Curricula and Standards: Grades K–12
FAST Math Curriculum
Fairfax County Public Schools
The FAST (Focus on Achieving Standards in Teaching) mathematics program,
developed in Fairfax County, VA, provides instruction to newly arrived
English language learners in Grades 4–12 who are 2 or more years
below grade level in mathematics. This program trains teachers to support
English language learners in their acquisition of academic language as
they learn the math concepts.
Buchanan, K. (2001). School administrator’s guide
to the ESL standards. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers
of Other Languages.
online as an Adobe PDF document (39kb).
This guide shows administrators how to use the ESL standards to establish
goals that measure compliance with federal guidelines and goals that are
aligned with the school accreditation process. Examples of school-wide
and classroom-based instructional approaches are included.
Cole, R. W. (Ed.). (1995). Educating
everybody’s children: Diverse
teaching strategies for diverse learners. What research and practice say
about improving achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development.
The culmination of work by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum
(ASCD) Urban Middle Grades Network, a special Advisory Panel on Improving Student
Achievement, and the Improving Student Achievement Research Panel, this book
proposes a repertoire of tools for educators meeting the needs of an increasingly
diverse student population.
Cole, R. W. (Ed.). (2001). More
strategies for educating everybody’s children.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This book presents a collection of papers offering practical strategies that
teachers can use to enhance student performance at all levels. The authors identify
and describe the most effective teaching approaches for helping students learn
history, civics, geography, and science. The book extends the notion of diversity
by examining different populations that have been underserved by schools.
Collier, V., & Thomas, W. P. (1997). School
effectiveness for language minority
students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
This publication was written for ESL and bilingual coordinators as well as for
school policy makers. It summarizes research findings from 5 large urban and
suburban school districts with records of more than 700,000 language minority
students collected from 1982–1996. The study makes predictions about long-term
student achievement related to a variety of instructional practices.
Genesee, F. (Ed.). (1999). Program
alternatives for linguistically diverse students.
Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence: University of California,
This report looks at programs and approaches for educating students from diverse
linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It is intended as a guide for decision makers
in schools and school districts to help them identify the instructional approaches
and programs that would best serve their students, meet their goals and needs,
and match local resources and conditions. An underlying assumption of this report
is that no single approach or program model works best in every situation. Many
different approaches can be successful when implemented well. Local conditions,
choices, and innovation are critical ingredients of success.
National Study of School Evaluation. (2002). Program
evaluation: English as a second language. A comprehensive guide for
for schools committed to continuous improvement. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages.
This volume helps school staff analyze their current ESL program from a data-driven
and standards-based perspective. It encourages schools to reflect on how well
they serve the academic and language learning needs of students learning English.
Drawing from the best pedagogical and programmatic practice, this new resource
will help schools develop the best programs so that English language learners
are successful in school and beyond.
Snow, M. A. (Ed.). (2000). Implementing
the ESL standards for PreK–12 students
through teacher education. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of
This book is a practical guide for using the ESL standards in various courses
within teacher education programs, and as such, is valuable for both teacher
educators and teacher learners. Most of the readings provide insights for both
prospective and practicing teachers who work with English language learners in
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (1997). ESL
for PreK–12 students. Alexandria, VA: Author.
The standards for PreK–12 ESL students represent a starting point for developing
effective and equitable education for ESOL students. These standards were developed
to complement the discipline-specific standards created by other professional
associations and groups. The ESL standards stand apart, however, because they
acknowledge the central role of language in the achievement of content and highlight
the learning styles and particular instructional and assessment needs of learners
who are still developing proficiency in English. Developed through a collaborative
process involving hundreds of ESL teachers, researchers, administrators, and
language specialists, the standards provide national coherence for students and
the educators who serve them.
Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P. (2002). A
national study of school effectiveness
for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement.
of California, Santa Cruz: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
This five-year research study (1996–2001) is the most recent overview of
the types of school programs provided for linguistically and culturally diverse
students in the United States, the language minority or English language learner
population. The research findings includes both qualitative and quantitative
data on the long-term achievement of these students in Grades K–12.
Wiley, T. (1996). Literacy and language diversity in the
DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Written for scholars, policy makers, and educators, this book provides
an introduction to those unfamiliar with issues in literacy and language
diversity and poses
problems for consideration for those who work in the field. The book explores
the extent of language diversity in the United States based on the best available
national data; considers what we know about the extent of English literacy, native
language literacy, and biliteracy; and discusses the kinds of data we need to
make more informed policy decisions at the national level. The book critiques
policies and practices that view language and other forms of human diversity
as problems that must be remedied through education and points to recent positive
developments in adult literacy that accommodate language diversity and use it
as a resource. The book concludes with recommendations for policy and practice.
Digests and Reports
ESL and Bilingual Program Models
The ESL Standards: Bridging the Academic Gap for English Language Learners
A National Study
of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’ Long-Term
Recent Reading Initiatives:
Examples of National, State, and Professional Organizations’ Efforts
Some Program Alternatives for English Language Learners
Standards for PreK–12 Students
The Center for Applied Linguistics maintains this page, which includes
links to publications; a listserv; and a searchable database that includes
survey information of states, districts, and schools that are involved
in using the ESL Standards for curriculum, assessment, and professional
Teachers of English to Speakers
of Other Languages (TESOL)
This organization developed the K–12 ESL Standards , which form
the basis for many school, district, and state ESL curricula. Read the
Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA)
This site offers a searchable bibliographic database that includes more
than 20,000 citations and abstracts dealing with all aspects of the education
of linguistically diverse students. NCELA makes many important papers
available online. Browse their Online
See especially NCELA’s resources on “Curriculum
and Instruction: Reading, Writing, Literacy, and Literature”
and the section on “Education
Research: Language and Literacy Development” .
ESL Standards Implementation Database
This searchable database includes the survey information of states,
districts, and schools that are involved in using the ESL Standards
assessment, and professional development purposes. This information
is intended to facilitate communication among practitioners working
educational reforms that include English language learners (ELLs).