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International Development

Publications and Resources

Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies book coverExpanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies
This report reviews programs in 13 countries, all of which have been successful in some ways in expanding educational opportunity in their linguistically diverse societies. The report describes how mother tongue education programs begin and what must happen to help them succeed. Major topics include language development and language planning, materials development, teacher training, teaching methodologies, research, and evaluation. Learn more.

Educating Learners in Their Home Languages: Establishing and Maintaining Successful Programs
This document captures the essence of the longer report, "Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies." It is intended for policy makers and others interested in establishing and maintaining primary education programs in the student's home language. Download the English, French, or Spanish version.


Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States
Theresa Hsu Chao, Founder, National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools, June 1997
This digest describes Chinese heritage community language schools, an integral part of the Chinese community in cities across the United States. According to a study by the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools, approximately 82,675 students are taking Chinese in 634 language schools across the country. Read the digest.

A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
G. Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University, August 1999
This digest explores the use of multiple languages in education. In many parts of the world, bilingualism or multilingualism and innovative approaches to education that involve the use of two or more languages constitute the normal everyday experience. Read the digest.

Heritage Spanish Speakers—Language Learning Strategies
Zennia Hancock, University of Maryland, College Park, October 2002
This digest describes some of the issues involved in the Spanish language learning experiences of heritage Spanish speakers, the largest population of heritage language speakers in the United States. It describes ways in which educators can facilitate these students’ language development through a better understanding of their language learning strategies and suggests areas in which further research is needed. Read the digest.

Involuntary Language Loss Among Immigrants: Asian-American Linguistic Autobiographies
Leanne Hinton, University of California, Berkeley, December 1999
This digest draws on a set of linguistic autobiographies written by Asian American college students in this author's classes at the University of California, Berkeley, over the last several years. It examines the pattern of language shift that takes place in young first- and second-generation students and why this shift takes place. Read the digest.

Selecting Materials to Teach Spanish to Spanish Speakers
Paula Winke, Center for Applied Linguistics, & Cathy Stafford, Georgetown University, May 2002
The purpose of this digest is twofold: to raise awareness of the range of Spanish for Spanish speakers (SNS) materials available to teachers and school districts and to emphasize the importance of articulated SNS programs with well-sequenced materials. Read the digest.

Spanish for Spanish Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency
Joy Kreeft Peyton, Vickie W. Lewelling, & Paula Winke, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, December 2001
This digest explores the fastest growing heritage language population in the United States: Spanish-speaking immigrants and Americans of Hispanic descent whose families came from Central America, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and South America. The inclusion of Spanish-speaking students in foreign language classes places additional demands on teachers, who may be prepared to teach only speakers of English. Read the digest.

Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States
Richard D. Brecht & Catherine W. Ingold, National Foreign Language Center, Washington, DC, May 2002
This digest outlines the reasons for and challenges of developing the language skills of heritage language speakers and describes one effort to carry this out, the Heritage Languages Initiative. Read the digest.

What We Can Learn From Foreign Language Teaching in Other Countries
Ingrid Pufahl, Nancy C. Rhodes, & Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics, September 2001
This digest discusses language teaching methodologies, strategies, and policies in foreign countries that could inform language teaching in the United States. Read the digest.