- What are the differences in instructional approach and sequencing in English and Spanish language arts? Does this vary by program model and grade level?
- How much coordination should there be in literacy instruction across the two languages? Does this vary by program model or grade level?
- What literacy skills transfer across English and Spanish and which need to be taught explicitly in each language?
- Are there standards for Spanish language arts? Should they be different for L1 and L2 learners?
- What characteristics are important when choosing basal readers and other curricular materials for Spanish literacy instruction in TWI programs?
- What literacy skills are taught through the content areas and what are taught through language arts lessons?
- How do you teach a classroom of students with varying levels of literacy and reading readiness?
- Are any special supports given to students while they are developing literacy skills in their second language as opposed to their first?
4. Are there standards for Spanish language arts? Should they be different for L1 and L2 learners?
Some standards have been developed for Spanish, but much more work needs to be done in this area. The state of Texas has Spanish language arts standards, and the state of New York has developed Native Language Arts Standards for a variety of languages. In addition, some school districts (such as Arlington, VA) have developed them. Finally, the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) has developed general standards for foreign language instruction in the United States, but these are not language specific, nor do they apply to native speakers.