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The CAL Resources Archive was created to provide our visitors with access to older pages and content from our Web site that they may find useful. Please be aware that information within the CAL Resources Archive is historical in nature and will not be maintained or updated by CAL.

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Learn more about CAL resources related to language and culture.

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On the Air

Year of Languages Radio Series
In support of the Year of Languages, the College of Charleston and the National Museum of Language have developed a series of 52 radio spots on languages and linguistics. Listen to the first 20 episodes of Talkin' About Talk or read the list of upcoming programs and dates online.

Foreign Languages in Schools Radio Series
"In the first segment of a three-part series on foreign languages in the schools, Deborah Wang spoke with Michele Anciaux Aoki, a long-time foreign language advocate and leader with the Washington State Coalition for International Education." Listen to the segment on why foreign language learning is important. (All Things Considered, KPLU Seattle/Tacoma, September 12, 2005)



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CAL Activities

October 2005

The Year of Languages focus in October is on early language learning. The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) has many projects and extensive resources related to early language learning.

National Foreign Language Survey
CAL conducts a national survey of foreign language teaching in elementary and secondary schools every 10 years to gain greater understanding of current patterns and shifts in enrollment, languages and programs offered, curriculum, teaching methodologies, teacher qualifications and training, and reactions to national reform issues. You can read a summary of the 1997 results online. The 2007 survey is currently in development.

The National Capital Language Resource Center
The National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC), a joint project of Georgetown University, The George Washington University, and CAL, is one of 14 nonprofit Language Resource Centers funded by the U.S. Department of Education to improve and strengthen the nation's capacity to teach and learn foreign languages. Many resources related to early language learning are available at

Ñandutí is a Web site dedicated to foreign language learning in Grades pre-K–8 and highlights instruction, applied research, and recent developments in the field. The site offers information about model programs, program development, available resources, training opportunities, and upcoming events. Watch the site for a new look in December.

Ñandu is an active email list for superintendents, teachers, teacher educators, and parents interested in pre-K–8 foreign language learning.

Foreign Language Digest Series
CAL has published numerous digests on topics related to early language learning. You can read several of the digests on our resources page or order them in convenient bound collections.

Language by Video book coverLanguage By Video: An Overview of Foreign Language Instructional Videos for Children
Nancy C. Rhodes & Ingrid Pufahl

Language by Video presents the results of a study of the benefits and challenges of using video-based instruction to teach languages to children. This book reviews the five video programs most commonly used in elementary schools: Elementary Spanish, Español para ti,Muzzy, Salsa, and Saludos. Each program is described in relation to its goals, its success at meeting those goals, and its ability to provide the type of instruction needed for students to meet national foreign language standards. This book will be of special interest to schools and educators considering alternatives to traditional foreign language instruction and is presented in a user-friendly format, with practical implications and recommendations as well as suggestions for future research. 

Two-Way Immersion Education
Early language learning is a central feature of two-way immersion (TWI) programs, a type of dual language program in which an approximately equal number of native English speakers and native speakers of another language learn together in both languages. TWI programs promote bilingualism and biliteracy, grade-level academic achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors in all students. CAL's work on two-way immersion includes research on the academic achievement of students enrolled in TWI programs, compilation of an online directory of two-way programs, and a myriad of resources for those interested in developing or enriching a TWI program. Check out

With support from the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition at The George Washington University, CAL has brought together a national panel of dual language researchers and practitioners to draft Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education, a tool grounded in evidence from research and best practices and intended to aid TWI professionals with program planning, implementation, and maintenance.

For more information about CAL's work on two-way immersion education, contact Julie Sugarman.

Early Language Learning Assessment
CAL is engaged in several early language learning assessment projects and offers many related resources and services.

FLES (Foreign Language in the Elementary School) Test Development Project
A FLES test is being developed to assess the Spanish listening and reading comprehension of fourth-grade students who are studying the language in a classroom setting with a teacher or through technology-mediated instruction. The assessment will serve as a tool to help schools, districts, and states assess the language abilities of their students. For more information on this project, contact Nancy Rhodes at CAL.

The Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA) for Grades 1-5 and the Early Language Listening and Oral Proficiency Assessment (ELLOPA) for Grades pre-K-2 are two innovative language proficiency instruments developed by CAL in partnership with the National K–12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University. The goal of the SOPA and ELLOPA, now the most widely used speaking and listening tests for children studying foreign languages in the United States, is to allow young students to demonstrate their highest level of performance in oral fluency, grammar, vocabulary, and listening comprehension.The assessments, which are administered to pairs of students in a casual interview format, are conducted entirely in the language the students are learning. Information on the SOPA and ELLOPA may be found at

SOPA and ELLOPA Trainings
SOPA and ELLOPA trainings are offered each year in conjunction with regional and national conferences such as the Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT) and the annual conference of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). They can also be provided directly to schools or school districts upon request. A typical SOPA or ELLOPA training is a 2-day workshop that familiarizes participants with the assessment instrument and includes practice interviewing and rating students. For more information on these trainings, contact Lynn Thompson at CAL.

Web-Based SOPA Training Course
Due to the high demand for SOPA training, CAL is working with Iowa State University to develop an online course that will teach participants how to administer and rate the SOPA. The 4-week course will present the general structure of the SOPA and rating scale in English and will include video clips and transcripts in English, French, German, Japanese, and Spanish. The pilot for this online course is scheduled for fall 2005 with follow-up field testing in the spring. Watch CAL's Web site for more details as they become available.

Directory of K–12 Foreign Language Assessment Instruments and Resources
This searchable database contains information on more than 200 language assessments currently in use in K–12 language programs around the country as well as annotated bibliographies of print and Internet resources on assessment.

Early Language Learning Program Directories
CAL maintains online directories of various types of early language learning programs in the United States.

National Directory of Early Foreign Language Programs
This state-by-state searchable database contains information on nearly 1500 public and private elementary and middle schools that start teaching foreign languages before Grade 7.

Total and Partial Immersion Language Programs in U.S. Schools
This directory includes 242 schools in 28 states and the District of Columbia that teach all or part of their curriculum through a second language. Contact information, number of students and teachers, and other information is provided for each school. Eleven foreign languages are represented.

Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S.
This searchable database contains profiles of 319 two-way immersion programs in 28 states and the District of Columbia. The directory is part of a program of research conducted by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE). Each profile includes information such asprogram size, program location, program design, student demographics, and the non-English language used.

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Additional resources on early language learning

The Benefits of Early Language Learning

Why, How, and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language?
Read it online or order print copies.

Two-Way Immersion Resources Flier

Two-Way Practitioners Package
This package of CAL resources provides information that practitioners can use to develop TWI programs or to seek approval for such programs from districts and other stakeholders.

National Network for Early Language Learning
This organization of teachers, administrators, researchers, and parents, formerly housed at CAL, is now at Wake Forest University. NNELL's activities include publishing the journal Learning Languages, networking, and advocacy sessions. 


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