CAL Resource Guides Online
Language planning is generally defined as an intervention intended to influence language or language use. Cooper (1989) defines language planning as "deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language codes" (p. 45). Blommaert (1996) extends the scope of language planning "to cover all cases in which authorities attempt, by whatever means, to shape a sociolinguistic profile for their society" (p. 207). The objectives are usually social, political, or economic in character. Language planning is the factual realization of language policy. To the extent that policies are deliberately and consciously created, they usually involve some form of planning (Herriman & Burnaby, 1996).
Several scholars have argued that even when there is no official language policy, the linguistic status quo becomes the implicit policy (Herriman & Burnaby, 1996; Schiffman, 1996). An example of this is the situation in the United States, where there is no explicit, formalized language policy at the federal level. The Constitution does not mention an official or national language, although the document itself was written in English. English, however, is the de facto official language. It is the primary (and in some cases exclusive) language used in education, business, government (state, federal, and local), and the media. The strength of this language policy lies in the basic assumptions that U.S. society makes about language (Schiffman, 1996), including the role the English language plays as a national symbol. The prevalent language ideology portrays English monolingualism as the normal condition and the default American to be a monolingual speaker of English.
The most common form of authority involved in developing language policy is the government. Language planning initiatives are often initiated at a sub-national level (Coulmas, 1994). Education is an important variable in most language planning initiatives; education-related planning includes considerations such as the language(s) to be used for instruction, the education of students from language minority groups, and policies about foreign language education for all students. Language planning cannot be understood apart from its social context or the history that produced the context (Cooper, 1989). Like other forms of language planning, language-in-education planning needs to be analyzed in relation to sociopolitical issues.
This resource guide provides links to resources on general topics in language policy and planning with a focus on North America. For a longer and more comprehensive version of this Resource Guide Online, please go to http://www.cal.org/resources/faqs/rgos/longpolicy.html.
Blommaert, J. (1996). Language planning as a discourse on language and society: The linguistic ideology of a scholarly tradition. Language Problems and Language Planning, 20(3), 199-222.
Cooper, R. L. (1989). Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coulmas, F. (1994). Language policy and planning: Political perspectives. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 14, 34-52.
Herriman, M., & Burnaby, B. (1996). Language policies in English-dominant countries. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Schiffman, H. (1996). Linguistic culture and language policy. London: Routledge.
The author and ERIC/CLL express their appreciation to G. Richard Tucker (Carnegie Mellon University) for his valuable feedback on an early draft of this resource guide.
The following publications and Web sites provide information on language policy and planning. This resource guide concludes with a brief list of relevant ERIC documents.
Digests are brief overviews of topics in education. The following titles are related to language policy and planning.
The Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge University Press) provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of research in key areas in the field of applied linguistics. Volume 14 (1993/1994) covered the topic of language policy and planning.
Current Issues in Language Planning (Multilingual Matters) provides major summative and review studies spanning and focusing the disparate language policy and language planning literature related to polities and major issues in the field.
Education Policy Analysis Archives (Arizona State University) is a peer-reviewed electronic journal containing articles about education policy at all levels and in all nations.
International Journal of the Sociology of Language (de Gruyter) is dedicated to the field of the sociology of language. Several issues have dealt with language policy and planning, for example Issues 70, 74, 77, 80, 86, 118, 127, and 142.
Journal of Language, Identity, and Education (Erlbaum) will be launched in 2002. It will publish articles dealing with, among other topics, educational policies and the role of ideologies in educational policies.
Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development (Multilingual Matters) publishes articles on many aspects of multilingualism and multiculturalism, including language policy and planning.
Language Policy (Kluwer) will be launched in 2002. This new journal will provide an outlet for studies on general language policy and language education policy. It will include detailed accounts of the making of language policy and its implementation.
Language Problems and Language Planning (Benjamins) publishes articles dealing with such topics as language policy, language management, and language conflict.
Notes on Sociolinguistics (SIL International, formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) provides a forum for discussion by SIL members and others engaged in similar work in any area of sociolinguistics and its application to language development and Bible translation.
Plurilingua (Research Centre on Multilingualism) has published several issues and papers dealing with aspects of language policy and planning. The most recent issue (XXII, 2001) deals with minorities and language policy.
Ager, D. E. (2001). Motivation in language planning and language policy. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Bongaerts, T., & de Bot, K. (Eds.). (1997). Perspectives on foreign-language policy: Studies in honour of Theo van Els. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Cooper, R. L., Shohamy, E., & Walters, J. (Eds.). (2001). New perspectives and issues in educational language policy: A festschrift for Bernard Dov Spolsky. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Corson, D. (1999). Language policy in schools: A resource for teachers and administrators. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crawford, J. (2000). At war with diversity: US language policy in an age of anxiety. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Huebner, T., & Davis, K. A. (Eds.). (with assistance from Lo Bianco, J.). (1999). Sociopolitical perspectives on language policy and planning in the USA. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Kaplan, R. B., & Baldauf, R. B., Jr. (1997). Language planning: From practice to theory. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Kloss, H. (1998). The American bilingual tradition (Rev. ed.) (Language in Education: Theory and Practice No. 88). McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Peyton, J. K., Ranard, D.A., & McGinnis, S. (Eds.). (2001). Heritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Ricento, T. (Ed.). (2000). Ideology, politics, and language policies: Focus on English. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Ricento, T., & Burnaby, B. (Eds.). (1998). Language and politics in the United States and Canada. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schmidt, R., Sr. (2000). Language policy and identity politics in the United States. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Wodak, R., & Corson, D. (Eds.). (1998). Encyclopedia of language and education. Volume 1: Language policy and political issues in education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
The mandate of the Canadian Centre for Linguistic Rights includes teaching, research, and publications, and the establishment of a resource center with a collection of publications on linguistic rights.
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) uses the findings of linguistics and related sciences in identifying and addressing language-related problems.
The Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (CRD) is an international body created for the advancement of study, documentation, and education on all aspects of language problems in international relations.
The section on language planning of the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur les activités langagières (CIRAL) at Laval University covers foundations of language planning, language policies and linguistic law, language planning in Canada, language planning in Quebec, and language planning in the world. The Web site is in French.
The Consortium for Language Policy and Planning is an unincorporated assembly of university programs, advocacy bodies, and scholars interested in issues of language policy and planning.
History, Legislation & Policy in the Online Library of of the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (formerly called National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education) covers the history of bilingual education in the United States and related laws, legislation, policies, and political issues. It also covers current national education reform initiatives, as well as pending legislation relevant to linguistic minorities in the United States.
James Crawford's Language Policy Web site covers, among other topics, the English Only movement, English Plus, bilingual education, efforts to save endangered languages, and language rights in the United States.
L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (in French) provides in-depth, comprehensive information about language policies around the world.
Language Australia supports applied linguistic and cross-cultural research, conducts professional development programs, and produces and disseminates information about language, literacy, and multicultural issues.
Language Futures Europe collects links on the language futures of Europe — on language policy, multilingualism, global language structures, and the dominance of English.
Language Planning Agencies and Language Management Organizations lists language planning agencies and language management organizations in several countries.
Language Policy and Language Rights lists resources in the areas of language policy and language rights. The list has been compiled by the Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research at the University of Southern California.
The Language Policy Research Center at Bar-Ilan University in Israel carries out research in the study of how societies deal with the demands and benefits of multilingualism.
The Language Policy Research Unit (LPRU) at the College of Education of Arizona State University promotes research and policy analysis on the challenges and opportunities posed by national and global multilingualism.
Links zur europäischen Sprachpolitik features links on language policy in Europe. This Web site is in German.
Mercator Legislation is part of the Mercator Network, a research network and information service concerning regional and minority languages in the European Union. Mercator Linguistic Law and Legislation aims to develop a data base holding all legal and normative documents that build up the European linguistic frame, especially from the European Union institutions and languages.
The Modern Language Centre at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) focuses on curriculum, instruction, and policies for education in second, foreign, and minority languages, particularly in reference to English and French in Canada but also other languages and settings.
The National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) at the University of Maryland focuses on language policy and U.S. needs for competence in languages.
The Research Centre on Multilingualism (R.C.M.) at the Brussels University K.U.B. examines the phenomena of language contact and language conflict. The R.C.M. conducts research and functions as a center for international cooperation.
Information on obtaining the documents listed below can be found at the end of this section. These documents were identified by searching the ERIC database using the following combination of ERIC descriptors and keywords:
(Language Planning OR Language Policy) AND Public Policy AND (United States OR United States History)
Language Policy and Pedagogy: Essays in Honor of A. Ronald Walton.
Lambert, Richard D., Ed.; Shohamy, Elana, Ed.
Publication Date: 2000
Availability: John Benjamins North America, P.O. Box 27519, Philadelphia, PA 19118- 0519 ($65). Tel: 215-836-1200. ($65.00)
This edited volume brings together 14 diverse articles dealing with various aspects of language policy and pedagogy. Chapter titles include the following: "Language Practice, Language Ideology, and Language Policy" (Bernard Spolsky and Elana Shohamy); "The Status Agenda in Corpus Planning" (Joshua A. Fishman); "The Way Ahead: European Recommendations for Language Teaching Policy Development into the Next Century" (J.L.M. Trim); "The Winds of Change in Foreign Language Instruction" (Richard D. Lambert); "Foreign Language and Area Studies through Title VI: Assessing Supply and Demand" (Gilbert W. Merkx); "System III: The Future of Language Learning in the United States" (Richard D. Brecht and A. Ronald Walton); "An Early Start for Foreign Languages (but not English) in the Netherlands" (Kees de Bot); "Elementary School Immersion in Less Commonly Taught Languages" (Myriam Met); "Forging a Link: Tapping the National Heritage Language Resources in the United States" (Xueying Wang); "Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching" (Michael H. Long); "Language Learning and Intercultural Competence" (Ross Steele); "Acquired Culture in the Japanese Language Classroom" (Eleanor H. Jorden); "Performed Culture: Learning To Participate in Another Culture" (Galal Walker); "What Do They Do? Activities of Students during Study Abroad" (Ralph B. Ginsberg and Laura Miller). References are found at the end of each chapter. A subject index is included.
Language Policy: Dominant English, Pluralist Challenges.
Eggington, William, Ed.; Wren, Helen, Ed.
Publication Date: 1997
Availability: John Benjamins North America, P.O. Box 27519, Philadelphia, PA 19118- 0519 ($30.95). Tel: 800-562-5666 (Toll Free).
This book examines the impact of English in countries in which it is taken for granted--Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. It explores how the impact of English affects the development of national language policies, the maintenance of minority languages, the ability to provide services in other languages, the efforts to promote first language and bilingual education programs, and the opportunities for adult and child second language literacy training. Language and language-in-education policies are examined and the extent to which English language dominance influences some policies and preludes others is discussed. The book also explores the professional viability of a statement on national language policies that could be adopted by the International Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages organization as a statement of principles. The book is divided into three parts: "The Dominance of English and National Language Policies: An Overview"; "Language and Language-In-Education Policies in English Dominant Nations"; and "Teaching Within Language and Language-In-Education Policies." Extensive references are found at the conclusion of each chapter.
Language Legislation and Linguistic Rights: Selected Proceedings of the Language Legislation and Linguistic Rights Conference IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society, Volume 2.
Kibbee, Douglas A. Ed.
Publication Date: 1998
Availability: John Benjamins North America, P.O. Box 27519, Philadelphia, PA 19118- 0519 ($87). Tel: 800-562-5666 (Toll Free).
This edited volume of conference papers contains the following titles: "Presentation: Realism and Idealism in Language Conflict and Their Resolution" (Douglas A. Kibbee); "Legal and Linguistic Perspectives on Language Legislation" (Douglas A. Kibbee); "The Linguistic Rights of Non-English Speaking Suspects, Witnesses, Victims, and Defendants" (Kate Storey); "Great Mischiefs--An Historical Look at Language Legislation" (Ruth Morris); "The Criminalization of Spanish in the United States" (Patricia MacGregor-Mendoza); "Towards Consensus? Standard English in the National Curriculum" (Joan Swann); "Beyond Anglo-Saxon Confederation: The Clash of World Hegemonies in the Language Ideologies of Arthur Balfour and Woodrow Wilson" (Chris Andre); "Anatomy of the English-Only Movement: Social and Ideological Sources of Language Restrictionism in the United States" (James Crawford); "The Courts, the Legislature and Society: The Shaping of Federal Language Policy in the United States" (Thomas Ricento); "Language Rights Arguments in Central Europe and the USA: How Similar Are They?" (Miklos Kontra); "What Happens After English is Declared the Official Language of the United States?" (Terrence G. Wiley); "A Historical Perspective on Language Policy in Russia" (Elena Schmitt); "Majority Language, Minority Misery: The Case of Sri Lanka" (Richard W. Bailey); "On the Eleven-Official Languages Policy of the New South Africa" (Sheila Mmusi); "OAU's Resolutions on African Languages and the State of Their Implementation" (Kahambo Mateene); "Language Policy in Education and the Future of Indigenous Languages in Post-Aparthied South Africa" (Joyce B. Sukumane); "Language and Human Rights in Africa" (Michel Ngussan) "The Case for Brazilian Sign Language: A Deaf Community Finds Its Voice" (Norine Berenz); "Requirements, Dynamics and Realities of Language Use in the EU: A Case Study of the European Commission" (Carsten Quell); "French Language Policy and Francophonie" (Louis-Jean Calvet); "Quebec's Charter of the French Language Twenty Years After" (Gerald Paquette); "The Philosophy of the French Language Legislation: Internal and International Aspects" (Yves Marek); "The Role of the French Language in Maintaining Linguistic Diversity in North America: Some Gluttopolitical Considerations" (Normand Labrie). A bibliography is included, and is divided in general and court decision sections. There are also three indexes -- for personal names, languages, and a general index. Scholarly references appear at the end of each paper.
Approaching Multilingualism in Japan and the United States.
Clankie, Shawn M.
Language and Culture Studies Series, 42 p15-33 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
This paper considers how multilingualism is approached in both Japan and the United States by considering the position and roles of the government, schools, and public. There exists the perception in countries where monolingualism is considered the norm that bilingualism, and certainly multilingualism, are problematic. Multilingualism in a monolingual country is frequently seen as a threat to the established monolingual and monocultural way of life. While Japan and the United States are typical of monolinguistically-dominated societies, and some similar attitudes prevail in both countries, their approaches to dealing with multilingualism are vastly different. In Japan and the United States, there are prevailing attitudes that for speakers of the dominant languages--Japanese and English respectively--there is no need to learn another language, and that all others living in the countries should learn to speak the primary language. Yet both countries are far more linguistically diverse than the typical lay person or government official in either country realizes. This is a more recent phenomenon in Japan, but in America, significant multilingualism goes back to the founding of the first colonies. Multilingualism has been unavoidable in a country comprised of immigrants from across the world. It is concluded that in both countries multilingualism is not a threat, but that narrow- mindedness and the failure to look beyond ones own borders are far greater problems. (Contains 17 references.)
English Only, the Debate: A Selective & Partially Annotated Bibliography.
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
The bibliography contains over 1,000 citations of books, ERIC documents, government documents, journals, magazine articles, newspaper articles, unpublished works, and videotape recordings on the debate over establishment of English as the single official language of the United States. Citations are listed alphabetically by author within each of the above categories. All contain basic bibliographic information: author(s); publication date; title; pagination (when applicable); and organizational source or publisher. Some are annotated.
ED373532 Perspectives on Official English. The
Campaign for English as the Official Language of the USA.
Adams, Karen L., Ed.; Brink, Daniel T., Ed.
Publication Date: 1990
Availability: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 200 Saw Mill River Rd., Hawthorne, NY 10532.
Essays on the campaign to establish English as the United States' official language include: "Official Languages and Language Planning" (Richard Ruiz); "Una lingua, una patria?: Is Monolingualism Beneficial or Harmful to a Nation's Unity?" (David F. Marshall and Roseann D. Gonzalez); "Canadian Perspectives on Official English" (Joseph E. Magnet); "Language Policy and Linguistic Tolerance in Ireland" (Alan Hudson-Edwards); "Languae Policies in Western Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" (Leslie J. Limage); "The Legislation of Bahasa Malaysia as the Official Language of Malaysia" (William G. Davey); "English - The Official Language of California, 1983-1988" (Stanley Diamond); "Testimony Before the State Legislature on California Proposition 63" (Geoffrey Nunberg); "Voting Rights, Liberal Voters and the Official English Movement: An Analysis of Campaign Rhetoric in San Francisco's Proposition 'O'" (Kathryn A. Woolard); "The Popularity of California's Proposition 63: An Analysis" (Connie Dyste); "The Official English Movement in Florida" (Max J. Castro, Margaret Haun, and Ana Roca); "Who Supports Official English and Why?: The Influence of Social Variables and Questionnaire Methodology" (Ana Celia Zentella); "Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities in the Southwest: An Overview" (Karen L. Adams); "Official English and the Learning of English" (Jon Amastae); "On the English Proficiency Act" (The Honorable Jeff Bingaman); "The Official English Movement and the Role of First Languages" (Elizabeth A. Brandt); "Official English and the Urge to Legislate" (Betty Lou Dubois); "The Navajo Language Today" (AnCita Benally and T. L. McCarty); "American Indian Language Policy" (Ofelia Zepeda); "Legal Background and History of the English Language Movement" (Barnaby W. Zall and Sharon McCloe Stein); "Is Language Choice a Constitutional Right?: Outline of a Constitutional Analysis" (James Weinstein); "Bilingualism and the Constitution" (John Trasvina); "Language and the Law in the Classroom: Bilingual Education and the Official English Initiative" (Rachel F. Moran); "Language Rights as Collective Rights" (Joseph E. Magnet); and "On Walling In and Walling Out" (The Honorable Noel Fidel). Six appendices covering amendments, initiaties, and resolutions; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, article VIII; congressional hearings; the New Mexico state Constitution--Articles XII, XX; and representitive data are included.
National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.
Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others
Publication Date: 1993
Availability: Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, 40351, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning in the United States" (Richard D. Lambert); "Communication, Foreign Languages, and Foreign Language Policy" (Kari Sajavaara); "Language Policy and Language Teaching in Finland" (Sauli Takala); "Problems in the Implementation of Foreign Language Policy in Finland" (Marja-Liisa Karppinen); "Languages and Policy in Estonia" (Urve Laanemets); Human Rights and Foreign Languages" (Robert Phillipson); "Language Choice and Its Impact: The Sociocultural Factor in Language Education Strategies" (Elisabetta Zuanelli Sonino); "Less Commonly Taught Languages in the United States: Needs, Capacities, and Strategies for Development" (Richard D. Brecht, A. Ronald Walton); "Teacher Education and National Foreign Language Policies" (Gerald Westhoff); "Foreign Language Policy, Pedagogy, and Practice: An American Perspective" (Diane W. Birckbichler); "Transparency, Coherence, and Washback in Language Assessment" (Brian North); "Testing and Examinations in a National Foreign Language Policy" (Bernard Spolsky); and "The Integration of European and National Foreign Language Policies: The European Community's LINGUA Program" (Antony Shaw).
Implications of the New Dutch National Action Plan for American Foreign Language Policy. NFLC Position Papers.
Lambert, Richard D.
Publication Date: June 1991
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Treatment of some issues in a new Dutch plan for foreign language instruction is compared to treatment of similar issues in the United States. The Dutch plan assumes that centralized, national planning is essential, with the various segments of the foreign language instructional system being assigned interlocking roles and responsibilities. American education has resisted this degree of national policy planning for language instruction. The Dutch plan also gives a great deal of attention to decisions about which languages will be required or offered in different institution types, and to differentiating between required and optional languages. Unlike the American system, which encourages proliferation, the Dutch decision has been to limit and make consistent the languages taught at various levels. In the Dutch plan, the level at which each language should be taught, how long it is taught, and to what students is specified, a policy option not taken in the United States. In addition, while the Dutch plan incorporates a well-developed occupation-oriented language instruction system in the same framework as in the formal school system, in the United States, adult/occupational language training is planned separately. Testing standards and procedures are centralized in the Netherlands and not in the United States.
New Beginnings for Language Policy: Australia and the United States.
Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.
Publication Date: 1990
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
The following similarities exist between the language situations of the United States and Australia: (1) both countries have developed and prospered through overseas immigration; (2) until recently, neither country has had a "de jure" official language, only a "de facto" one built around English; (3) in both countries indigenous languages have been badly neglected; and (4) the changing linguistic makeup of both countries has recently created pressures for reappraisal of language policy development. However, the two countries have taken different approaches to multilingualism and language policy development, due to the following dissimilarities: ethnic revival affected Australia and the U.S. at different stages of their development; the United States War of Independence symbolizes its national unity and identity, while the idea of Australia as a nation is recent; Australia has great language diversity, with none predominant in any community; and decision-making is more centralized in education and related domains in Australia. The 1980s have seen new beginnings for language policy in both countries. The United States has been examining either/or exclusive policies (English-speaking vs. foreign-speaking) while Australia has embarked on an inclusive multicultural policy. Political influences will shape the final policies. In Australia, a united effort of ethnic communities and language professionals has had an important impact on policy development.
Nicholson, Nancy Schweda
Language Problems and Language Planning, v23 n1 p37-63 Spr 1999
Provides a decade-long historical perspective on language planning efforts and policy development in the area of interpretation services at the Executive Office for Immigration Review.
From Goya Portraits to Goya Beans: Elite Traditions and Popular Streams in U.S. Spanish Language Policy.
Southwest Journal of Linguistics, v12 n1-2 p69-86 1993
Availability: Linguistics Association of the Southwest, Texas A&M University, Commerce, TX 75429-3011.
Identifies the unwritten Spanish language policy in the United States by historically analyzing the different roles that Spanish has had throughout U.S. history. The paper shows how Spanish has been used for the benefit of the Spanish- and English-speaking elite but restricted (or forbidden) as a socioeconomic tool and symbol of identity for less fortunate U.S. Latinos.
Language Policy and Planning in the U.S.
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, v14 p111-25 1993-94
A discussion of U.S. language policy formation and planning covers the following: the literacy crisis, education of language minority populations, "official" English movement, gender neutrality, federal legislation, and emerging issues such as the status of Puerto Rico, American Indian languages, foreign language education, and the education of deaf students. (Contains 42 references.)
African Americans and "English Only".
Language Problems and Language Planning, v16 n3 p235-48 Fall 1992
The historical struggle of African Americans, and around Black English Vernacular in particular, suggests that African Americans can be a significant force in the struggle for minority language rights. The African-American perspective on "English Only" is explored through a historical overview and a public-opinion survey of African Americans in major cities. (22 references)
The Official-Language Movement in the United States: Contexts, Issues, and Activities.
Language Problems and Language Planning, v13 n3 p264-79 Fall 1989
Central concerns in the movement to make English the official language of the United States are reviewed, publications and activities of two major organizations supporting it are compared, and basic assumptions and directions of the movement are criticized. (21 references)
The full text of most materials in the ERIC database with an "ED" followed by six digits is available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche, by email, or in paper copy. Approximately 80% of ERIC documents from 1993 to the present are available for online ordering and electronic delivery through the EDRS Web site. You can read ERIC documents on microfiche for free at many libraries with monthly subscriptions or specialized collections. To find an ERIC center near you, contact our User Services staff.
The full text of journal articles may be available from one or more of the following sources:
To obtain journals that do not permit reprints and are not available from your library, write directly to the publisher. Addresses of publishers are listed in the front of each issue of Current Index to Journals in Education and can now be accessed online through the CIJE Source Journal Index.
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