Bibliography of Two-Way Immersion Research Literature

Section 9: Cultural Context and Social Impact of TWI

Ahlgren, P. (1993). La Escuela Fratney [The Fratney School]. Reflections on a Bilingual, Anti-Bias, Multicultural Elementary School. Teaching Tolerance, 2(2), 26-31.

Amrein, A., & Peña, R. A. (2000). Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice: Assessing Imbalance in a Program Promoting Equality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(8), available:

Bekerman, Z. (2005). Complex Contexts and Ideologies: Bilingual Education in Conflict-Ridden Areas. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 1-20.

Bender, L. A. (2000). Language Planning and Language Policy in an Urban, Public School: The Interpretation and Implementation of a Dual Language Program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Blanchette, J. A. (1994). On the Same Floor: A Sociolinguistic Study of a Two-Way Bilingual Program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.

Carrigo, D. L. (2000). Just how much English are they using? Teacher and student language distribution patterns, between Spanish and English, in upper-grade, two-way immersion Spanish classes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Cazabon, M. T. (2000). The Use of Students' Self-Reporting in the Evaluation of the Amigos Two-Way Language Immersion Program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA.

Cazabon, M. T. (2002). Goals and Research/Evaluation in Two-Way Bilingual Programs. Retrieved 10/11/2002, from

Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Connery, M. C. (2011). Profiles in emergent biliteracy: Children making meaning in a Chicano community. New York: Peter Lang.

Delgado-Larocco, E. L. (1998). Classroom processes in a two-way immersion kindergarten classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Dorner, L. M. (2011). Contested Communities in a Debate Over Dual-Language Education: The Import of "Public" Values on Public Policies. Educational Policy, 25(4), 577-613.

Elsnes-Paryzer, A. A. (2007). Teachers' Spanish instructional discourse within a specific social, cultural, and historical context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Fern, V. (1995). Oyster School Stands the Test of Time. Bilingual Research Journal, 19(3-4), 497-512.

Fitts, S. (2009). Exploring third space in a dual-language setting: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Latinos and Education, 8(2), 87-104.

Freeman, R. D. (1993). Language Planning and Identity Planning for Social Change: Gaining the Ability and the Right to Participate. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Freeman, R. D. (1994). Language Planning and Identity Planning: An Emergent Understanding. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 10(1), 1-20.

Freeman, R. D. (1995). Equal educational opportunity for language minority students: From policy to practice at Oyster bilingual school. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 39-63.

Freeman, R. D. (1996). Dual-Language Planning at Oyster Bilingual School: "It's Much More Than Language". TESOL Quarterly, 30(3), 557-582.

Freeman, R. D. (1998). Bilingual Education and Social Change. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.

Freeman, R. D. (2004). Building on community bilingualism. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing.

Genesee, F., & Cloud, N. (1998). Multilingualism Is Basic. Educational Leadership, 55(6), 62-65.

Gerena, L. M. M. (2002). Promoting language transformation and policy reform in education through two-way immersion: A conceptual framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University and San Diego State University.

Graham, C. R., & Brown, C. (1996). The Effects of Acculturation on Second Language Proficiency in a Community with a Two-Way Bilingual Program. Bilingual Research Journal, 20(2), 235-260.

Hadi-Tabassum, S. (2000). The Multicultural Science Framework: Research on Innovative Two-Way Immersion Science Classrooms. MultiCultural Review, 9(3), 24-30,60-63.

Hadi-Tabassum, S. (2002). Language, space, and power: A critical ethnography of a dual-language classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City.

Hausman-Kelly, T. (2001). "You Thought I was a Stranger": Cross-Cultural Integration in a Two-Way Bilingual Classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Howard, E. R. (2002). Two-Way Immersion: A Key to Global Awareness. Educational Leadership, 60(2), 62-64.

Howard, E. R., & Sugarman, J. (2007). Realizing the vision of two-way immersion: Fostering effective programs and classrooms. Washington, DC and McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems, Co.

Jeon, M. (2007). Language ideologies and bilingual education: A Korean-American perspective. Language Awareness, 16(2), 114-130.

Krause, E. E. M. (1999). Two-Way Bilingual Education: Analysis of an Inner-City Program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Larocco, E. L. (2003). Student roles in two-way immersion: Superordinate or subordinate? The ACIE Newsletter, 7(1).

Lee, S. Y. (2003). Contexts of language use in a two-way immersion program: Examining dimensions and dynamics of language and literacy practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Lewis, L. C. (2000). A Qualitative Study of Implementation Phenomena in an Elementary, Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Lindholm-Leary, K. (2000). Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 447714).

Linton, A. (2003). Spanish for Americans? The Politics of Bilingualism in the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Linton, A. (2004). Learning in two languages: Spanish-English immersion in U.S. public schools. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24(7/8), 46-74.

Linton, A. (2007). Spanish-English immersion in the wake of California Proposition 227: Five cases. Intercultural Education, 18(2), 111-128.

Lopez, M. M. (2008). 'Aqui en los estados unidos hablamos ingles....o, y espanol tambien': Students' emerging language ideologies and literacy practices in a dual language primary program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at San Antonio.

Lopez, M. M. (2010). Language ideologies of mothers and children in a dual language program. National Reading Conference Yearbook, 60, 233-249.

Lopez, M. M. (2011). Children's language ideologies in a first grade dual language class. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 12(1), 1-26.

Martinez, M. I. (2011). Exploring student integration patterns in two-way immersion schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

McCollum, P. (1994). Language Use in Two-Way Bilingual Programs. IDRA Newsletter, 21(2), 1, 9-11.

McCollum, P. (1999). Learning to value English: Cultural capital in a two-way bilingual program. Bilingual Research Journal, 23(2-3), 113-134.

McLaughlin, D. (1995). Strategies for Enabling Bilingual Program Development in American Indian Schools. The Bilingual Research Journal, 19(1), 169-178.

Meier, G. (2010). Social and intercultural benefits of bilingual education. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Monzó, L. D. C. (1996). Providing Equity for Latinas: Experiences from a Two-Way Bilingual Spanish Immersion Class. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Nicoladis, E., Taylor, D., Lambert, W. E., & Cazabon, M. (1998). What Two-Way Bilingual Programmes Reveal About the Controversy Surrounding Race and Intelligence. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1(2), 134-148.

Palmer, D. (2007). A dual immersion strand programme in California: Carrying out the promise of dual language education in an English-dominant context. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(6), 752-768.

Palmer, D. (2008). Building and destroying students’ ‘academic identities’: the power of discourse in a two-way immersion classroom. Qualitative Studies in Education, 21(6).

Palmer, D. (2010). Race, power, and equity in a multiethnic urban elementary school with a dual-language "strand" program. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 41(1), 94-114.

Palmer, D. K. (2009). Middle-class English speakers in a two-way immersion bilingual classroom: 'Everybody should be listening to Jonathan right now...'. TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 177-202.

Parchia, C. T. (2000). Preparing for the Future: Experiences and Perceptions of African Americans in Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Parker, A. D. (1994). The Relationship between Language and Learning: A Hermeneutic Critique of Selected Dual-Language Immersion Programs in the United States and Canada. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Pimentel, C. (2011). The Color of Language: The Racialized Educational Trajectory of an Emerging Bilingual Student. Journal of Latinos & Education, 10(4), 335-353.

Ramirez, D. M. (2002). Children of Mexican immigrants: Negotiating school in a two-way setting on the Texas-Mexico border. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas - Pan American, Edinburg.

Reyes, S. A. (1998). "!Mami, yo toque una mariposa!":  An alternative to linguistic and cultural loss. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago.

Reyes, S. A., & Vallone, T. L. (2007). Toward an expanded understanding of two-way bilingual immersion education: Constructing identity through a critical, additive bilingual/bicultural pedagogy. Multicultural Perspectives, 9(3), 3-11.

Rolstad, K. (1997). Effects of Two-Way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study. Bilingual Research Journal, 21(1), 43-63.

Rolstad, K. K. (1998). Language Minority Children in a Third Language Immersion Context: Evidence for Educational Enrichment (Language Immersion, Submersion Damage). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

Rubinstein-Avila, E. (2002). Problematizing the "Dual" in a Dual-Immersion Program: A Portrait. Linguistics and Education, 13(1), 65-87.

Scanlan, M., & Palmer, D. (2009). Race, power and (in)equity within two dual immersion models. The Urban Review, 41(5).

Shannon, S. M. (1999). Language Rights or Language Privileges? TESOL Journal, 8(3), 23-28.

Shannon, S. M., & Milian, M. (2002). Parents Choose Dual Language Programs in Colorado: A Survey. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(3), 681-696.

Shenk, E. (2008). Choosing Spanish: Dual language immersion and familial ideologies. In M. Niño-Murcia & J. Rothman (Eds.), Bilingualism and identity: Spanish at the crossroads with other languages. (pp. 221-256). Amsterdam Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Shenk, E. (2011). Constructing perspectives on language diversity in the U.S. Midwest. Spanish in Context, 8(1), 144-165.

Smith, P. H. (2000). Community as Resource for Minority Language Learning: A Case Study of Spanish-English Dual Language Schooling. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Smith, P. H. (2001). Community Language Resources in Dual Language Schooling. Bilingual Research Journal, 25(3), 375-404.

Sugarman, J. (2012). Equity in Spanish/English dual language education: Practitioners' perspectives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Tenorio, R. (1990, 5/90). A Vision in Two Languages. Rethinking Schools, pp. 11-12.

Torres-Guzman, M. E., & Etxeberria, F. (2005). Modelo B/dual language programmes in the Basque Country and the USA. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(6), 506-528.

Unger, M. (2001). Equalizing the Status of Both Languages in a Dual Immersion School. The ACIE Newsletter, 5(1), 1, 2, 8, 12, 13.

Valdes, G. (1997). Dual-Language Immersion Programs: A Cautionary Note Concerning the Education of Language-Minority Students. Harvard Educational Review, 67(3), 391-429.

Wright, S. (2003). A Comparative Study of Limited English Proficient and Non-Limited English Proficient Students in Two-Way/Dual-Language Programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.


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