• There are many articles now that have published outcomes on students in dual language programs. A good source for finding these articles is a review of research. Many are posted on the CAL website. Some specific reviews of research you might want to consider include:
    • Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K.J., Saunders, W., and Christian, D. (2006). Educating English Language Learners: A Synthesis of Research Evidence. NY: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 5 provides some details about achievement in various bilingual programs, including two-way and late-exit/maintenance bilingual programs.
    • Lindholm-Leary, K. J. (2001). Dual Language Education. Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
    • Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Howard, E. (in press). Language and academic achievement in two-way immersion programs. In T. Fortune & D. Tedick (Eds) Pathways to bilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education. Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
    • Howard, E. R., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2003). Trends in Two-Way Immersion Education: A Review of the Research (Report No. 63). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.
    • Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (2002). A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
  • A few pertinent tables and charts from Lindholm-Leary (2001) can be viewed/downloaded here—includes comparative research from different studies. Download in PDF or in Word format.
  • A PowerPoint presentation with outcomes from a 90/10 program can be viewed/downloaded here in PDF and PowerPoint.
  • A PowerPoint presentation with outcomes from a 50/50 program can be viewed/downloaded here in PDF and PowerPoint.

Other References Cited in the Toolkit

Abedi, J. (2001). Assessment and accommodations for English language learners: Issues and recommendations. Policy Brief 4. Los Angeles: UCLA, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement in Education, & National Education Association. (1990). Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. Retrieved April 4, 2007, from

August, D. & Hakuta, K., eds. (1998). Educating Language Minority Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.