CAL Resource Guides Online
Integrated language and content instruction provides opportunities for learners to acquire a new language through the study of academic disciplines such as mathematics, science, and history. Also known as content-centered or content-based language learning, this approach is an effective way for both English language learners and learners of other languages to develop their language skills and their academic skills at the same time. Programs that use content-centered language learning include total and partial immersion, two-way (dual) immersion, bilingual education, sheltered English, and many early foreign language programs (e.g., content-based FLES).
This Resource Guide provides links to publications, Web sites, teaching resources, and email discussion groups that offer information about teaching language through content-based instruction in K–12 and adult ESL programs and in foreign language programs.
ERIC/CLL is grateful to Judy Jameson for her valuable assistance in compiling this Resource Guide Online.
The following Web sites include a variety of resources on the topic of teaching language through content.
The Center for Applied Linguistics
The Integrated Language and Content page of the Center for Applied Linguistics' (CAL) Web site includes a complete listing of CAL projects, publications, and professional development resources on integrating language and content instruction.
CALLA Home Page at the George Washington University
This Web site provides an overview of the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA), which integrates content instruction with the development of language skills and explicit instruction in using learning strategies. Resources include a bibliography and a list of recent CALLA projects around the United States.
The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA)
This Web site provides a wide variety of resources on teaching language through content, including the CoBaLTT (Content-Based Language Teaching Through Technology) Project, which has a World Wide Web Resource Center with discussion boards, lesson plans, scoring rubrics, instructional modules, and bibliographies.
The Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE)
CREDE has many resources for integrating language and content, particularly for teachers of English to speakers of other languages who work in sheltered immersion programs. See their projects on Language Learning and Academic Achievement and Instruction in Context. Examples include the CREDE project on sheltered instruction.
This Web site provides clear, concise articles on content-based instruction for ESL teachers and also links to content-teaching materials (graphic organizers, classroom activities, teaching tips, and related links).
Languages Across the Curriculum
Sponsored by the Language Resource Center at Brown University, this Web site describes principles and practices of Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC), in which language is studied and used throughout the curriculum. It includes resources for both teachers and students, and links to other LAC sites.
The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA)
(formerly the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education)
NCELA offers many resources for teaching language through content to English language learners, such as the "In the Classroom" toolkit with sample activities for teaching grade-level content in K–12 educational settings.
The following Web sites include resources designed to assist educators who are integrating language and content-area instruction in their classrooms.
This book distributor maintains a list of ESL books designed to teach English through content for all age levels. Includes resources for teachers, textbooks and readers, blackline masters, and an ESL series.
Content ESL Across the USA: A Training Packet
Designed by the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education and the Center for Applied Linguistics, this instructional guide provides background information on teaching English through content, guidelines for designing and implementing a content-based ESL program, and sample lesson plans for content-based programs at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.
This Web site includes extensive links to lesson plans and instructional materials for teaching natural science, health, business, and history lessons to ESL students. The lesson resources are indexed according to the English proficiency level for which they are most appropriate.
FAST Math (Focus on Achieving Standards in Teaching Math)
This section of the Fairfax County (VA) Public Schools Web page describes their FAST Math program, which is widely used as a model for teaching math to English language learners.
Integrating the Internet
Designed primarily to assist teachers in integrating technology in the classroom, this Web site includes an extensive set of links to Web resources for teaching a wide variety of content areas, including K–12 resources on topics such as biomes, dinosaurs, living things, and weather. Although this Web site is not designed specifically for language teachers, many of the resources it includes could be adapted to teach language through content. Examples of complete curricular units on various content area subjects are provided.
Internet TESL Journal
This online journal offers a list of links to content-based ESL/EFL lessons using the Internet, arranged by language proficiency level.
Language and Civil Society
This resource was designed by English Teaching Forum Online for teachers of ESL/EFL who wish to develop content-based lessons and curricular units. This Web site is sub-divided into four volumes: civic education, business ethics, environmental education, and peace education. Each volume includes chapters with lesson plans, handouts, links, references, and a glossary of terms.
The Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN)
This Web site offers many articles, lesson resources, and Web links for teaching content-based lessons to adults learning English as a second language. To access these resources, you must first complete a free registration form. After completing the registration form, you may browse OTAN's many links and lesson plan resources; see in particular their content-area resources listed under Project-Based Learning in the "Classroom Strategies" section and their list of content-based internet project ideas and activities in the section entitled "Internet for Teachers."
Paso Partners - Integrating Math, Science, and Language
The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory designed these curricula for K-3 bilingual education programs to integrate concepts of mathematics and science into language instruction. The lesson materials are available in Spanish and English.
This non-profit education research organization focuses on math, science, and technology education, including the development of curricula. Their Web site includes full-text research articles on teaching math, science, and technology. See in particular the Ch¿che Konnen Center, which focuses on improving elementary and middle school science education for language minority students.
Brinton, D., & Maste, R. (Eds.). (1997). New Ways in Content-Based Instruction. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Chamot, A., & O'Malley, M. (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2000). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners: The SIOP Model. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jameson, J. (2000). Enhancing English Language Learning in the Elementary Classrooms (Complete Kit). McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Publishing Co. and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Jameson, J. (1999). Enriching Content Classes for Secondary ESOL Students: Complete Inservice Training Materials for Middle and High School Content. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Kauffman, D., & Apple, G. (2000). The Oxford Picture Dictionary for the Content Areas. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pally, M., & Bailey, N. (Eds.). (2000). Sustained Content Teaching in Academic ESL/EFL: A Practical Approach. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Richard-Amato, P.A., & Snow, M.A. (1992). The multicultural classroom: Readings for content-area teachers. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Short, D., Seufert-Bosco, M., & Grognet, A. (1995). By the People, For the People: U.S. Government and Citizenship. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Short, D., Seufert-Bosco, M., & Grognet, A. (1995). Of the People: U.S. History. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Smallwood, B., & McCargo, C. (Eds.) (2000) Integrating Language and Content in Secondary School: Instructional Strategies and Thematic Units. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Stryker, S., & Leaver, B. (Eds.) (1997). Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Methods and Models. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
English for Science and Technology
English for Science and Technology is a listserv for learners of English for scientific and technology applications. To subscribe, send a message to EST-SLlistserv@asuvm.inrc.asu.edu.
ESL Standards Implementation Listserv
This listserv provides a forum for educators who are implementing the TESOL Standards to exchange ideas, discuss issues, and share resources.
This moderated email discussion group provides a forum for ESL teachers to discuss methods and exchange ideas for how to integrate content into ESL classes.
The following journals frequently include articles on various aspects of integrating content and language instruction.
English for Specific Purposes focuses on current research in second language acquisition and linguistics relating to the teaching of English for specific purposes and the application of this research to teaching methodology.
Foreign Language Annals is the journal of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). This publication focuses on educational research as it pertains to language teaching, including content-centered language instruction. For more information about this journal, visit the ACTFL Web site and click on "Publications."
Forum is a journal for teachers of English as a foreign or second language. Articles include discussions of methods, techniques, and ideas that are useful in the classroom.
Learning Languages, the journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), publishes articles related to teaching languages to children. This journal frequently includes articles relating to teaching language through content.
TESL Canada includes a wide variety of articles on teaching English to speakers of other languages, many of which focus on integrating content and English language instruction.
TESOL Journal recently published a special issue that focuses on integrating language and content in the ESL/EFL classroom; see v10 n2-3 Sum-Aut 2001.
You may wish to conduct your own search of the ERIC database on the World Wide Web. If you need help with your search, call 1-800-276-9834 or email our User Services staff.
Information on obtaining the documents listed below can be found at the end of this section or by clicking here. These documents were identified by searching the ERIC database using the following combination of ERIC descriptors and keywords:
English (Second Language) or Second Language Instruction
Content Area Teaching
The Inclusive Classroom: Teaching Mathematics and Science to English Language Learners. It's Just Good Teaching.
Full text: http://www.nwrel.org/msec/
This publication aims to help teachers to more effectively teach math and science to English language learners (ELLs). It argues that the learner's home language can play an important role in his or her science and math learning, whether or not the teacher speaks that language. When students are allowed to use their home language in the classroom, their academic performance improves, which can help them to build a solid foundation in math and science concepts before entering the higher grades where language becomes more decontextualized and cognitively more demanding. Skills in content areas like math and science, once learned in the first language, are retained when instruction shifts to the second language. The book is divided into several sections including the following: "Understanding the Specialized Languages of Mathematics and Science"; "Linking Second Language Strategies with Content Instruction"; "Thematic Instruction"; Cooperative Learning"; "Inquiry and Problem Solving"; "Vocabulary Development"; "Classroom discourse"; "Affective influences"; "Assessment"; "Collaborating with Other Teachers"; and "Involving the Family." There are also three "scenes for the classroom," where practicing teachers share what has worked well for them in their classrooms.
Preparing Secondary Education Teachers to Work with English Language Learners: Mathematics. NCBE Resource Collection Series, No. 14.
Full text: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/resource/ells/
This report, the fourth in a series, integrates findings from research pertaining to content area instruction of linguistically and culturally diverse learners (LCDLs). The focus is on the education of secondary-level English language learners (ELLs) within mainstream mathematics classes. The intent of this document is to give teachers and teacher educators a better understanding of how mainstream mathematics instruction can be designed and implemented to enhance academic achievement and learning for these students. Research for this report included an extensive search of National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) bibliographic database, the ERIC bibliographic database, and various World Wide Web sites for information regarding effective curriculum and instruction, content standards, student assessment, teacher training, and education.
Sustained Content-Based Teaching for Academic Skills Development in ESL/EFL.
This paper discusses the rationale for using sustained content-based instruction (CBI) to teach English for academic purposes to non- native speakers, drawing on recent research and theory and on both personal experience and a small-scale study of college students. Discussion begins with a look at college and graduate students' needs for both language skills and skills in argumentation, particularly in the conventions of Anglo-American rhetoric. Topics addressed here include cultural, political, and psycho-social questions about English language hegemony and the question of who should learn these rhetorical conventions. Literature on sustained CBI is then reviewed, offering support for it from experience with student frustration, research on its effectiveness, and interviews with students who had studied English in sustained CBI classes. In the interviews, students noted benefits in content-area expertise and learning motivation. Several sustained CBI courses developed by the author are described briefly, with course outlines appended.
California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
CATESOL Journal, v5 n1 Apr 1992
This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and Motivation in the Content-Based University Classroom" (James F. Valentine, Jr., Lyn Margaret Repath-Martos); "Creating Content-Based Language Tests: Guidelines for Teachers" (Jean L. Turner); "Realbooks: Literature as Content in ESL Classrooms" (Marianne Boretz, Gary Colombo, Carl Friedlander, Ron Lapp, Peter Sotiriou, Bernadette Tchen); "What Is the Relationship between Content-Based Instruction and English for Specific Purposes?" (Ann M. Johns); "What Are Some Considerations for Teacher Training in Content-Based Instruction?" (Peter Master); "How Can ESL and Content Teachers Work Effectively Together in Adjunct Courses?" (Young Gee); "What Is the Relationship between Workplace Literacy and Content-Based Instruction?" (Rosemary Henze, Anne Katz); "What Do VESL and Content-Based Instruction Have in Common?" (Kathleen Wong); "Is Whole Language Teaching Compatible with Content-Based Instruction?" (David Freeman, Yvonne Freeman); "How Are Content-Based Instructional Practices Reflected in Sheltered English?" (Nina Glaudini Rosen); "What Are the Benefits of Cooperative Learning in Content-Based Instruction?" (Rocio Flores Moss); "What Is the Role of Teaching Culture in Content-Based Instruction?" (Sharon Hilles, Dennis Lynch); "How Can We Move from Comprehensible Input to Active Learning Strategies in Content-Based Instruction?" (Kate Kinsella); "How Can Thematic ESL Units Be Used in the Elementary Classroom?" (Sabrina Peck); "How Can Content-Based Instruction Be Implemented at the High School Level?" (Eva Wegrzecka-Monkiewicz); "How Does One Go About Developing Content-Based Materials for the Commercial ESL/EFL Market?"(Patricia A. Richard-Amato); "What Challenges Do Content-Based Instructors Face?" (Donna M. Brinton); and "What Options Exist for Funding Content-Based Programs?" (Marguerite Ann Snow).
Academic Achievement for Secondary Language Minority Students: Standards, Measures, and Promising Practices.
Full text: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/reports/acadach.htm
This study investigated what is known about content area instruction for linguistically and culturally diverse learners (LCDLs) in mainstream social studies, mathematics, science, and language arts classes. A review of recent literature looked at three major areas: (1) the theory and practice of standards for this group; (2) theory and practice of measures of achievement, proficiency, and/or academic literacy; and (3) promising practices in content area instruction. The study also included interviews with university education faculty to determine current issues and effective practices within the various subject areas, and site visits to a suburban high school that had implemented a team approach to working with language minority students in mainstream classrooms. Some classroom observations are presented as vignettes.
Measuring and Comparing: A Content-Based ESL Unit.
Greenleaf, Connie; Gee, Mary Kay
The materials in this unit include a teacher manual and student book for an 18-day English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) unit in measurement and comparisons. The teacher manual contains a list of instructional objectives for the unit, daily lesson plans, vocabulary chart, metric conversion table, a series of class activities, signs for labeling activity stations in the classroom, and instructions for an ancillary activity in making comparisons. The student book contains visual aids, worksheets, and exercises.
Integrating Language and Content Instruction: Strategies and Techniques.
Short, Deborah J.
Full Text: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/pigs/pig7.htm
Three principal factors that apply equally to language and content teachers are the focus on an integrated approach to teaching limited English proficient (LEP) students in grades 6 through 12. They are: (1) the use of multiple media; (2) the enhancement of students' thinking skills; and (3) student-centered organization of instruction. Strategies and techniques are described for preparing for the integrated approach, helping the LEP student adjust to the classroom, adjusting teaching style, teaching multilevel classes, motivating students and providing background knowledge, adapting traditional ESL techniques to the content classroom, meeting the students' cognitive academic needs, and checking student comprehension of the content. Suggestions are offered for developing lesson plans, including a lesson plan format and sample lessons.
New Technologies, New Literacies: Focus Discipline Research and ESL Learning Communities.
Language Learning & Technology, v4 n2 p105-128 Sep 2000
Describes a study of a content-based instructional model that engages high intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language students in sustained content study within collaborative learning communities and uses information technology resources to hone linguistic, academic, socioaffective, and metacognitive skills through an activity called focus discipline research.
GLOBE Integrates Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Technology into the Foreign Language Classroom.
Learning Languages, v4 n3 p23-25 Spr 1999
Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program. GLOBE is a worldwide network of teachers and students representing over 6,500 schools in more than 75 countries. It is an excellent vehicle for learning a foreign language while exploring science, mathematics, social studies, and technology, providing a foundation for interdisciplinary and content-based study.
Into, Through, and Beyond. A Framework to Develop Content-Based Material.
Brinton, Donna M.; Holten, Christine
Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997
Describes a lesson planning framework that content-based instruction teachers can adapt to their instructional materials, student populations, and classroom settings. Applying the framework to an authentic reading passage, the sample lesson illustrates how teachers can develop activities that supplement the content, increase student access to and comprehension of core materials, and foster students' linguistic skills.
Project Work: A Means to Promote Language Content.
Stoller, Fredricka L.
Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997
Provides a rationale for content-based instruction and demonstrates how project work can be integrated into content-based English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms. Outlines the primary characteristics of project work, introduces project work in its various configurations, and presents practical guidelines for sequencing and developing a project.
The Expanding Role of the Elementary ESL Teacher: Doing More than Teaching Language.
ESL Magazine, v1 n4 p10-14 Jul-Aug 1998
Discusses the new, expanded role of elementary English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers, focusing on content-based language instruction in elementary ESL and examining the challenges of content-based language instruction for elementary ESL (e.g., scarcity of good materials, and limited class time). Two sidebars describe how to develop thematic units and present a sample thematic unit.
The Imperative of Integrating Language Instruction with Instruction in Other Fields.
Wood, Richard J.
ADFL Bulletin, v30 n2 p41-42 Win 1999
To prepare college students for the global marketplace, language learning must be more fully integrated with the liberal arts. This means rethinking the relationship between language competency and the study of languages and literature. Literature in the target language should be studied at the advanced level, because this offers students a chance to learn the subtleties of the language.
Trends and Issues in Content-Based Instruction.
Snow, Marguerite Ann
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, v18 p243-67 1998
A review of literature on content-based second-language instruction, in both English and other second languages, describes the impact of content-based instruction on instructional, assessment, and teacher-training practices and examines its role as a setting for research and methodological innovation. It concludes with a discussion of ongoing challenges.
The full text of most materials in the ERIC database with an "ED" followed by six digits is available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche, electronically, or in paper copy. Approximately 80% of ERIC documents from 1993 to the present are available for online ordering and electronic delivery through the EDRS Web site. You can read ERIC documents on microfiche for free at many libraries with monthly subscriptions or specialized collections. To find an ERIC center near you, contact our User Services staff.
The full text of journal articles may be available from one or more of the following sources:
To obtain journals that do not permit reprints and are not available from your library, write directly to the publisher. Addresses of publishers are listed in the front of each issue of Current Index to Journals in Education and can now be accessed online through the CIJE Source Journal Index. If you would like additional information about this or any topic related to language education or linguistics, contact our User Services Staff.
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