CAL Resource Guides Online
Parents who speak more than one language are generally eager to share their languages with their children. As they begin this important undertaking, parents frequently have questions about how second language learning affects reading ability, social skills, and scholastic achievement. Whether or not they speak more than one language themselves, many wonder how best to help their children learn more than one language.
Research suggests that children who learn a second language are more creative and better at solving complex problems than those who do not. Studies have shown that bilinguals outperform similar monolingual peers on both verbal and nonverbal tests of intelligence and tend to achieve higher scores on standardized tests. Individuals who speak more than one language have the ability to communicate with more people, read more literature, and benefit more fully from travel abroad. Knowing a second language also gives people a competitive advantage in the workforce. These are some of the compelling reasons for parents to encourage the development of a second (or third) language with their children.
To help parents decide whether to raise their children bilingually, as well as to provide information about how best to proceed once they have made that decision, this Resource Guide lists publications, Web sites, conferences, listservs, and other information, followed by a search of the ERIC database to guide further research.
ERIC/CLL is grateful to Dr. Colin Baker, Professor of Education at the University of Wales at Bangor and author of numerous authoritative books on bilingualism, and Marjukka Grover, Editor of the Bilingual Family Newsletter, for their valuable assistance in compiling this Resource Guide Online.
Digests are brief overviews of topics in education. ERIC/CLL has prepared many timely digests on topics related to foreign language teaching and learning. The following digests may be of interest to parents who want their children to learn more than one language.
Why, How, and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language is a publication for parents. It answers a number of critical questions about early foreign language learning, including the following:
Resource Guide Online: The Benefits of Early Language Learning provides links to publications, conferences, Web sites, and other information about early language learning.
Resource Guide Online: The Effectiveness of Bilingual Education provides links to resources on bilingual education.
K–12 Foreign Language Education. The ERIC Review, Volume 6, Number 1 (Fall 1998). This issue covers foreign language education at the elementary and secondary school level and includes timely articles of interest to educators, policymakers, parents, and others. Print copies may be ordered from ACCESS ERIC (telephone number: 1-800-538-3742).
Curtain, H. (1993.) An Early Start: A Resource Book for Elementary School Foreign Language. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. ERIC Document No. ED 353 849.
Arnberg, L. (1987.) Raising Children Bilingually: The Pre-school Years. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C. (1993.) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C. (1995.) A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters. (Second Edition forthcoming in 2000.)
Baker, C., & Prys Jones, S. (1998.) Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C. (in press.) The Care and Education of Young Bilinguals: An Introduction for Professionals. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E. (1991.) Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The Bilingual Family Newsletter. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters. This newsletter, written by and for parents who are raising their children bilingually, provides a wealth of information, resources, and support for multilingual families.
Buckley, S. (1998.) Bilingual Children with Down's Syndrome. Down Syndrome News and Update 1 (1).
Caldas, S., & Caron-Caldas, S. (1992.) Rearing Bilingual Children in a Monolingual Culture: A Louisiana Experience. American Speech, 67(3), 290-96.
Curtain, H., & Pesola, C.A.B. (1994.) Languages and Children: Making the Match. Foreign Language Instruction for an Early Start, Grades K–8. (Second Edition.) White Plains, New York: Longman. 494p.
Depke, S. (1992.) One Parent, One Language: An Interactional Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Grosjean, F. (1982.) Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Cunningham-Andersson, U., & Andersson, S. (1999.) Growing Up with Two Languages: A Practical Guide. London: Routledge.
Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004.) Dual Language Development & Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.
Harding, E., & Riley, P. (1986.) The Bilingual Family: A Handbook for Parents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Homel, P., Palij, M., & Aaronson, D. (1987.) Childhood Bilingualism: Aspects of Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lyon, J. (1996.) Becoming Bilingual: Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Community. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Met, M. (1998). Critical Issues in Early Second Language Learning. Glenview, IL: Addison-Wesley. 339p. ISBN Number needed for ordering: ISBN O-673-58919-6. K–12 teachers may call 1-800-552-2259; postsecondary teachers call 1-800-322-1377; all others call 1-800-822-6339. This professional resource book provides state of the art insights and information about second language study in the elementary school.
Saunders, G. (1982.) Bilingual Parenting: Guidance for the Family. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Saunders, G. (1988.) Bilingual Parenting: From Birth to Teens. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Swords, T. (1999.) Doubletalk: Raising a Bilingual Family. Children Today (http://childrentoday.com/resources/articles/bilingual.htm).
Woods, P., Boyle, M., & Hubbard, N. (1999.) Multicultural Children in the Early Years: Creative Teaching, Meaningful Learning. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Yamada-Yamamoto, A., & Richards, B. (Eds.) (1998.) Japanese Children Abroad: Cultural, Educational and Language Issues. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Bilingual Families Discussion List is a listserv for families who are raising their children bilingually. To subscribe, send a message to email@example.com. Leave the subject and message fields blank.
The Foreign Language Teaching Forum (FLTEACH) is the major listserv for foreign language teachers, with lively and informative discussions. The FLTEACH archives contain numerous discussions about early foreign language learning. To subscribe, leave the subject line blank; send the message
SUB FLTEACH FIRSTNAME LASTNAME
Bilingual Books for Kids offers books for Spanish-English bilinguals (http://www.bilingualbooks.com).
Bilingual Families Web page is a place for bilingual parents to find information and resources to help them raise their children bilingually (http://www.nethelp.no/cindy/biling-fam.html). This organization also maintains a listserv. To subscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org. In the body of the message type SUBSCRIBE BILING-FAM YOUREMAILADDRESS.
Bilingual Parenting in a Foreign Language Web site is geared toward parents interested in raising their children to speak a foreign language that is not native to either parent, but has many links to resources of interest to all bilingual families (http://www.byu.edu/~bilingua/index.html).
Childbook.com is an importer and distributor of children books, videos, CDs, and other materials in Chinese.
Early Advantage publishes MUZZY, award-winning software in Spanish, French, and other languages from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (http://www.early-advantage.com).
The Foreign Language Teaching Forum (FLTEACH) Web site is a useful starting point for finding resources for teaching languages. The site also provides subscription information for the FLTEACH listserv and an extensive archive of FLTEACH discussions on topics of interest to language teachers and others interested in language learning (http://www.cortland.edu/flteach).
The German Language School Conference (GLSC) is the national organization for private German language schools in the United States. GLSC represents its member-schools and their interests concerning German language and culture and serves as a forum for pedagogical, administrative, legal, social, and other concerns.
Multilingual Matters is an international publisher specializing in books and journals on all aspects of multilingual and multicultural education, including second language learning. Multilingual Matters offers many publications on the subject of early language learning and bilingualism (http://www.multilingual-matters.com).
The National Clearinghouse on Bilingual Education (NCBE) is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about linguistically and culturally diverse learners in the United States. NCBE provides information through its World Wide Web site; produces a bi-weekly news bulletin, Newsline; and manages a topical electronic discussion group, NCBE Roundtable. ASKNCBE FAQs are particularly helpful (http://www.ncela.gwu.edu).
The National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL) is dedicated to promoting foreign language instruction for all students, kindergarten through 8th grade, and to supporting educators who teach those students (http://www.educ.iastate.edu/nnell).
Additional resources on this topic are available through the ERIC database of educational documents. The following search lists books, papers, reports, journal articles, and other documents of interest. Information on obtaining these materials appears after the search.
One Child, Many Worlds: Early Learning in Multicultural Communities. Language and Literacy Series.
Gregory, Eve, Ed.
Available From: Teachers College Press, P.O. Box 20, Williston, VT 05495-0020; Tel: 800-575-6566 (Toll Free); Fax: 802-864-7626; e-mail: email@example.com ($20.95).
By drawing on the experiences of children aged 3 to 8 attending schools in Britain, Germany, Iceland, Australia, and the United States, 11 case studies of young children provide insight into what it means for children to enter a new language and culture in school. The case studies are: "Learning through Difference: Cultural Practices in Early Childhood Language Socialisation" (Allan Luke, Joan Kale); "Two Sisters at School: Issues for Educators of Young Bilingual Children" (Rose Drury); "Continuities and Discontinuities: Teaching and Learning in the Home and School of a Puerto Rican Five Year Old" (Dinah Volk); "Stories from Two Worlds: Bilingual Experiences between Fact and Fiction" (Michaela Ulich, Pamela Oberhuemer); "A Child Writes from Her Everyday World: Using Home Texts To Develop Biliteracy at School" (Charmian Kenner); "Investigating Literacy in London: Three Generations of Readers in an East End Family" (Ann Williams); "Learning To Read, Reading To Learn: The Importance of Siblings in the Language Development of Young Bilingual Children" (Nasima Rashid, Eve Gregory); "Friends as Teachers: The Impact of Peer Interaction on the Acquisition of a New Language" (Susi Long); "Working in Partnership: Parents, Teacher and Support Teacher Together" (Maureen Turner); "Why You Don't Eat Bananas: An Exploration of a Child's Possible Worlds in Story" (Inge Cramer); and "From Karelia to Kashmir: A Journey into Bilingual Children's Story-Reading Experiences within School and Community Literacy Practice" (Leena Robertson). (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Case Studies; Classroom Environment; *Cultural Pluralism; *Early Childhood Education; *Family Influence; Language Acquisition; Language Research; *Language Role; Learning Processes; Parent Role; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Peer Influence; Second Language Learning; Second Languages; Siblings; Story Reading; Story Telling; *Young Children
A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Differentiation in Young Bilingual Children.
Nicoladis, Elena; Genesee, Fred
Language Learning, v46 n3 p439-64 Sep 1996
Examined whether there is an earlier developmental stage than 2 years of age when bilingual children do not use their languages in pragmatically differentiated ways. Analyses of recordings of four French-English bilingual children in Canada during free play sessions with their mothers and fathers suggest a stage very early in development when bilingual children do not show pragmatic differentiation in language use. (32 references) (Author/CK)
Descriptors: Audiotape Recordings; *Bilingualism; *Child Language; Code Switching (Language); *Developmental Stages; English; Fathers; Foreign Countries; French; Language Proficiency; Language Usage; Longitudinal Studies; Mothers; Parent Child Relationship; *Play; *Pragmatics; Preschool Children; Translation; Videotape Recordings
What Do Parents Expect? Children's Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Community.
Aldridge, Michelle; Waddon, Alun
Results of a survey of 200 parents attending baby and child clinics in North Wales show that parents know less about language development than about other areas of child development. Results suggest that both monolingual and bilingual parents and their children would benefit from improved information on how to facilitate language development. (43 references) (Author/CK)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; *Child Language; Foreign Countries; Hypothesis Testing; *Language Attitudes; *Language Fluency; *Parent Role; Questionnaires; *Second Language Learning; Uncommonly Taught Languages; Welsh
Identifiers: *United Kingdom; Wales
Language Differentiation in Early Bilingual Development.
Genesee, Fred; And Others
Examined language differentiation in bilingual toddlers prior to the emergence of functional categories. The children were observed with each parent separately and both together. Results indicate that while these children did code mix, they were able to differentiate between their two languages. There was some evidence that language dominance played a role. (27 references) (Author/CK)
Descriptors: Audiotape Recordings; *Bilingualism; *Child Language; *Code Switching (Language); English; Foreign Countries; French; Language Acquisition; *Language Dominance; *Language Fluency; Parent Child Relationship; *Parent Influence; Toddlers; Videotape Recordings
From Preschool to Home: Processes of Generalisation in Language Acquisition from an Indigenous Language Recovery Programme.
Tangaere, Arapera Royal; McNaughton, Stuart
This case study examined the effects of a Maori language and culture immersion preschool program on a preschooler's English and Maori language usage at home. School and home observations revealed the importance of the child's role in acquiring bilingual expertise, the presence of complementary activities at home, and shared cultural commitments. (MDM)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Case Studies; Child Role; Cultural Awareness; *Family Life; Foreign Countries; *Immersion Programs; Influences; *Language Acquisition; Parent Child Relationship; *Preschool Children; Preschool Education
Identifiers: *Maori (Language); Maori (People); *New Zealand
Educating Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Preschoolers: Moving the Agenda.
Kagan, Sharon L.; Garcia, Eugene E.
Attributes comparative policy inattention to linguistically and culturally diverse preschoolers to several causes including widely held personal beliefs, political ideologies, misperceptions about demographics, and academic disciplinary fragmentation. Explores the current state of today's practice and suggests four fundamental issues that must be addressed if policy and practice are to improve. (Author/GLR)
Descriptors: Bilingualism; *Cultural Differences; *Educational Policy; *Educational Quality; Family Relationship; *Language Acquisition; Leadership; *Minority Group Children; Parent Child Relationship; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Second Language Learning; Socialization
Identifiers: *Language Diversity; Modality Based Instruction
Mother-Child Interaction: Methodological Considerations.
Issues in Applied Psycholinguistics, v17 n2-3 p231-42 Sep-Dec 1985
Describes a study which attempts to place the problem of second language learning and use by bilingual children into a framework of double socialization through the analysis of mother-child and peer group interaction. Ukrainian and Greek second generation mothers and their children aged 5-6 years were observed in four sessions. (SED)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Child Language; *Discourse Analysis; Interaction Process Analysis; *Language Usage; Mothers; *Parent Child Relationship; Second Language Learning; *Socialization; *Speech Communication; Young Children
Identifiers: *Turn Taking
Language Acquisition in Two Trilingual Children.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v6 n6 p479-95 1985
Describes the language development of two children, now aged 5 and 8, who acquired two languages--Spanish and German--simultaneously from birth and a third--English-- when very young. Focuses on the following factors: patterns of interference, code switching, language dominance, the role of parents, the social environment, and the child's personality. (SED)
Descriptors: Child Language; Code Switching (Language); English; German; *Interference (Language); *Language Acquisition; *Language Dominance; *Multilingualism; *Parent Role; Second Language Learning; Social Environment; Spanish
Infant Bilingualism: A Look at Some Doubts and Objections.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v3 n4 p277-92 1982
Criticizes some recently published views on the difficulty of raising children bilingually (e.g., tolerance of children's deviations from adult speech, the influence of friends, and finding an adequate vocabulary for a foreign environment). Also discusses the use of children as subjects in language research. (EKN)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; *Child Language; *Child Rearing; *Language Acquisition; Language Dominance; *Language Maintenance; Language Research; Language Role
Bilingual Family Case Studies (Vol. 2). Monographs on Bilingualism No. 5.
Kamada, Laurel D.
Japan Association for Language Teaching, Tokyo. 1997
The group of case studies of family bilingualism examined the influences of maternal and paternal native language, schooling choices, travel and residence choices, and family background on development of bilingualism in the children. The families studied include eight Japanese-English bilingual families (one study including five generations) and two Chinese-Japanese families, including a total of 20 children. In each case, the family, language, and educational background of each family member is described and the family context for bilingualism is explored. The educational choices of the families and some of the main themes emerging in the case studies are also summarized. Themes identified include: the important influence of the parents in language development; the greater influence of the mother's native language; development of passive bilingualism; the role of parent language use in language loss or attrition; the differential roles of parent monolingualism and bilingualism; the influence of missionary upbringing; the importance of reinforcement of language skills in families changing location; long trips overseas as a factor in bilingual development; and the role of minority language literacy training in the home. (Contains 3 references.) (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Case Studies; Chinese; Comparative Analysis; Educational Background; English; Family Environment; *Family Influence; Family (Sociological Unit); Fathers; Foreign Countries; Japanese; Language Acquisition; Language Dominance; Language Proficiency; Language Research; *Language Role; Monolingualism; Mothers; Native Speakers; *Parent Influence; Place of Residence; Second Language Learning; *Second Languages; *Sex Differences; Travel
The Bilingual Parent as Model for the Bilingual Child.
Noguchi, Mary Goebel
Policy Science, p245-61 Mar 1996 1996
A survey investigated how language management strategies used by bilingual families could create family communication problems. The study was inspired by experience with bilingual families in which rigid adherence to a language policy appeared to impede communication. Respondents were 83 members of a special interest group on bilingualism within a Japanese language teacher's association. The survey explored respondent familiarity with the "one person-one language" strategy in which each parent speaks his own language at home, and home/community language strategy in which parents speak the minority language in the home and children learn the majority language through interactions outside the family. Results suggest that families applying these two language management strategies often face a wide range of problems, especially after the children reach school age and when families have more than one child. An alternative approach is recommended, in which parents make a conscious effort to help their children bridge the gap between two divergent languages and cultures through systematic modeling and promotion of the development of both languages. Specific techniques for achieving this are offered, including modeling, recasting/expansion/filling in the blanks, debriefing, and temporary intensive training. (Contains 15 references.) (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Child Language; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Interpersonal Communication; Japanese; Language Patterns; *Language Role; Language Teachers; *Parent Child Relationship; *Parent Influence; Professional Associations; *Second Languages; Surveys
Pushing Boundaries: Language and Culture in a Mexicano Community.
Vasquez, Olga A.; Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda; Shannon, Sheila M.
This book describes how bilingual children and their families actively and innovatively use available cultural and linguistic resources to pursue their goals. Three separate ethnographic studies were conducted within the same Mexicano community in Lincoln City, California. Descriptions of everyday talk of children and adults focus on how children acquire and use knowledge and language from a variety of contexts to accomplish social and personal needs. Descriptions highlight conversations during preschoolers' routine activities in home and school, use of school language or knowledge in such interactions, parents' deliberate role in their children's language socialization, the linguistic flexibility of preadolescent bilingual children, one child's role as interpreter and advocate, analytic strategies children learn during extended problem-solving situations as the immigrant family negotiates a new language and culture, and the children of immigrants as cultural brokers. Ethnographic data are interpreted from a "recognition perspective" that looks beyond cultural discontinuity to capture similarities in language use across various contexts, the convergence of multiple knowledge sources in a single context, and the uniqueness of language use practices fostered by Mexican culture. Rather than being isolated, the immigrant Mexicano community exists at an intersection of multiple cultures and languages, full of opportunities to acquire, transmit, or combine cultural and linguistic resources. Pedagogical implications of this view are explored through three examples--cross-age tutoring, after-school educational activities, and two-way bilingual education--that illustrate how linguistic and cultural practices can inform curriculum development and instructional strategies. Contains 148 references, notes, and an index. (SV)
Descriptors: Biculturalism; Bilingual Education; *Bilingualism; Cultural Exchange; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Life; Hispanic American Culture; Immigrants; Intercultural Communication; *Language Acquisition; *Mexican Americans; *Oral Language; *Parent Child Relationship; Preschool Education; Sociolinguistics
Identifiers: Chicanos; *Family Communication
Japanese Parents Bringing Up Their Children in English. Monographs on Bilingualism No. 2.
Japan Association of Language Teachers, Okinawa. 1994
Available From: Department of General Education, Osaka Institute of Technology, Omiya 5-16-1, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535, Japan (300 yen).
This monograph describes the experience of a Japanese family raising their children bilingually in Japan by adopting English as the home language. Both parents are native Japanese who went to graduate school in the United States and now teach English at the college level. Although both parents are very proficient in English, they recognize they will never reach native speaker level. Therefore, they decided to raise their two children as native English speakers, who will acquire Japanese from the community outside the home. In describing the methods used by the parents to raise their children bilingually, the decisions they had to make about culture, and the various periods in which one language or the other dominated as the family moved back and forth across the Pacific, the paper frequently cites and evaluates current research on bilingualism. (Author/VWL)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Case Studies; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Graduate Study; Higher Education; Language Acquisition; Language Proficiency; Language Research; Language Teachers; *Parent Child Relationship; Parent Role; Second Language Learning
Identifiers: *Japan; Japanese People; United States
Bilingual Children in Special Education: Acquisition of Language and Culture by British Pakistani Children Attending a School for Pupils with "Severe Learning Difficulties."
156p.; M. Phil. (Ed.) Thesis, University of Birmingham, England.
The context and processes of language acquisition in bilingual, bicultural British- Pakistani and British-Asian children (ages 2-19) attending a school for severe learning difficulties (SLD) were investigated. The first study compared 20 children with SLD who had a proficiency in speaking English and in their mother tongue (Urdu, Punjabi, Hindko, or Pushto). In the second study, the language acquisition processes were observed in 10 children who initially attended the nursery department and were not talking in any language. In the third study, a video was made of early language and communication in two British-Asian infants with SLD. The video was shown to mothers of children with SLD, who had widely varying reactions to the ideas conveyed and play activities shown. Results of the studies indicate that school support of mother tongues was highly important in facilitating some children's language acquisition. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of teachers and families appear to be crucial in providing or hindering access to mother tongue learning. Suggestions are made for enhancing awareness of the linguistic and cultural issues among school management, staff, and families; for improving school practice, largely by better use of existing resources; and for further research. Appendices include information about bilingualism and bilingual education. (Contains over 700 references.) (Author/ CR)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingualism; Communication Skills; Cultural Awareness; Cultural Influences; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Influence; Foreign Countries; *Language Acquisition; Language Fluency; *Mental Retardation; Minority Group Children; Mothers; Parent Child Relationship; Preschool Education; *Special Education
Identifiers: Asians; Great Britain; *Pakistanis
Psycholinguistic Aspects of Bilingualism.
Dopke, S.; And Others
60p.; In: Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. NLIA Occasional Paper No. 2
This paper considers psycholinguistic aspects of bilingualism from two perspectives: the psychology of the individual and social psychology. The linguistic development of children is described and research is presented that compares bilingual and monolingual children with respect to cognitive development. The emotional consequences of parents' decision to speak or not to speak their own language with their children after they have arrived in a new country is discussed as well as social factors that influence the levels of proficiency that bilingual speakers attain. The future of bilingualism in Australia is a function of people's attitudes to languages and varieties of language; social identity theory frames the discussion of Australian research on language attitudes. Recommendations focus on encouraging bilingualism at the family and community levels. (JP)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingualism; Children; Cognitive Development; Comparative Analysis; Cultural Influences; Foreign Countries; *Individual Psychology; Language Acquisition; Language Attitudes; Language Research; Monolingualism; *Parent Child Relationship; Parent Influence; *Psycholinguistics; *Social Psychology
Le rôle de l'identité ethnique dans l'acquisition et la rétention de compétences culturelles et de communication en milieu minoritaire francophone du Nord de l'Ontario (The Role of Ethnic Identity in Acquisition and Retention of Cultural and Communicative Competence in a Francophone Minority Context in Northern Ontario).
A two-and-a-half-year study in northern Ontario (Canada) investigated the relationship between characteristics of the minority French-speaking community, home environment, and the school and classroom environments. Focus was on factors affecting the development and maintenance of cultural awareness, ethnic identity, and communicative competence in French. Four cohorts of students were studied: from kindergarten to second grade, third to fifth grade, sixth to eight grade, and ninth to eleventh grade. Data presented here are based on descriptive statistics, structured ethnographic observations, and normative tests. Data and analyses are summarized in substantial statistical tables within and appended to the report. Findings resulted in the recommendation of 20 instructional strategies and actions for French-language schools in Ontario, based on five basic principles: (1) input before output, life experiences before competence, and comprehension before production; (2) competencies must be developed in accord with the environment; (3) accentuation and validation of Ontario youth and their cultural identity as French Canadians; (4) while addition of a second language does not require loss of the first language, lack of experiences in the first language can have that effect; and (5) support for French Canadian management of their own institutions. (MSE)
Descriptors: Bilingualism; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; *Communicative Competence (Languages); *Cultural Awareness; Elementary Secondary Education; *Ethnicity; Ethnography; Family Environment; Family Influence; Foreign Countries; *French; *French Canadians; Language Acquisition; *Language Maintenance; Language of Instruction; Language Research; Minority Groups; Native Language Instruction; Preschool Education
Identifiers: Canada; *Non European Francophone Areas; Ontario
Growing Up with Language: How Children Learn To Talk.
Baron, Naomi S.
This book is designed to provide practical advice to parents and educators on the language acquisition process. Citing numerous case studies and anecdotal examples, it explains how children learn to talk and acquire language. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to language acquisition, explaining the components, forms, and structure of language. Chapter 2 focuses on language development in infants from birth to the time they articulate their first words, exploring how conversational imperative drives children's early attempts at communication. Chapter 3 focuses on the transition period from single words to structured phrases, when young toddlers are able to express a wealth of information through a handful of sounds, words, and conversational techniques. Chapter 4 and 5 analyze the language strategies of preschoolers as they move from the earliest stages of grammar to becoming saturated speakers of the language. Chapter 6 looks at how children learn to reflect on language, to function in two languages, and to develop facility with other language modalities. Chapter 7 draws together information from the early months of life through age 5 or 6 on how children in a literate society become acculturated in reading and writing. Contains 30 pages of notes, references, and information sources. (MDM)
Descriptors: Bilingualism; *Child Language; Discourse Analysis; Early Childhood Education; *Language Acquisition; Language Attitudes; Language Patterns; *Learning Strategies; Literacy; Parent Child Relationship; Psycholinguistics; *Speech Communication; *Verbal Development; *Young Children
Early Bilingualism: The Soviet Experience. The Milton and Eleanor Fromer Lecture on Early Childhood Education (4th, March 5, 1990).
Negnevitskaya, Elena J.
National Council of Jewish Women, Jerusalem (Israel). Research Inst. for Innovation in Education. 5 Mar 1990
A discussion of bilingualism in young children in the Soviet Union looks at the three main forms of early bilingualism (bilingual home environment, different languages spoken at home and in school, and second language instruction in school), notes the challenges they pose for development and maintenance of bilingual skills, and then describes a program using a communicative approach to teach second language to preschoolers. Vocabulary and content carefully selected to be appropriate for children's communication were organized into games that built new language skills and incorporated free activity on the part of the children. Initially, the approach met with resistance by teachers, but gained popularity among teachers and the public. Changes in the Soviet concept of preschool education, emerging in about 1988, shifted the emphasis from preschool as preparation for later schooling to preschool as a place to both learn and develop trust and well-being. A special research project was begun to help teachers guide, observe, and control the language-learning process in this context. The system of communication games used initially has evolved and been adapted for use with older students and students with special needs. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; *Child Language; *Classroom Communication; Classroom Techniques; Curriculum Design; Foreign Countries; Interpersonal Communication; *Language Acquisition; Language Research; *Language Role; Language Usage; Parent Child Relationship; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Program Descriptions; Student Characteristics; Young Children
The Development of Bilingual Ability in Pre-School Children. NIE-BvLF Project Sub- Study.
Loh, Shoou Ai; Sim, Wong Kooi
Institute of Education (Singapore). 20 Feb 1993
32p.; Paper presented at the NIE-BvLF Regional Seminar (Singapore, February 20, 1993).
To investigate the actual and possible roles of parents in the development of preschoolers' bilingual ability, this study examined the home environments and bilingual ability of Singapore preschoolers. A total of 378 children, aged 5 and 6 years, were divided into 2 groups and individually interviewed. Children in one group began the interview in English; the other group began the interview in Chinese. During the interview, children were tested in English and Chinese in the areas of vocabulary, listening comprehension, story comprehension, translation, and verbal fluency. Children also completed a Home Language Environment Questionnaire. The children's parents also completed questionnaires. Analysis showed that children who perceived their home environment to be predominantly bilingual produced optimal performances in both English and Chinese language tests. Most parents were actively involved in helping their children develop language ability either directly or indirectly. Results also revealed that while children performed well in all language tests, there were some common areas of weakness in both languages, as well as important differences in certain corresponding aspects of English and Chinese, which could affect interlanguage transfer. (MM)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Bilingual Students; Chinese; English; *Family Environment; Foreign Countries; *Language Acquisition; *Language Aptitude; Mandarin Chinese; Parent Influence; *Parent Role; *Preschool Children; Preschool Education
Three Types of Bilingualism.
D'Acierno, Maria Rosaria
65p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (24th, Dublin, Ireland, March 27-30, 1990).
A discussion of bilingualism and second language learning distinguishes three types of bilingualism, namely, compound, coordinate, and sub-coordinate. A compound bilingual is an individual who learns two languages in the same environment so that he/she acquires one notion with two verbal expressions. A coordinate bilingual acquires the two languages in different contexts (e.g., home and school), so the words of the two languages belong to separate and independent systems. In a sub- coordinate bilingual, one language dominates. As illustration, language development is examined in case studies of the following Italian/English bilingual children in Italy: (1) a two-year-old whose Italian father uses both languages and whose English mother uses mostly English; (2) two sisters aged five and nine whose parents are Italian but who have always attended English-language schools; and (3) two Italian teenage boys whose mother has always spoken English to them and who have always attended English-language schools. The successes and problems faced by the children and their parents in developing bilingualism are discussed. It is concluded that in addition to biological predisposition, motivation and context play a significant role in bilingual development, and that overall, the bilingual experience is enriching. (MSE)
Descriptors: Adolescents; *Bilingualism; Case Studies; *Child Language; Comparative Analysis; *Educational Environment; English (Second Language); *Environmental Influences; Foreign Countries; Infants; Italian; Language Acquisition; *Language Dominance; Learning Processes; Parent Role; Second Language Learning; *Second Languages; Young Children
Developing Bilingual Behavior: Language Choice and Social Context.
Fantini, Alvino E.
Three aspects of bilingual code-switching are examined: (1) code-switching as an integral part of bilingual behavior, especially in early stages of language acquisition; (2) social factors influencing the child's ability to differentiate languages and make an appropriate language choice; and (3) hierarchical organization of these social factors, based on their order of emergence and relative significance in affecting language choice. Data were obtained from ten-year longitudinal studies of two children raised bilingually in Spanish and English. The findings suggest that while the social factors in each case vary greatly, children learn early to discern the factors that are significant for their own context and guide the choice of language. Although bilinguals alternate and even mix codes, they also know in which instances to make separate linguistic choices regardless of their proficiency in the second language. Families are found to play a critical role in developing the patterns for early bilingual behavior and insuring its continuance while the mainstream language becomes more dominant in the child's life. Separate language use appears to aid language differentiation and bilingual development, while continuous language mixing may encourage passive bilingualism and lagging development in one or both languages. The evidence is found to favor maintaining language distinctiveness. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; Case Studies; Child Language; Children; *Code Switching (Language); Cognitive Processes; English; Interlanguage; *Language Acquisition; Language Role; Longitudinal Studies; *Metacognition; Parent Role; *Social Influences; Spanish; *Speech Habits
Fostering Bilingualism in Early Childhood in an English-Speaking Home.
The decision of parents whose native language is English to raise their child bilingually prompted a review of the literature concerning approaches to fostering infant bilingualism. The review focuses on (1) language strategies most often adopted by the bilingual family, such as dichotomy and alteration; (2) other family variables; (3) the Grammont formula; (4) setting and function; (5) factors related to person; (6) violations of the person/language rule; (7) issues of inclusion and exclusion related to language selection; (8) dominance and balance; and (9) alternative educational programs. The concluding section of the review offers 17 guidelines parents might adopt in their endeavor to foster bilingualism in their young children. (RH)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; *Child Rearing; Guidelines; Infants; *Language Acquisition; Literature Reviews; *Parent Role; Preschool Children; *Second Language Learning
Identifiers: English Speaking
Early Childhood Bilingualism, with Special Reference to the Mexican-American Child. First Edition.
Garcia, Eugene E.
28 Sep 1983
Major concepts and findings related to the acquisition of early childhood bilingualism among Mexican American children are examined. Results are reported for empirical studies of bilingual acquisition, bilingual mother-child discourse, contextual and input parameters, interlanguage transfer, interactional language switching, and bilingual mother-child language acquisition. Among the other issues reviewed are tasks of native language acquisition, second language acquisition, incidence of bilingualism, linguistic input, sociocultural considerations, implications of language transfer for early childhood education, language switching discourse, cognitive development and language, bilingual education, and research considerations. (RW)
Descriptors: *Bilingualism; *Child Language; Early Childhood Education; Language Acquisition; *Mexican Americans; Parent Child Relationship; Second Language Learning; Speech Communication
The full text of most materials in the ERIC database with an "ED" followed by six digits is available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche, by email, or in paper copy. Approximately 80% of ERIC documents from 1993 to the present are available for online ordering and electronic delivery through the EDRS Web site. You can read ERIC documents on microfiche for free at many libraries with monthly subscriptions or specialized collections. To find an ERIC center near you, contact our User Services staff.
The full text of journal articles may be available from one or more of the following sources:
If you would like additional information about this or any topic related to language education or linguistics, contact our User Services Staff.
Back to RGOs Top of Page