Frequently Asked Questions about TWI
Is there any research on African-Americans in TWI Programs?
There are several publications that we know of that deal specifically with this issue:
- Anberg-Espinosa, M. (2008). Experiences and perspectives of African American students and their parents in a Two-Way Spanish Immersion program. Doctoral Dissertation, University of San Francisco.
- Bender, L. A. (2000). Language Planning and Language Policy in an Urban, Public School: The Interpretation and Implementation of a Dual Language Program. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
- Carrigo, D. L. (2000). Just how much English are they using? Teacher and student language distribution patterns, between Spanish and English, in upper-grade, two-way immersion Spanish classes. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
- Cazabon, M. T. (2000). The Use of Students' Self-Reporting in the Evaluation of the Amigos Two-Way Language Immersion Program. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA.
- Krause, E. E. M. (1999). Two-Way Bilingual Education: Analysis of an Inner-City Program. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.
- Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual Language Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
- Nicoladis, E., Taylor, D., Lambert, W. E., & Cazabon, M. (1998). What Two-Way Bilingual Programmes Reveal About the Controversy Surrounding Race and Intelligence. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1(2), 134-148.
- Parchia, C. T. (2000). Preparing for the future: experiences and perceptions of African Americans in two-way bilingual immersion programs. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.