: African-American Images.

Davis, L. M., & Huang, X. (1995). Syntactic features of Muncie African-American English: Eight case studies. Journal of English Linguistics, 23(1/2), 141-154.

Dayton, E. (1996). Grammatical categories of the verb in African-American Vernacular English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1996), Dissertation Abstracts International 57(11), 4714. (AAT 9712915)

de Villiers, J. G., & Johnston, V. E. (2007). The information in third person /s/: Acquisition across dialects of American English. Journal of Child Language, 34(1), 133-158.

Denning, K. (1989). Convergence with divergence: A sound change in Vernacular Black English. Language Variation and Change, 1(2), 145-167.

Dillard, J. L. (1970). Lexicon of Black English. New York: Seabury Press.

Dillard, J. L. (1972). Black English: Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Dillard, J. L. (1973). The history of Black English. Revista Interamericano/Interamerican Review, 2, 507-520.

Dillard, J. L. (Ed.). (1975). Perspectives on Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Edwards, W. F. (1992). Sociolinguistic behavior in a Detroit inner-city black neighborhood. Language in Society, 21(1), 93-115.

Edwards, W. F. (2001). Aspectual done in African American Vernacular English in Detroit. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 5(3), 413-427.

Edwards, W. F., & Winford, D. (Eds.). (1991). Verb phrase patterns in Black English and creole. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Ewers, T. (1996). The origin of American Black English: Be-forms in the HOODOO texts. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fasold, R. W. (1969). Tense and the form be in Black English. Language, 45(4), 763-776.

Fasold, R. W. (Ed.). (1972). Tense marking in Black English: A linguistic and social analysis. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Fasold, R. W. (1981). The relation between black and white speech in the south. American Speech, 56(3), 163-188.

Fasold, R. W., & Shuy, R. (Eds.). (1970). Teaching Standard English in the inner city. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Folb, E. (1972). Black vernacular vocabulary: A study of intra/intercultural concerns and usage. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles.

Folb, E. (1980). Runnin down some lines: The language and culture of black teenagers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fridland, V. (2003). Network strength and the realization of the southern vowel shift among African Americans in Memphis, Tennessee. American Speech, 78(1), 3-30.

Fridland, V. (2003). 'Tie, tied and tight': The expansion of /ai/ monophthongization in African-American and European-American speech in Memphis, Tennessee. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7(3), 279-298.

Garrity, A. W. (2007). A study of auxiliary BE in African American English: A comparison of children with and without specific language impairment. (Doctoral dissertation, Lousiana Sate University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 2007), Dissertation Abstracts International 68(03). (AAT 3256324)

German, G. D. (2006). From British to African American Vernacular English: The strange odyssey of periphrastic habitual be and do. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, 14, 12-62.

Gilyard, K. (Ed.). (1991). Let's flip the script: An African American discourse on language, literature, and learning. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Green, L. J. (1993). Topics in African American English: The verb system analysis. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1993), Dissertation Abstracts International 54(06), 2135. (AAT 9329614)

Green, L. J. (1994). Study of verb classes in African American English. Linguistics and Education, 7(1), 65-81.

Green, L. J. (1998). Remote past and states in Afro-American English. American Speech, 73(2), 115-138.

Green, L. J. (2000). Aspectual be-type constructions and coercion in African American English. Natural Language Semantics, 8(1), 1-25.

Green, L. J. (2002). African American English: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Green, L. J. (2002). A descriptive study of African American English: Research in linguistics and education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), 673-690.

Green, L. J. (2004). African American English. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 76-91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Green, L. J. (2004). Research on African American English since 1998. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(3), 210-229.

Green, L. J., Quigley, R., & Seifert, N. (2005). Distinctions in past-time marking in child African American English. Proceedings of the Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 29(1), 248-259.

Harris, K. L., & Moran, M. (2006). Phonological features exhibited by children speaking African American English at three grade levels. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 27(4), 195-205.

Hazen, K. (2000). Identity and ethnicity in the rural South: A sociolinguistic study through past and present Be. Publication of the American Dialect Society 83. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Holloway, J. E., & Vass, W. K. (1993). The African heritage of American English. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Holm, J. (1984). Variability of the copula in Black English and its creole kin. American Speech, 59(4), 291-309.

Howe, D. (1997). Negation and the history of African American English. Language Variation and Change, 9(2), 267-294.

Huang, X. (1994). African-American English in "middletown": A syntactic and phonological study with time-depth data to test the linguistic convergence and divergence hypothesis. (Doctoral dissertation, Ball State University, 1994), Dissertation Abstracts International 56(01), 177. (AAT 9516475)

Jackson, J. E. (1998). Linguistic aspect in African-American English-speaking children: An investigation of aspectual "be". (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(07), 3391. (AAT 9841880)

Johnson, K. (1972). The vocabulary of race. In T. Kochman (Ed.), Rappin' and stylin' out: Communication in black America (pp. 140-151). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Kautzsch, A. (2002). The historical evolution of earlier African American English: An emprical comparison of early sources. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Labov, W. (1968). A study of the non-standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. New York: Columbia University.

Labov, W. (1969). Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language, 45, 715-762.

Labov, W. (1970). The study of nonstandard English. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city; Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1993). Recognizing Black English in the classroom. In L. M. Cleary & M. D. Linn (Eds.), Linguistics for Teachers (pp. 149-172). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Labov, W., Cohen, P., Robins, C., & Lewis, J. (1968). A study of the non-standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. In Cooperative Research Report 3288. Philadelphia: U.S. Regional Survey.

Lanehart, S. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Loflin, M. D. (1969). Negro non-standard and standard English: Same or different deep structures? Orbis, 18, 74-91.

Loflin, M. D. (1970). On the structure of the verb in a dialect of American Negro English. Linguistics, 59(1), 14-28.

Loflin, M. D., Sobin, N. J., & Dillard, J. L. (1973). Auxiliary structures and time adverbs in Black American English. American Speech, 48(1/2), 22-28.

Loman, B. (1967). Conversations in a Negro American Dialect. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Luelsdorff, P. (Ed.). (1975). Linguistic perspectives on Black English. Regensburg: Verlag Hans Carl Regensburg.

Luelsdorff, P. (1975). A segmental phonology of Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Major, C. (1994). Juba to jive: A dictionary of African-American slang. New York: Penguin.

Mallinson, C., & Childs, B. (2005). Communities of practice in sociolinguistic description: African American women's language in Appalachia. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 10(2), 1-14.

Mallinson, C., & Wolfram, W. (2002). Dialect accommodation in a bi-ethnic mountain enclave community: More evidence on the development of African American English. Language in Society, 31(5), 743-775.

Martin, S. E. (1992). Topics in the syntax of nonstandard English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1992), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(07), 2351. (AAT 9234617)

McDavid, R. I. (1973). Go slow in ethnic attributions: Geographic mobility and dialect prejudices. In R. W. Bailey & J. L. Robinson (Eds.), Varieties of present-day English (pp. 259-270). New York: Macmillan.

McDavid, R. I., & Davis, L. M. (1972). The dialects of Negro Americans. In M. E. Smith (Ed.), Studies in linguistics in honor of George L. Trager (pp. 303-312). The Hague: Mouton.

McWhorter, J. H. (1998). The word on the street: Fact and fable about American English. New York: Plenum.

McWhorter, J. H. (2000). Spreading the word: Language and dialect in America. New York: Heinemann.

Miethaner, U. (2000). Orthographic transcriptions of non-standard varieties: The case of earlier African-American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(4), 534-560.

Miethaner, U. (2005). I can look through muddy water: Analyzing earlier African American English in blues lyrics (BLUR). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Miller, M. I. (1993). How to study black speech in Chicago. In A. W. Glowka & D. M. Lance (Eds.), Language variation in North American English: Research and teaching (pp. 164-177). New York: Modern Language Association.

Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1971). Language behavior in a black urban community (Vol. 2). Berkeley: Monographs of the Language-Behavior Research Laboratory.

Montgomery, M. B., & Bailey, G. (Eds.). (1986). Language variety in the South: Perspectives in black and white. University, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Montgomery, M. B., Fuller, J. M., & DeMarse, S. (1993). "The black men has wives and sweet harts [and third person plural -s] jest like the white men": Evidence for verbal -s from written documents on nineteenth century African-American speech. Language Variation and Change, 5(3), 335-357.

Morgan, M. (1989). From down South to up South: The language behavior of three generations of Black women residing in Chicago. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1989), Dissertation Abstracts International 51(01), 154. (AAT 9015140)

Morgan, M. (1994). Theories and politics in African American English. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 325-345.

Morgan, M. (Ed.). (2002). Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mufwene, S. S. (1992). Ideology and facts on African American English. Pragmatics, 2(2), 141-166.

Mufwene, S. S., Rickford, J. R., Bailey, G., & Baugh, J. (Eds.). (1998). African American English: Structure, history and use. London: Routledge.

Myhill, J. (1988). Postvocalic /r/ as an index of integration into the BEV speech community. American Speech, 63(3), 203-213.

Myhill, J. (1988). The rise of be as an aspect marker in Black English Vernacular. American Speech, 63(4), 304-325.

Myhill, J. (1995). The use of features of present-day AAVE in the ex-slave recordings. American Speech, 70(2), 115-147.

Nguyen, J. G. (2006). The changing social and linguistic orientation of the African American middle class. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 2006), Dissertation Abstracts International 67(02), PhD. (AAT 3208524)

Nguyen, J. G. (2006). Real-time changes in social stratification: Status and gender in trajectories of change for AAE variables. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 12(2), 159-171.

Nichols, P. (1983). Black and white speaking in the rural south: Difference in the pronominal system. American Speech, 58(3), 201-215.

Nichols, P. C. (1983). Linguistic options and choices for black women in the rural south. In B. Thorne, C. Kramarae & N. Henley (Eds.), Language, gender and society (pp. 54-68). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Norment, N. (Ed.). (2003). Readings in African American language: Aspects, features and perspectives. New York: Peter Lang.

Norment, N. (Ed.). (2005). Readings in African American language: Aspects, features, and perspectives (Vol. 2). New York: Peter Lang.

Pardoe, T. E. (1937). A historical and phonetic study of Negro Dialect. (Doctoral dissertation, Louisianna State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 1937), Dissertation Abstracts International. (AAT 0139414)

Pederson, L. A. (1964). Some structural differences in the speech of Chicago Negroes. In R. E. Shuy (Ed.), Social dialects and language learning: Proceedings from the Bloomington, Indiana, conference (pp. 28-51). Champaign, IL: NCTE.

Pfaff, C. (1971). Historical and structural aspects of sociolinguistic variation: The copula in Black English. Technological Report 37. Los Alamitos, CA: Southwest Regional Laboratory.

Pitts, W. (1986). Beyond hypercorrection: The use of the emphatic -z in BEV. Chicago Linguistic Society, 17, 303-310.

Politzer, R. L., Hoover, M., & Brown, D. (1974). A test of proficiency in black standard and nonstandard speech. TESOL Quarterly, 8(1), 27-35.

Poplack, S. (2000). The English history of African American English. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (1989). There's no tense like the present: Verbal -s inflection in early Black English. Language Variation and Change, 1(1), 47-84.

Poplack, S., & Tagliamonte, S. (1994). -S or nothing: Marking the plural in the African-American diaspora. American Speech, 69(3), 227-259.

Queen, R. (2004). 'Du has jar keene Ahnung': African American English dubbed into German. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(4), 515-537.

Rahman, J. (2007). An ay for an ah: Language of survival in African American narrative comedy. American Speech, 82(1), 65-96.

Richardson, C. (1991). Habitual structures among blacks and whites in the 1990s. American Speech, 66(3), 292-302.

Rickford, J. R. (1975). Carrying the new wave into syntax: The case of Black English been. In R. W. Fasold & R. E. Shuy (Eds.), Analyzing variation in language (pp. 162-183). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Rickford, J. R. (1985). Ethnicity as a sociolinguistic boundary. American Speech, 60(2), 99-125.

Rickford, J. R. (1992). Grammatical variation and divergence in Vernacular Black English. In M. Gerritsen & D. Stein (Eds.), Internal and external factors in syntactic change (pp. 175-200). Berlin: Mouton.

Rickford, J. R. (1996). Copula variability in Jamaican Creole and African American Vernacular English: A reanalysis of DeCamp's texts. In G. R. Guy, J. Baugh, D. Schiffrin & C. Feagin (Eds.), Towards a social science of language: A festschrift for William Labov (pp. 357-372). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rickford, J. R. (1997). Suite for ebony and phonics. Discover, 18(12), 82-87.

Rickford, J. R. (1999). African American Vernacular English; Features, evolution, educational implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Rickford, J. R., Ball, A. F., Blake, R., Jackson, R., & Martin, N. (1991). Rappin' on the copula coffin: Theoretical and methodological issues in the analysis of copula variation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change, 3(1), 103-132.

Rickford, J. R., & Blake, R. (1990). Copula contraction and absence in Barbadian English, Samana English and Vernacular Black English. In K. Hall, J. P. Koening, M. Meacham, S. Reinmann & L. Sutton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS 16). Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Rickford, J. R., & McNair-Knox, F. (1994). Addressee- and topic-influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study. In D. Biber & E. Finegan (Eds.), Sociolinguistics perspectives on register (pp. 235-275). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rickford, J. R., & Rafal, C. T. (1996). Preterit had + V-ed in the narratives of African-American preadolescents. American Speech, 71(3), 227-254.

Rickford, J. R., & Rickford, R. J. (2000). Spoken soul: The story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ross, S. H., Oetting, J. B., & Stapleton, B. (2004). Preterite had + ed: A developmental narrative structure of African American English. American Speech, 79(2), 167-193.

Sankoff, D. (Ed.). (1986). Diversity and diachrony. Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Schilling-Estes, N. (2004). Constructing ethnicity in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(2), 163-195.

Schneider, E. W. (1981). American earlier Black English: Morphological and syntactic variables. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press.

Schneider, E. W. (1983). The origin of the verbal -s in Black English. American Speech, 58(2), 99-113.

Schneider, E. W., & Miethaner, U. (2006). When I started to using BLUR: Accounting for unusual verb complementation patterns in an electronic corpus of earlier African American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 34(3), 233-256.

Schneider, H. J. (1990). Lexical Africanisms in American (Black) English: An emprical study. (Doctoral dissertation, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria), 1990), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(03), 395. (AAT C173416)

Sells, P., Rickford, J. R., & Wasow, T. (1996). Variation in negative inversion in AAVE: An optimality theoretic approach. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter & J. Solomon (Eds.), Sociolinguistic variation: Data, theory, and analysis (Selected papers from NWAV 32 at Stanford) (pp. 161-176). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifying: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (2000). Black talk: Words and phrases from the hood to the Amen Corner (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Smitherman, G. (Ed.). (2000). Talkin that talk: Language, culture and education in African American. London: Routledge.

Smitherman, G., & Baugh, J. (2002). The shot heard from Ann Arbor: Language research and public policy in African America. Howard Journal of Communications, 13(1), 5-24.

Spears, A. K. (1982). The Black English semi-auxiliary come. Language, 58(4), 850-872.

Spears, A. K. (1988). Black American English. In J. B. Cole (Ed.), Anthropology for the nineties: Introductory readings (pp. 96-113). New York: The Free Press.

Stewart, W. A. (1969). Historical and structural aspects of sociolinguistic variation: The copula in Black English. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Roundtable on languages and linguistics (pp. 215-233). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Stewart, W. A. (1970). Understanding black language. In J. F. Szwed (Ed.), Black America (pp. 121-131). New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Stewart, W. A. (1971). Continuity and change in American Negro dialects. In H. B. Allen & G. N. Underwood (Eds.), Readings in American dialectology (pp. 454-467). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Stewart, W. A. (1971). Sociolinguistic factors in the history of the American Negro dialects. In H. B. Allen & G. N. Underwood (Eds.), Readings in American dialectology (pp. 444-453). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Stewart, W. A. (1975). Acculturative processes and the language of the American Negro. In W. W. Gage (Ed.), Language in its social setting (pp. 1-47). Washington, D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.

Stockman, I. J. (2006). Alveolar bias in the final consonant deletion patterns of African American children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37(2), 85-95.

Stockman, I. J. (2006). Evidence for minimal competence core of consonant sounds in the speech of African American children: A preliminary study. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 20(10), 723-749.

Summerlin, N. J. C. (1972). A dialect study: Affective parameters in the deletion and substitution of consonants in the deep south. (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University, 1972), Dissertation Abstracts International 33(08), 4394. (AAT 7304706)

Sutcliffe, D. (1992). System in black language. Multilingual Matters 77. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Tagliamonte, S. (1991). A matter of time: Past temporal reference verbal structures in Samana English and the Ex-Slave Recordings. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 53(03), 795. (AAT NN68011)

Tagliamonte, S., & Poplack, S. (1988). How Black English past got to the present: Evidence from Samana. Language in Society, 17(4), 513-533.

Tagliamonte, S., & Poplack, S. (1993). The zero-marked verb: Testing the creole hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 8(2), 171-206.

Tarone, E. E. (1973). Aspects of intonation in Black English. American Speech, 48(1/2), 29-36.

Terry, J. M. E. (2004). On the articulation of aspectual meaning in African American English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2004), Dissertation Abstracts International 65(06). (AAT 3136782)

Terry, N. P. (2006). Relations between dialect variation, grammar, and early spelling skills. Reading and Writing, 19(9), 907-931.

Thomas, E. R., & Bailey, G. (1998). Parallels between vowel subsystems of African American Vernacular English and Caribbean Anglophone Creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 13(2), 267-296.

Thomas, E. R., & Carter, P. M. (2006). Prosodic rhythm and African American English. English world-wide, 27(3), 331-355.

Thomas, E. R., & Reaser, J. (2004). Delimiting perceptual cues used for the ethnic labeling of African American and European American voices. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(1), 54-87.

Tottie, G., & Rey, M. (1997). Relativization strategies in early African American English. Language Variation and Change, 9(2), 219-247.

Troike, R. C. (2003). The earliest Gullah/AAVE texts: A case of 19th century mesolectal variation. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 18(2), 159-230.

Troutman, D. (1998). The power of dialect: Ebonics personified. In C. Weaver (Ed.), Lessons to share on teaching grammar in context (pp. 209-227). Portsmouth, UK: Boynton/Cook.

Van Herk, G., & Poplack, S. (2003). Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the Ottawa repository of early African American correspondence. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 18(2), 231-266.

Van Herk, G., & Walker, J. A. (2005). S marks the spot? Regional variation and early African American correspondence. Language Variation and Change, 17(2), 113-131.

Vaughn-Cooke, A. F. (1976). The implementation of a phonological change: The case of resyllabification in Black English. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, 1976), Dissertation Abstracts International 38(01), 234. (AAT 7714537)

Viereck, W. (1988). Invariant be in an unnoticed source of American early Black English. American Speech, 63(4), 291-303.

Walker, J. A. (2000). Present accounted for: Prosody and aspect in early African American English. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottowa, 2000), Dissertation Abstracts International 62(02), 556. (AAT NQ57075)

Walker, J. A. (2005). The ain't constraint: Not-contraction in early African American English. Language Variation and Change, 17(1), 1-17.

Weaver, R. A. (2000). Acoustic features of /r/ variations in African American Vernacular English-speaking children and adults of the Midsouth. (Doctoral dissertation, Memphis State University, 2000), Dissertation Abstracts International 61(07), 2689. (AAT 9978922)

Webber, K. N. (1985). Teaching about Black English: An annotated syllabus. Western Journal of Black Studies, 9(1), 23-29.

Weldon, T. L. (1994). Variability in negation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change, 6(3), 359-397.

Weldon, T. L. (1998). Exploring the AAVE-Gullah connection: A comparative study of copula variability. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1998), Dissertation Abstracts International 59(10), 3804. (AAT 9911288)

Weldon, T. L. (2003). Copula variability in Gullah. Language Variation and Change, 15(1), 37-72.

Weldon, T. L. (2003). Revisiting the creolist hypothesis: Copula variability in Gullah and southern rural AAVE. American Speech, 78(2), 171-191.

Williams, P. D. (1991). Tense-aspect in African-American English: A sociolinguistic perspective. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 52(10), 3595. (AAT 9209093)

Williams, R. L. (Ed.). (1975). Ebonics: The true language of black folks. St. Louis, MO: Robert L. Williams and Associates.

Williamson, J. V. (1970). Selected features of speech: Black and white. CLA Journal, 13, 420-433.

Winford, D. (1992). Another look at the copula in Black English and Caribbean creoles. American Speech, 67(1), 21-60.

Winford, D. (1998). On the origins of African American Vernacular English: A creolist perspective. Part 2: Linguistic features. Diachronica, 15(1), 99-154.

Wolfram, W. (1969). A linguistic description of Detroit Negro speech. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, W. (1974). The relationship of White Southern speech to Vernacular Black English. Language, 50(3), 498-527.

Wolfram, W. (1994). On the sociolinguistic significance of obscure dialect structures: The [NPi call NPi V-ing] construction in African-American Vernacular English. American Speech, 69(4), 339.

Wolfram, W. (2000). Tracing language history through consonant cluster reduction: Evidence from isolated dialects. Southern Journal of Linguistics, 24(1), 17-40.

Wolfram, W. (2003). Reexamining the development of African American English: Evidence from isolated communities. Language, 79(2), 282-316.

Wolfram, W. (2004). Social varieties of American English. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 58-75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wolfram, W., & Beckett, D. (2000). The role of the individual and group in earlier African American English. American Speech, 75(1), 3-33.

Wolfram, W., Hazen, K., & Tamburro, J. R. (1997). Isolation within isolation: A solitary century of African-American Vernacular English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1(1), 7-38.

Wolfram, W., & Thomas, E. R. (2002). The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wolfram, W., Thomas, E. R., & Green, E. W. (2000). The regional context of earlier African American speech: Evidence for reconstructing the development of AAVE. Language in Society, 29(3), 315-356.

Wyatt, T. (1991). Linguistic constraints on copula production in Black English child speech. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1991), Dissertation Abstracts International 52(02), 781. (AAT 9120958)

Wyatt, T. (1995). Language development in African American English child speech. Linguistics and Education, 7(1), 7-22.

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This list was compiled by Kara Becker, Peter Patrick, and Jonathan Rosa.