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Resources for Grades 9-12
Curricula and Standards
Classroom Resources
and Instructional Strategies
Culture and Orientation
Professional Development
Sample Search
of the ERIC Database
Resources for Grades K–12
Curricula and Standards
Classroom Resources
and Instructional Strategies
Culture and Orientation
Professional Development
Sample Search
of the ERIC Database

Sample Search of the ERIC Database

These documents were identified by searching the ERIC database using the following combination of ERIC descriptors and keywords:

English (Second Language) or Limited English Speaking
High School Students or Secondary Education or Grade 9 or Grade 10 or Grade 11 or Grade 12
Literacy or Literacy Skills or Literacy Education or Biliteracy or Reading/DF or Reading Instruction [as major descriptors]
Not Foreign Countries

Search Results

Title: Changing Lives: Teaching English and Literature to ESL Students.
Author(s) Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Moore, Monica; Maloney, Carol
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v46 n2 p116-28 Oct 2002

Provides teachers with selected background knowledge and strategies that enhance the learning process for English as a Second Language (ESL) students in secondary classrooms. Discusses the stages of language development and cultural adaptation that all second-language learners navigate through. Outlines important linguistic and cultural processes. Suggests effective activities for students in various stages within those processes.

Title: Russian Bilingual Science Learning: Perspectives from Secondary Students.
Author(s) Lemberger, Nancy; Vinogradova, Olga
Source: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, v5 n1 p58-71 2002

Describes one secondary Russian/English bilingual science teacher's practice and her literate students' experiences as they learn science and adapt to a new school. Discusses the notion of whether literacy skills in the native language are transferable to a second language.

Title: Teaching Reading Strategies: "It Takes Time!"
Author(s) Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Source: Reading in a Foreign Language, v13 n2 p631-46 Spr 2001

Outlines a case study of how one teacher attempted to incorporate strategy training into his secondary school English reading classes. The teacher attempted strategy training in questioning, clarifying, and predicting strategies and vocabulary recognition techniques for less proficient English students with mixed success. The teacher was successful in getting students to achieve some metacognitive awareness of their reading processes.

Title: The Process of Becoming a Participant in Small-Group Critical Discussions: A Case Study.
Author(s) Nussbaum, E. Michael
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v45 n6 p488-97 Mar 2002

Presents a case study of one classroom teacher's attempt to develop critical discourse in students, focusing particularly on the ability of language-minority students to participate in critical discussions. Suggests that allowing students to explore topics of personal relevance--as may occur in a critical literacy curriculum--is one way of stimulating motivation and therefore complex discussion.

Title: Teaching Reading to Low-Literate Language Minority High School Students.
Author(s) Thomas, Thomas
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

This paper, written from the perspective of a classroom teacher who is also the child of immigrant parents, examines issues related to teaching reading to low-literate minority students for whom English is not their first language. The paper presents background issues, examines the process of language acquisition, and focuses on the following: the political context (this country is in the middle of a controversy over bilingual issues, with several states arguing over how to teach new immigrants and various federal mandates about bilingual education); educational factors that affect the process of gaining English proficiency (teacher effectiveness and student motivation); cultural factors that influence immigrants' adjustment to U.S. education (including language); key principles of second language acquisition (e.g., literacy in the first language); age and second language acquisition; language and meaning (the importance of cultural relevance); and instructional strategies (environment, meaning and the language experience approach, content-centered approach, and cooperative learning).

Title: Learning Language and Critical Literacy: Adolescent ESL Students.
Author(s) Alford, Jennifer
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v45 n3 p238-42 Nov 2001

Addresses two interrelated factors needed to be resolved at the commencement of any Critical Literacy approach in the mainstream subject classroom--the nature of the texts presented and the concept of resistance. Lists three strategies that help to build background knowledge: activating existing prior knowledge; building on that knowledge from a contemporary localized perspective; and adding new information during reading.

Title: A Meaning-based ESL Reading Program.
Author(s) Kruger, Arnold
Source: Reading Improvement, v37 n2 p50-55 Sum 2000

Outlines a meaning-based reading program for English-as-a-second-language teenagers in grades 8-12 aimed at promoting analytic thinking, cultural integration, and creative processing skills, as well as increased English proficiency. Discusses general and specific objectives, reading materials, types of reading programs, integrated and followup activities, feedback, timeframe, and manpower and funding requirements.

Title: Enabling Academic Success for Secondary Students with Limited Formal Schooling: A Study of the Haitian Literacy Program at Hyde Park High School in Boston.
Author(s) Walsh, Catherine E.
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

This publication documents a successful literacy program for a specific at-risk group, the Haitian Literacy Program at Hyde Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts. In operation since 1988, the Haitian Literacy Program is the longest running high school literacy program in the region for bilingual students with limited formal education. Through a case study approach, the educational success of these students and the program traits that staff and students believe have enabled academic achievement, high school graduation, and participation in higher education are examined. The program is designed for secondary school students with less than a fourth-grade level of formal education or no literacy skills in their native language or English. It is an intensive, self-contained program focused on developing the skills needed to participate in bilingual education classes. In its 9 years of operation, the program has averaged 20 students each year. Data were collected through case study and collaborative approaches from document reviews, ethnographic observations, interviews, and focus group discussions. Key elements of program success were identified as: (1) the commitment and dedication of the native language teacher; (2) the relationship between English as a second language and native language teachers and instruction; (3) the interdisciplinary, thematic, and self-contained instructional format; and (4) the self-determination of the students. Three appendixes contain discussions of data sources and initial literacy assessments and a literacy checklist.

Title: Previewing Challenging Reading Selections for ESL Students.
Author(s) Chen, Hsiu-Chieh Sophia; Graves, Michael F.
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v41 n7 p570-71 Apr 1998

Describes a simple previewing procedure that provides support for second-language students dealing with challenging reading selections. Describes a preview, gives an example, and suggests why they are effective. Summarizes results of a study, and concludes with suggestions for using previews in the classroom.

Title: The Everyday Literacy Behavior of an Adolescent Mother for Whom English Is a Second Language.
Author(s) McNemar, Britta S.
Source: National Reading Conference Yearbook, v47 p274-84 1998

Availability: National Reading Conference, Inc., 122 S. Michigan Ave., Ste. 1776, Chicago, IL 60603.
Presents a case study on the ways a low-income adolescent mother for whom English is a second language uses literacy at home, in school, and in the community. Traces her development in her interactions with her child, her transactions with texts that enabled her to fulfill responsibilities as a mother, and her use of multiple literacies to communicate with others.

Title: Academic Success for Long-Term ESL Students.
Author(s) Newell, Jessica; Smith, Joye
Publication Date: March 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

The study examines the population of long-term students of English as a second language (ESL), those who are enrolled in ESL programs for four to eight years but have not mastered the cognitive and academic skills in English to compete at grade level, in one New York City (New York) high school, and the efforts being made to address this population's needs. Background information is offered on student entry into and progress in the school system's ESL programs, and possible general factors in the lack of progress of long-term ESL (LTL) students. The procedures for identifying LTL students at the high school in question are described, using student writing samples as illustration. The program of literacy instruction designed to address these students' needs is elaborated, again using case examples. The program includes reading and writing components, note-taking skill development, native language arts instruction, several forms of assessment, and active support of this population by teachers and administrators.

Title: Creating "Vietnamerican" Discourse: Ethnic Identity in the ESL Classroom.
Author(s) Allendoerfer, Cheryl
Publication Date: April 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

An ethnographic study examined how learning English and becoming more literate in the dominant discourse affects the identity or self-concept of Vietnamese immigrant students, and how new discourse may be created as students negotiate multiple literacies. It was conducted in a Seattle area high school and focused on 22 Vietnamese students in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, all of whom had lived in the United States for one to four years. Data were gathered using observation, informal conversations, a photography and writing project undertaken with the students, and formal interviews with students, teachers, and administrators. Analysis explored several issues: how students perceived their ethnic identities; what "Americanization" means to the students, their parents, and their teachers; how definitions of the concept differ among the groups, and the conflicts that may arise therefrom; and whether immigrant students need to identify with the dominant discourse or majority culture to succeed in American schools. Results challenge the assumption that assimilation means adopting elements of the new culture alongside the native culture, and suggest that a third culture is constructed with elements resembling elements of the first two but fundamentally different from either. Contains 18 references.

Title: Language and Literacy Issues Related to Mexican-American Secondary Students.
Author(s) Perez, Bertha
Source: High School Journal, v78 n4 p236-43 Apr-May 1995
Journal availability: University of North Carolina Press, Box 2288, Chapel Hill, NC 27515- 2288 (annual subscription: $20 U.S., $15 foreign; individual issues: $6.00 U.S., $7.50 foreign).

Reviews the limited research on language and literacy instruction of Mexican-American secondary students. Emerging themes indicate that secondary bilingual programs are few; English-as-a-Second-Language is the most widely used approach for developing language skills; schools that are effective with limited-English-speaking students use more integrated, holistic approaches. Contains 35 references.

Title: Literature-Based ESL for Secondary School Students.
Author(s) Custodio, Brenda; Sutton, Marilyn Jean
Source: TESOL Journal, v7 n5 p19-23 Aut 1998

Describes how to use literature based instruction to develop literacy skills and to prepare secondary-level second-language learners for mainstream classrooms, focusing on advantages to a literature-based approach (it promotes literacy development, provides language models, and integrates language skills); discussing why content-based instruction is effective; and noting ways to use literature-based instruction.

Title: Professional Development from the Inside Out.
Author(s) Jaramillo, Ann
Source: TESOL Journal, v7 n5 p12-18 Aut 1998

Describes a teacher-driven, teacher-defined professional-development process designed to create an immigrant-responsive high school. The project involved English-as-a-Second-Language and content teachers who collaborated to improve students' literacy. They examined other models, their own needs, and student data, then created an accelerated literacy approach and an observation tool for monitoring each others' classrooms.

Title: Enhancing ESL Reading Through Reader Strategy Training.
Author(s) Wright, Lora
Source: Prospect, v12 n3 p15-28 Dec 1997

Seven high school students of English as a Second Language (ESL) underwent a short course of reading strategy training, including learner needs assessment, focus on why and when strategies are used, and carefully selected reading texts. Six of seven improved reading comprehension in at least one of two measures, supporting the notion that reading strategy training can be effective.

Title: Literacy Acquisition through Literature (Literacy Issues in Focus).
Author(s) Langer, Judith A.
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, v40 n8 p606-14 May 1997

Discusses a project and study that focused on literacy acquisition among middle school students from the Dominican Republic attending a school on Manhattan's lower East Side. Describes how a book writing project focusing on "stories from home" engaged students, taught them ways to discuss and ways to think, and fostered their literacy acquisition through literature.

Title: Literacy Strategies.
Publication Date: 1997
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

The literacy strategies in this guide provide practical suggestions for teachers, regardless of discipline, to help middle school and high school students move to Levels III and IV on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Reading/Competency Tests. The strategies in the guide are designed for use with "inefficient" readers (not nonreaders). After an introduction, sections of the guide include: The Nature of Literacy; A Focus on Reading; Student Reactions to End-of-Grade Tests; End-of-Grade Testlets: Analysis; What Is Reading?; Strategies for Reading; Preparation-Engagement-Reflection; Scaffolding Reading Experiences; Prereading, Engagement, Reflection Activities for "Out of the Wild"; Instructional Activities: Prereading, Engagement, Reflection; Questioning for Comprehension; In the Classroom: Putting It All Together; Best Practices: Instructional Activities for Improved Reading; Working with Limited English Proficient Students: Strategies for Regular Classroom teachers; Students with Special Needs: Instructional Methods Teachers Can Use; and Metacognitive Strategies. Contains 51 references.

Title: The Vocational Classroom: A Great Place To Learn English.
Author(s) Platt, Elizabeth
Publication Date: 1996
Availability: NCLE, 1118 22nd Street N.W., Washington, DC 20037.

This guide discusses the ways in which educators in technical and vocational education programs can maximize opportunities for limited-English-proficient students to learn English language skills. Vocational classrooms are viewed as potentially excellent environments for language learning because of the hands-on nature of the work, undertaken in pairs of small groups, using authentic materials and equipment, and requiring interpersonal communication. In addition, learners are often highly motivated. An introductory section reviews this approach and the literature supporting it. The second section looks at the role of the vocational curriculum in language teaching, including the types of language curricula (grammar-based, functional, and process-based) that can be used as referents in developing vocational-based language instruction, elements of vocational curricula that may be exploited for language learning, student need analysis and placement issues, and implications for implementation by vocational teachers, language teachers, and administrators. The third section offers more detailed suggestions for developing content-based language teaching activities, based on principles of scaffolding vocational instruction and fostering independent learning, at each of four proficiency levels from pre-speaking to high-intermediate/low-advanced. Examples of authentic activities are offered. Contains 63 references.

Title: Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language.
Author(s) Goldman, Susan R., Ed.; Trueba, Henry T., Ed.
Publication Date: 1987
Availability: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648.

A collection of articles on English-as-a-Second-Language literacy and literacy education include: "Contextual Issues in the Study of Second Language Literacy" (Susan R. Goldman); "Mexican Adult Literacy: New Directions for Immigrants" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "Factors Affecting Development of Second Language Literacy" (Richard Duran); "Reading in a Second Language: Studies with Adult and Child Learners" (Barry McLaughlin); "Patterns of Performance Among Bilingual Children Who Score Low in Reading" (Mary Sue Ammon); "Comprehension of Content Area Passages: A Study of Spanish/English Readers in Third and Fourth Grade" (Marie de la Luz Reyes); "Oral Reading Miscues of Hispanic Good and Learning Disabled Students: Implications for Second Language Reading" (Ofelia Miramontes); "The Development of Writing Skills Among Hispanic High School Students" (Benji Wald); "Metapragmatic Knowledge of School-Age Mexican-American Children" (Louise Cherry Wilkinson, Celia Genishi); "Teacher Language Use in a Chinese Bilingual Classroom" (Larry F. Guthrie, Grace Pung Guthrie); and "Organizing Classroom Instruction in Specific Sociocultural Contexts: Teaching Mexican Youth To Write in English" (Henry T. Trueba). Author and subject indexes are included.

Title: "My Trouble Is My English": Asian Students and the American Dream.
Author(s) Fu, Danling
Publication Date: 1995
Availability: Boynton/Cook, Heinemann, 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912 ($21.50).

Examining the learning experiences of four Laotian students at a mainstream secondary school, this book describes and interprets the students' learning situations and reveals their perspectives along with those of their teachers. The book introduces readers to the Savang family, refugees who left Laos. The book also shows how open journal writing assignments began to tap the rich stories this family had to tell. The book provides information on how students with different cultural backgrounds and learning styles react, behave, and learn in a classroom and how teachers can use that knowledge to create a community of learners. The first chapter provides background on the four siblings: their family and life in their home country, in their refugee camps, and in the United States. Chapter 2 of the book describes the four adolescents and their general situation at school. Chapters 3 though 6 are case studies of the four with a focus on their reading and writing experiences at school. The case studies in the book are organized thematically rather than chronologically (according to their ages). The concluding chapter reflects on the study and discusses issues related to literacy instruction and multiculturalism in the field of education.

Title: Leer y Escribir Hoy (Reading and Writing Today).
Author(s) Dean, Peggy; Uribe, Teresa Figueroa
Publication Date: 1990
Availability: Linmore Publishing, Box 1545, Palatine, IL 60078.

The literacy workbook is designed for native Spanish-speaking secondary students or adults with pre-reading skills and basic understanding of Spanish sound-symbol relationships. The materials' goals are to develop reading skills to bridge the gap between minimal reading abilities and literacy approaching the level of popular usage in newspapers and magazines, provide practice with the type of materials used in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and Spanish high school equivalency classes, accelerate acquisition of ESL by developing transferable literacy skills, and improve self-confidence. The book is intended for use by individuals living in North America. It is divided into three units containing a total of eight lessons. Each lesson contains vocabulary, reading passages, and skill application exercises geared to the student's own experiences. Reading for meaning is encouraged. Each lesson contains six to eight different activities. Pre- and post-unit activities are also included.

Title: Stories from LIFE at Falls Church High School. Literacy Is For Everyone (LIFE) Final Report.
Author(s) Cruz, Jane
Publication Date: 1993
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

The report describes the development and implementation of Literacy Is For Everyone (LIFE), an English-as-a-Second-Language literacy program for limited-English-speaking immigrant families of students at Falls Church High School (Virginia). Participating families attended evening classes, groups, and workshops to develop literacy skills and become empowered to participate in their children's school and activities. Program components include 2-hour semi-weekly evening classes, access to two computer laboratories with software for language skill and critical thinking skill acquisition, peer tutoring with volunteers from the National Honor Society and Spanish Honor Society, child care provided by the high school child development program, collaborative activities for adults and high school and middle school students, and field trips. The report details program structure, student and facilitator participation, program strengths and challenges, and related resources available to instructors and participants. Anecdotes of program events and personal experiences are included throughout. Appended materials, which form the bulk of the report, contain supporting documentation for each chapter and a budget outline.

Title: ESL Resource Center. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources for Vocational Preparation for Limited English Proficient Students.
Author(s) Binder, Andrea, Comp.; And Others
Publication Date: April 1993
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

This annotated bibliography contains publication data and information on the content and availability of 58 resource materials that are recommended for use in vocational preparation programs for individuals with limited English proficiency. Descriptions of the resource materials are organized into sections on the following topics: English as a Second Language (ESL), career guidance, vocational training, vocational English as a Second Language, and workplace literacy. Each resource description contains some or all of the following: record number; title; author; editors; edition; publisher; place of publication; month/year of publication; price; location; ERIC code; format; source of information about the resource material; and description of the resource material's content, intended audience, and intended/recommended use(s). Included among the types of resource materials listed are the following: software/courseware, bibliographies, textbooks, teacher guides/handbooks, picture cards, practice books, inventories, test batteries, and videos. Materials for use in secondary-level and adult basic education programs are described. Also included is information about the ESL Resource Center database and various codes used in the database.

Title: Assessment and Teacher Perceptions of ESL Student Achievement.
Author(s) Klesmer, Harold
Source: English Quarterly, v26 n3 p8-11 Spr 1994

Presents data from a study of 12-year-old English-as-a-Second-Language students in metropolitan Toronto and their significantly unsatisfactory educational development in language and literacy skills. Discusses implications of these findings, particularly with regard to educational change to help marginalized student groups. Finds that ESL students require at least six years to approach native speakers' norms.

Title: Library Literacy Programs and the At-Risk Adolescent.
Author(s) Feehan, Patricia
Source: Catholic Library World, v64 n2-3 p51-56 Oct-Mar 1993-94

Notes: Theme issue topic: "Literacy, the Library and the Family." Paper presented at the Saint John's University Congress for Librarians (Jamaica, NY, February 17, 1992).
Defines at-risk adolescent students, including remedial readers, pregnant teenagers, handicapped students, speakers of English as a Second Language, and public library dropouts; and describes literacy programs that enhance self-esteem and establish the library as an alternative learning source, many developed in a literacy course at the University of South Carolina.

Title: Biliteracy Practices and Issues in Secondary Schools.
Author(s) Perez, Bertha
Source: Peabody Journal of Education, v69 n1 p117-35 Fall 1993

Literacy is a major focus of attention in the education of linguistically and culturally diverse youth. The article focuses on identifying literature that impacts the literacy processes of secondary school students, highlighting studies that suggest a vision of literacy as empowerment for bilingual and limited English proficient students.

Title: Sustained Silent Reading with English as a Second Language High School Students: Impact on Reading Comprehension, Reading Frequency, and Reading Enjoyment.
Author(s) Pilgreen, Janice; Krashen, Stephen
Source: School Library Media Quarterly, v22 n1 p21-23 Fall 1993

High school English as a Second Language (ESL) students in a 16-week sustained silent reading program showed gains in reading comprehension, reported greater frequency and enjoyment of reading, and utilized more sources of books. Results suggest that free reading is an effective means of literacy development with ESL students.

Title: Guide for Native Language and Content Area Literacy Programs for High School Haitian Creole-Speaking Students.
Pages: 55
Publication Date: 1992
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

The guide consists of a series of sample lesson plans designed for teachers and supervisors delivering instructional services to students with limited English proficiency and native language literacy in Haitian bilingual programs. The guides contain 14 sample lesson plans; five native language instruction sample lesson plans and nine content area (social studies, mathematics, science) sample lesson plans. Materials are based on the principle of promotion of dual literacy, and are designed to capitalize on students' prior knowledge. The guide also encourages use of the whole language approach in both native language and content area components. Lessons are designated for one of two student skill levels: (1) limited or no formal education; and (2) some basic native language literacy skills, comparable to a student in grades 3-5. An introductory section outlines the guiding principles of instruction on which the plans are based. Each lesson plan contains a topic, instructional materials needed, specific performance objectives, class activities, sample questions, and in some cases, a passage or poem in Haitian Creole. A list of appropriate instructional materials and a list of organizational, print, and nonprint resources are appended.

Title: Computer Pilot: Learning 100 On-Line System, 1991-92.
Pages: 27
Publication Date: 1992
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

During the spring 1992 term, James Monroe High School piloted Learning 100 On-Line, a remedial reading/literacy computer program developed by Educational Developmental Laboratories, Inc. The program, which was developed for junior high and high school students and adults reading at or below grade level, was implemented in two English- as-a-Second-Language, three Special Education, and four English classes. It is noted that Learning 100 On-Line is an integrated instruction and management system that diagnoses, prescribes, instructs, provides practice and reinforcement in, and evaluates mastery of reading, writing, vocabulary, and language competencies. It is noted further that it provides a multisensory, individualized approach which is designed to accommodate a variety of learning styles and educational backgrounds. An evaluation of the impact of the program on student attendance and academic achievement found the pilot to be successful on several levels. Several specific recommendations for schools that may wish to purchase the program are included. This report is presented in four sections: (1) Introduction--program background, evaluation methodology and scope of the report; (2) Program Implementation--use of the system, perceptions of the system and its strengths and weaknesses; (3) Student Outcomes--reading performance and attendance; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. Two tables present summaries of students' pre- and posttest scores on the reading comprehension subtest and spring 1992 percentage of attendance by group and gender.

Title: Discourse and Social Practice: Learning To Use Language in Bilingual Classrooms.
Author(s) Warren, Beth; Rosenberg, Ann S.
Pages: 28
Publication Date: January 12, 1991
Notes: Paper presented at a Colloquium on Biliteracy Theory and Practice (Washington, DC, January 12, 1991).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

A study of biliteracy focuses on discourse as the unit of analysis needed to understand the task facing bilingual students. It investigated the way in which 22 high school students representing six different language groups in a bilingual basic skills course struggled with scientific language in an experiment on the community's drinking water. Most students were not literate and had had no previous science experience. During the investigation, students began to appropriate the intentional possibilities of language in order to construct scientific meanings and resolve a dilemma posed by the evidence at hand. It is concluded that while in traditional book-based bilingual education, students are expected to assimilate decontextualized language, this active learning approach causes students to construct both language and content knowledge by confronting authentic dilemmas. A 34-item bibliography is included.

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