CAL Resource Guides Online
Evaluation studies have attempted to determine how the English acquisition and academic achievement of students in bilingual education programs compare with those of students in other types of programs. These evaluations are complicated, however, by the difficulties in formulating a strong research design. For example, there is a great deal of variation among bilingual education programs, just as there is among mainstream programs. These research design issues seriously limit the ability of large comparative studies to make definitive claims about the effectiveness of bilingual education. Some research reviews of bilingual program evaluations have concluded that there is no difference between the English language development and academic achievement of students in bilingual programs versus students who received instruction in English only. Other reviews of bilingual evaluation studies have reached the opposite conclusion, that language minority students in bilingual programs outperform their peers in monolingual English programs.
Numerous resources are available on the subject of bilingual education. The following digests, minibibs, books, and Web sites may be helpful.
ERIC/CLL would like to thank Deborah Short and Elizabeth Howard of the Center for Applied Linguistics for their valuable assistance.
ESL and Bilingual Education Program Models
Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children
Ten Common Fallacies about Bilingual Education
Why Bilingual Education?
This ERIC digest is published by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.
Kloss, H. (1998). The American Bilingual Tradition. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.
Christian, Donna; Montone, Chris; Lindholm, Kathryn; and Carranza, Isolda. (1997) Profiles
in Two-Way Immersion Education. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
This book features 3 schools that have been implementing different variations of two-way immersion programs for at least 10 years.
Christian, Donna; and Whitcher, Anna, Comp. (1995) Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the US. Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Contact email@example.com for more information. Full text of the Directory is also available online.
Numerous other useful reports and videos are available from The Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence.
Baker, C., and Jones, S.P. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. This book devotes three pages to enumerating the many advantages of bilingualism. These encompass communicative, cognitive, and cultural advantages.
Collier, Virginia; and Thomas, Wayne. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
Crawford, J. (1999). Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice, 4th Edition Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services, 1999. Call (800) 448-6032 to order the book. It is also available online.
Crawford, James. (1997). Best Evidence: Research Foundations of the Bilingual Education Act (1977). Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. The complete report is available online.
Krashen, Stephen. (1996). Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates.
An article in the May, 1998 Atlantic Monthly, The Case Against Bilingual Education, by Rosalie Porter of the Institute for Research in English Acquisition and Development (READ Institute) argues against continuation of bilingual programs.
The National Clearinghouse on Bilingual Education (NCBE) is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) to collect, analyze, and disseminate information relating to the effective education of linguistically and culturally diverse learners in the U.S. NCBE provides information through its World Wide Web site and produces a bi-weekly news bulletin, Newsline, and manages a topical electronic discussion group, NCBE Roundtable. ASKNCBE FAQs are particularly helpful.
James Crawford?s Language policy Web Site & Emporium. Dr. James Crawford--an independent writer and lecturer, formerly the Washington Editor of Education Week?-specializes in the politics of language. Since 1985, he has been reporting on bilingual education, the English Only movement, efforts to save endangered languages, and language rights in the USA.
The Center for Equal Opportunity (CEO). CEO sponsors conferences, supports research, and publishes policy briefs and monographs on issues related to race, ethnicity, assimilation, and public policy, and is an organization leading the movement to eliminate bilingual education programs.
The National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) is a national organization exclusively concerned with the education of language-minority students in American schools.
An organization working toward the elimination of bilingual education is the READ Institute (Institute for Research in English Acquisition and Development). The READ Institute does not currently maintain a Web site, but may be reached at: PO Box 2428; Amherst, MA; 01004; telephone: 413-253-5906.
Tomas Rivera Policy Institute is dedicated to conducting timely and objective policy-relevant research on issues of concern to the nation?s Latino communities.
The California Association for Bilingual Education promotes and supports educational excellence for all in California. CABE collaborates and builds partnerships with families, schools, communities, businesses and government, provides preparation for moral and ethical leadership, disseminates relevant information based on sound educational theory and research, and conduct professional development opportunities to share, expand and build upon the expertise of parents, educators, administrators, community leaders and policy makers.
Arizona State University maintains a bilingual education research site.
The ERIC Clearinghouse On Rural Education and Small Schools offers resources on bilingual school populations in rural settings.
The ERIC Clearinghouse On Urban Education offers resources on bilingual school populations in urban settings.
To find out where to search the ERIC database in your community, call (1-800-276-9834) or email our User Services staff.
You may wish to search the ERIC database on the World Wide Web.
Information on retrieving documents from the database follows this section.
The search results below were retrieved by using the following combination of descriptors:
Bilingual Education Programs or Bilingual Education
Educational Benefits or Educational Trends or Program Effectiveness.
Multilingualism in the United States.
McKay, Sandra Lee
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, v17 p242-62 1997
Theme issue: "Multilingualism."
The author examines demographic changes in the United States since 1980s influencing the recent effort to assert English over other languages. Key issues include: efforts to ensure English dominance in English-Only initiatives; court rulings on English-Only regulations in the workplace; and bilingual education legislation. A review offers current research on dynamics of multilingualism in bilingual communities. There is a six-item annotated bibliography.
Bilingual Education Program Models: A Framework for Understanding.
Roberts, Cheryl A.
Bilingual Research Journal, v19 n3-4 p369-78 Sum-Fall 1995
Theme issue: "The ESL Component of Bilingual Education in Practice."
Available From: UMI
The discussion examines the goals, outcomes, and educational costs and benefits of various models of bilingual education: "submersion" (mainstreaming without support); pull-out classes for English as a Second Language; transitional bilingual education; maintenance bilingual education; enrichment, two-way, or developmental bilingual education; and the Canadian model of immersion.
Bilingual, Bicultural, and Binational Cooperative Learning Communities for Students and Teachers.
1996. 29p.; Chapter 13 in: Children of La Frontera: Binational Efforts To Serve Mexican Migrant and Immigrant Students; see RC 020 526.
As NAFTA opens the border between the United States and Mexico, the need for binational cooperation in education becomes ever more imperative. This chapter provides a rationale for binational education--the benefits of binational education both for language-minority students and for the majority culture--and describes a variety of cooperative bicultural programs for students and teachers. These programs include: (1) the Leadership Enhancement Academy for Binational Education in neighboring El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico), which brings together educators, community leaders, and parents to cultivate relationships and develop an integrated systemic approach to binational education in the cities' schools; (2) two-way bilingual classrooms in which English- and Spanish-speaking students are grouped in heterogeneous cooperative learning teams; (3) teachers' learning communities that provide collegial support for implementing a complex cooperative learning model; and (4) binational staff development activities involving U.S. and Mexican teachers from neighboring cities along the border. Particular emphasis is placed on an effective binational staff development process that helps teachers transfer appropriate knowledge and behaviors into the bilingual cooperative classroom, and provides ongoing support for personal development, interpersonal relationships, and program implementation. Contains 50 references.
NABE News, Volumes 2-18.
NABE News, v2-18 1978-95 1995
2,475p.; Volume 1 (1978) is out-of-print, not in the NABE archives, and could not be obtained to complete this set.
This document includes volumes 2-18 (November 1978 through August 1995) of the newsletter of the National Association for Bilingual Education. Individual issues contain news and information about a wide range of issues in bilingual education, including: international, national, and state trends; multicultural education; legislation concerning bilingual education; public policy and policy formation; classroom teaching techniques; program design and administration; program types; parent involvement; current research; instructional and reference materials; program descriptions; teacher trainingand role; program philosophy; and conferences. Book reviews and professional and association news are also included. (MSE)
Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the United States. Revised.
Christian, Donna; Whitcher, Anna. May 1995
473p.; For 1991-92 directory, see ED 343 444; for the 1992-93 supplement, see ED 353 833; and for the 1993-94 supplement, see ED 369 265.
This is an updated and revised edition of the directory produced in 1992, and the supplements of 1993 and 1994, on two-way bilingual programs that integrate language minority and language majority students, providing instruction in and through the two languages in Grades pre-K–12. Languages involved include Arabic, Cantonese, Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Navajo, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish. Each program listed in the previous issues was asked for updated information, and information on 20 new programs was solicited. Information is given by State; brief summary information is listed by district and school. Each listing includes program name; bibliographic information, with telephone numbers; grade levels served; target language used; student selection criteria; recruitment procedures; program materials used, size, and objectives; ethnic statistics; and funding sources. Each listing also includes instructional design and program staffing information, a program evaluation, and community support and viewpoint. The instructional design section offers detailed information on how languages are used in the classes by subject, instructional grouping, program staffing, and computer usage. The evaluation lists components, procedures, and evaluation instruments used. Community support and viewpoint includes parent involvement, community and School Board response to program, advice for starting a program, and the most important feature in the program. (Contains four references.)
EJ 406 918
How to Integrate Bilingual Education without Tracking.
Glenn, Charles L.
School Administrator; v47 n5 (May 1990) p28-31.
Two-way schools are integrated schools that stress learning in two languages. They provide a rich educational environment while minimizing negative effects of tracking-related educational segregation. A Chelsea, Massachusetts bilingual elementary school focused on team building to improve use of its resources.
ED 379 915
Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National Perspective.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC. 1994. 3pp.
These full-time programs use two languages, one of which is English, for instruction. Ideally, each class comprises approximately equal numbers of native speakers of English and native speakers of the other language of instruction. Discussion here covers implementation issues, future directions and concerns, overview of program results, and local views of the "Amigos Program."
ED 372 608
Language Planning and Identity Planning: An Emergent Understanding. In: Working Papers in Educational Linguistics; v10 n1 p1-20 Spr 1994. 21pp.
In this ethnographic study of a Spanish-English elementary school (which aims to produce bilingual, bicultural pupils), description of the school's functioning relies on classroom observations; interviews with pupils, teachers, and administrators; and perusal of school documents.
How a New Form of Peer Coaching Helps Teachers and Students in Two-Way Bilingual Programs.
Mar 1996. 13p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Bilingual Education (Orlando, FL, March 1996).
A 5-year study, conducted in two schools on the Texas-Mexico border, is investigating the effectiveness of peer coaching as a professional development strategy for teachers in two-way bilingual education programs. A group of 24 teachers, half bilingual and Hispanic and half monolingual and Anglo participated in the study. For each, classroom ethnographies were compiled after classroom observation, and teachers were videotaped at random times during classroom teaching. Six teachers were observed all day for a period of one week. In addition, teachers responded to a questionnaire on teaching practices, team teaching experience, and perceived problems and successes. Professional development sessions, during which the teachers acted as peer coaches, were also videotaped and ethnographies were developed for them. Ethnographies were analyzed for code switching, instructional patterns for each language, social/power relationships, teacher/student participation structures, and identification of particular discourse forms. The methods were found to be effective in focusing on the quality of student participation patterns, level of learning quality in each language, time and status given to each language, and teachers' professional development needs. (Contains 39 references.)
ED 364 079
Fernandez, Evelyn; Baker, Susan.
Assessment Portfolio, Grades K-5. Two-Way Spanish Partial Immersion Program. Arlington County Public Schools, Va. Aug 1993. 100pp.
This portfolio is a collection of materials and forms for testing and recording student progress. The introduction discusses portfolio use in monitoring academic progress and includes a checklist for tracking the use of reading strategies. The remaining components, including instructions for component assembly and use, come from students, parents, and teachers.
ED 359 787
Cazabon, Mary; and Others.
Two-Way Bilingual Education: A Progress Report on the Amigos Program. Research Report: 7.
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC; National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, Santa Cruz, CA. 1993. 38pp.
In this description of their research on students' achievement in mathematics, Spanish, and English vis-a-vis a control group, the authors also note student social-interaction patterns; present data on parent and student attitudes; and include teacher assessments and student self-assessments of student competence and self-esteem.
ED 341 269
Lambert, Wallace E.
Issues in Foreign Language and Second Language Education. In: Proceedings of the Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient Students' Issues (1st, Washington, DC, Sept. 10-12, 1990). Sep 1990. 40pp.
In foreign language (FL) and second language (SL) teaching and learning, SL and FL professionals have differing aims, orientations, and training, as they serve different populations. Discussion suggests that two-way bilingual immersion programs enhance native and non-native students' language competency without shortchanging them on basic educational needs.
The full text of most materials in the ERIC database with an "ED" followed by six digits is available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche, by email, or in paper copy form. About 80 percent of ERIC documents from 1993 to the present are available for online ordering and electronic delivery through the EDRS Web site. You can read ERIC documents on microfiche for free at many libraries with monthly subscriptions or specialized collections. To find an ERIC center near you, contact our User Services staff.
The full text of journal articles may be available from one or more of the following sources:
The originating journal
Through interlibrary loan services at your local college or public library
To obtain journals that do not permit reprints and are not available from your library, write directly to the publisher. Addresses of publishers are listed in the front of each issue of Current Index to Journals in Education and can now be accessed online through the CIJE Source Journal Index.
If you would like additional information about this or any topic related to language learning, linguistics, or cultural education, contact our User Services Staff.
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