Frequently Asked Questions about TWI
How well do students perform in Two-Way Immersion Programs?
In well-implemented programs, both native English speakers and native speakers of the partner language tend to do as well or better in English, the partner language, and tests of academic achievement than their peers in other educational programs.
For specific research on student performance in two-way programs, see the following publications:
- Collier, V. P., & Thomas, W. P. (2004). The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education for All. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1), 1-20.
- Collier, V. P., & Thomas, W. P. (2009). Educating English learners for a transformed world. Albuquerque, NM: Fuente Press.
- Howard, E. R., Christian, D., & Genesee, F. (2003). The Development of Bilingualism and Biliteracy from Grades 3 to 5: A Summary of Findings from the CAL/CREDE Study of Two-Way Immersion Education. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
- Howard, E. R., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2003). Trends in Two-Way Immersion Education: A Review of the Research (Report No. 63). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.
- Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual Language Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
- Lindholm-Leary, K., & Block, N. (2010). Achievement in predominantly low SES/Hispanic dual language schools. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(1), 43-60.
- Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Howard, E. R. (2008). Language development and academic achievement in two-way immersion programs. In T. W. Fortune & D. J. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to Multilingualism: Evolving Perspectives on Immersion Education (pp. 177-200). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (2002). A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.