CAL Resource Guides Online
Two-way immersion (TWI) programs (also known as dual language programs) are becoming an increasingly attractive option for schools and districts that are looking for ways to strengthen and develop the language resources of all of their students. The TWI model provides integrated instruction for native English speakers and native speakers of another language, with the goal of promoting high academic achievement, first and second language development, and cross-cultural understanding for all students. In TWI programs, language learning takes place primarily through content instruction. Academic subjects are taught to all students through both English and the non-English language, which is usually Spanish. As students and teachers work together to perform academic tasks, the students' language abilities are developed along with their knowledge of content-area subject matter. Most programs start at first or second grade. While there is a great deal of variety with regard to program features of TWI programs, there are also some important core similarities. First, the student populations are balanced, with approximately 50% native English speakers and 50% native speakers of the non-English language. Second, academic instruction takes place through both languages, with the non-English language being used at least 50% of the time. In this way, all students have the opportunity to be both first language models and second language learners. Furthermore, TWI creates an additive bilingual environment for all students since the first language is maintained while the second language is acquired.
Publications, Web sites, conferences, listservs, and other sources of information on two-way (dual) immersion are listed below, followed by a search of the ERIC database to guide further research.
Digests are brief overviews of topics in education. ERIC/CLL has prepared many timely digests on topics related to language teaching and learning. The following ERIC/CLL titles are related to two-way immersion and early second language learning.
Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics (March 2001), by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman, Center for Applied Linguistics.
Christian, D., Montone, C., Lindholm, K., & Carranza, I. (1997.) Profiles
in Two-Way Immersion Education. McHenry, IL and Washington, DC: Delta
Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
This book profiles two-way immersion programs in three schools that have been implementing different models. The authors describe each program's evolution, current operation, and results.
Resource Guide Online: The Effectiveness of Bilingual Education provides links to publications, conferences, Web sites, and other information about bilingual education.
Resource Guide Online: The Benefits of Early Language Learning provides links to publications, conferences, Web sites, and other information about early language learning.
Why, How, and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language is a publication for parents and others interested in the benefits of early foreign language learning. It answers a number of critical questions about early foreign language learning:
Cazabon, M., Nicoladis, E., & Lambert, W.E. (1998.) Becoming Bilingual in the Amigos Two-Way Immersion Program (Research Report No. 3). This report from The Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence (CREDE) examines students' attitudesboth through their school achievement in Spanish and English and through their responses to questionnairestoward becoming bilingual in the Amigos two-way immersion program. Print copies are available from CREDE for $5.00.
Amrein, A., and Peňa, R.A. (2000.) Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice: Assessing Imbalance in a Program Promoting Equality. Education Policy Analysis, 8(8).
Christian, D. (1994.) Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. (Educational Practice Report No. 12). Washington, DC and Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Christian, D., Howard, E.R., & Loeb, M.I. (2000.) "Bilingualism for All: Two-Way Immersion Education in the United States" appeared in Children and Languages in School, Autumn 2000 issue of Theory into Practice. Columbus: Ohio State University.
Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the US. Washington, DC and Santa Cruz, CA: The Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence. This online searchable directory provides information about K–12 programs across the country. It is updated annually.
Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000.) Dual Language Instruction: A Handbook for Enriched Education. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Day, E.M., & Shapson, S.M. (1996.) Studies in Immersion Education. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Freeman, R. (1998.) Bilingual Education and Social Change. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004.) Dual Language Development & Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.
Genesee, F. (1999.) Program Alternatives for Linguistically Diverse Students. (Educational Practice Report No. 1). Washington, DC and Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
Johnson, R.K, & Swain, M. (Eds.) (1997.) Immersion Education: International Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lindholm, K. (forthcoming.) Dual Language Education. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Montone, C., & Loeb, M. (2000.) Implementing Two-Way Immersion Programs in Middle and High Schools. Washington, DC and Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
Montague, N. (1997.) Critical components for dual language programs. Bilingual Research Journal, 21(4).
Nicoladis, N., Taylor, D.M., Lambert, W.E., & Cazabon, M. (1998.) What Two-Way Bilingual Programmes Reveal about the Controversy Surrounding Race and Intelligence. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1 (2). Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Rolstad, K. (1997.) Effects of Two-Way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study. Bilingual Research Journal, 21(1).
Romero, A.A. (1999.) Two-way Bilingual Programs: The Demand for a Multilingual Workforce. IDRA Newsletter, May 1999.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (Ed.) (1995.) Multilingualism for All. Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V.
Sugarman, J. & Howard, E. (2001) Development and Maintenance of Two-Way Immersion Programs: Advice from Practitioners. Washington, DC and Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
De Par en Par is a free magazine with authentic materials and activities for bilingual and immersion students offered by the Education Office of the Spanish Consulate at the University of Southern California.
NCBE Newsline is a bi-weekly electronic newsletter distributed by the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE). It is a valuable source for information on funding sources, current events, and issues related to the education of linguistically and culturally diverse students in the United States.
Profile of Effective Two-Way Immersion Teaching: 6th Grade is a 1996 videotape by Jon Silver, available from CREDE for $50. This video features bilingual teacher M. Dorrego explaining her pedagogical style and beliefs. Classroom scenes illustrate how she uses instructional strategies to help sixth graders in a two-way bilingual immersion class reach higher levels of linguistic and academic sophistication.
Also available from CREDE is Learning Together: Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs (Jon Silver, 1996). This video offers parents, educators, and administrators a clear and concise overview of the rationale for two-way bilingual immersion (common features of two-way programs) as well as a discussion of criteria for successful implementation. Classroom scenes from two schools illustrate the program model.
BILING is a forum for discussion of research about bilingualism and
bilingual education. To subscribe, send the message
SUB BILING FIRSTNAME
firstname.lastname@example.org. Leave the subject field blank.
Bilingual Families Discussion List is a listserv for families who are raising their children bilingually. To subscribe, send a message to email@example.com. Leave the subject and message fields blank.
LIM-A hosts discussions about language immersion programs. Teachers,
administrators, and parents are welcome to join. To subscribe, send the message
SUBSCRIBE LIM-A YOURFIRSTNAME YOURLASTNAME
The Foreign Language Teaching Forum
(FLTEACH) is the largest listserv for foreign language teachers, with
lively and informative discussions. To subscribe, leave the subject line
blank; send the message
SUB FLTEACH FIRSTNAME LASTNAME
?ndu participants discuss
timely issues related to foreign language learning in Grades K–8, provide resources
to one another, and share experiences with early sequence programs. To join ?ndu,
send the message
SUBSCRIBE YOURFIRSTNAME YOURLASTNAME
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a major publisher of reports on two-way immersion (TWI) and is an excellent source of information on this topic. CAL's Web pages include (1) information on current research; (2) a Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the United States that provides detailed profiles of TWI programs around the country; and (3) an extensive list of TWI-related publications and resources.
The Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE) assists the nation's population of diverse students, including those at risk of educational failure, to achieve academic excellence. The purpose of CREDE's research is to identify and develop effective educational practices for linguistic and cultural minority students, such as those placed at risk by factors of race, poverty, and geographic location. A number of excellent publications on two-way immersion have emerged from this project. Visit CREDE's two-way immersion page for more information. Read CREDE reports online at the Center for Linguistics' CREDE publications site.
The Center for Multilingual Multicultural Research is a large site developed by the University of Southern California that includes comprehensive lists of bilingual and ESL resources, a large library of full-text articles, and extensive information about paraeducators and paraeducator-to-teacher programs.
James Crawford's Language Policy Web Site & Emporium. This language policy Web site provides a superb overview of the historical issues surrounding bilingual education as a political issue as well as frequently updated bulletins on current legislation and research around the country.
The Language Academy site is a teacher-centered site that offers a practitioner perspective on San Francisco's two-way immersion programs.
The National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) is a national organization exclusively concerned with the education of language-minority students in American schools.
The National Clearinghouse on Bilingual Education (NCBE) is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) to collect, analyze, and disseminate information relating to the effective education of linguistically and culturally diverse learners in the United States. NCBE provides information through its Web site, which includes the NCBE Online Library (a well-catalogued collection of full-text articles), Newsline (a bi-weekly email news bulletin), and NCBE Roundtable (a topical electronic discussion group). AskNCBE FAQ's are particularly helpful.
Portraits of Success is a joint project of NABE, Boston College, and the Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University. It is a national effort, supported by a number of experts in the field of bilingual education, to develop a database on successful bilingual education.
The American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) is an excellent source of information on language-related topics.
The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), a national professional association for foreign language teachers, provides information about their annual conference, publications, programs, resources, membership, and the national foreign language standards.
Arizona State University maintains a bilingual education research site.
Bilingual and ESOL Lesson Plans is a good starting place for teachers who work in bilingual and ESL classrooms to locate lesson plans.
Bilingual Links for Teachers and Students is a well-maintained list of bilingual links for teachers and students.
The Center for the Study of Books in Spanish for Children and Adolescents offers a Web site in English and Spanish that allows users to search an exhaustive catalog of recommended Spanish and bilingual books.
The Foreign Language Teaching Forum (FLTEACH) Web site is a useful starting point for finding resources for teaching languages. The site also provides subscription information for the FLTEACH listserv and an extensive archive of FLTEACH discussions on topics of interest to language teachers.
The National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL) is dedicated to promoting foreign language instruction for all students, kindergarten through 8th grade, and to supporting educators who teach those students.
Recursos en Español offers several dozen useful education-related documents in Spanish. The list is divided into two sections: one for parents, caretakers, and community members; the other for teachers, professors and researchers.
These sites from around the country provide information on their programs and materials. Most include program descriptions, calendars, and contact information; the larger sites include examples of student work, school policies, newsletters, links, and English and Spanish versions of all material.
The National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) holds a major annual conference on issues in bilingual education.
CABE National Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Summer Conference is held annually in California. It is the largest state conference in the United States on two-way immersion.
The American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) holds an annual conference.
The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) holds an annual conference attended by language teachers across the country.
Cambridge University Press publishes a list of links to second language learning conferences at the Web site of their journal Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
The Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, maintains a comprehensive worldwide conference list.
Conference Schedules for Linguists, Translators, Interpreters, and Teachers of Languages provides information about quarterly and annual events.
Additional resources on this topic are available through the ERIC database of educational documents. The following search lists books, papers, reports, journal articles, and other documents of interest. Information on obtaining these materials appears after the search.
Multilingualism Is Basic.
Genesee, Fred; Cloud, Nancy
Educational Leadership, v55 n6 p62-65 Mar 1998
Demographic, economic, and social realities make linguistic and cross-cultural competence essential skills for today's students. This article discusses three innovative program types that build on basic education while enriching it through second languages: second-language immersion for native English-speaking students; developmental bilingual programs for language-minority students and two-way bilingual immersion programs for all students. (MLH)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Demography; Diversity (Student); Economic Factors; Elementary Education; *Immersion Programs; *Language Enrichment; Multicultural Education; *Multilingualism; *Second Language Programs; Social Development
Identifiers: *Value Added
American School Board Journal, v185 n1 p23-25 Jan 1998
Describes the instructional strategies used by teachers in two-way bilingual immersion programs. Also describes benefits of the programs. Sidebars include guidelines to implement an effective two-way bilingual immersion program and a discussion of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs. (LMI)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Education Programs; Bilingual Students; *Curriculum Design; Elementary Secondary Education; *Instructional Effectiveness; Instructional Improvement; Limited English Speaking; Special Needs Students
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
Two Languages Are Better Than One.
Thomas, Wayne P.; Collier, Virginia P.
Educational Leadership, v55 n4 p23-26 Dec-Jan 1997- 1998
Instead of viewing English learners as a problem needing remediation, educators should build an enriched bilingual program for all students. In successful two-way programs, both language groups stay together throughout the school day, serving as peer tutors for each other. After five or six years, English learners can demonstrate English and native-language proficiency and outperform monolingual students on academic tests. (13 references) (MLH)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Cost Effectiveness; Elementary Education; *Enrichment Activities; *Equal Education; *Immersion Programs; *Limited English Speaking; Low Achievement; Peer Teaching; Program Descriptions; Tutoring
Equal Educational Opportunity for Language Minority Students: From Policy to Practice at Oyster Bilingual School.
Freeman, Rebecca D.
Issues in Applied Linguistics, v6 n1 p39-63 Jun 1995
Based on a two-year ethnographic and discourse analytic study of Oyster Bilingual School in Washington, DC, this article illustrates what educational opportunity means for the linguistically, culturally, and economically diverse student population participating in a successful two-way Spanish-English bilingual program. Presents micro-level classroom analysis demonstrating how team-teachers work together to help students develop academic skills in both languages. (31 references) (Author/CK)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Bilingual Education Programs; Elementary School Students; *English (Second Language); Equal Education; Ethnic Groups; Ethnography; Group Dynamics; Limited English Speaking; Second Language Instruction; *Sociocultural Patterns; Socioeconomic Influences; *Spanish Speaking; *Team Teaching
The Role of ESL in a Dual Language Program.
Bilingual Research Journal, v19 n3-4 p513-23 Sum-Fall 1995
Inter-American Magnet School in Chicago, a highly acclaimed Spanish-English dual- language elementary school, established pull-out English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes to provide extra English instruction, primarily for new immigrants. Describes the school's founding and development, students, innovative bilingual staff, multicultural education, parent and community involvement, classroom setting, ESL approaches and activities, and administrative problems. (SV)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; *Bilingual Schools; Elementary Education; Elementary Schools; *English (Second Language); *Multicultural Education; Native Language Instruction; Parent Participation; *Second Language Instruction; Spanish
Identifiers: *Inter American Magnet School IL; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Oyster School Stands the Test of Time.
Bilingual Research Journal, v19 n3-4 p497-512 Sum-Fall 1995
Describes Oyster Elementary School's award-winning two-way bilingual (Spanish- English) program. The school's success has been maintained by strong parent and community support, high academic standards, and ongoing professional development efforts. However, cultural, generational, and socioeconomic differences among staff, students, and parents have caused philosophical conflict in the school community. Decreasing funds is also a problem. (SV)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Bilingual Schools; Community Involvement; *Cultural Pluralism; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Education; Elementary Schools; Multicultural Education; *Team Teaching; Urban Schools; *Whole Language Approach
Identifiers: *James F Oyster Bilingual Elementary School DC; *Two Way Bilingual Education
The Second Language Components in a Two-Way Bilingual Education Program.
Bilingual Research Journal, v19 n3-4 p483-95 Sum-Fall 1995
A Massachusetts elementary two-way bilingual education program represents a democratic, efficient approach to the education of two distinct language groups by balancing second-language instruction in English and Spanish and by integrating the two student populations. Discusses program goals, team teaching, classroom setting, program structure, curriculum organization, materials, student evaluation, parent involvement, and program successes and shortcomings. (SV)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Bilingual Students; Cultural Pluralism; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; *English (Second Language); Language of Instruction; Native Language Instruction; *Second Language Instruction; *Spanish; Team Teaching
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
La Escuela Ratney (The Ratney School). Reflections on a Bilingual, Anti-Bias, Multicultural Elementary School.
Teaching Tolerance, v2 n2 p26-31 Fall 1993
Experiences of a bilingual multicultural elementary school in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) illustrate how concepts of social justice, equality, and respect for ethnic differences can be introduced. The school is distinguished by its two-way bilingual program that gives every child a chance to master English and Spanish. (SLD)
Descriptors: Affirmative Action; *Bilingual Education Programs; Disadvantaged Youth; Elementary Education; English; *Equal Education; *Ethnic Groups; Language Proficiency; Minority Group Children; *Multicultural Education; *Racial Bias; Racial Differences; Social Problems; Spanish; *Urban Schools
Identifiers: Language Minorities; Milwaukee Public Schools WI; *Social Justice
How to Integrate Bilingual Education without Tracking.
Glenn, Charles L.
School Administrator, v47 n5 p28-31 May 1990
Integrated schools that stress learning among students in two languages are called two-way schools. They provide a singularly rich educational environment and avoid the negative effects of educational segregation by tracking. A Chelsea, Massachusetts, bilingual elementary school focused on team building to use existing resources more effectively. (MLH)
Descriptors: *Access to Education; *Bilingual Education; Cultural Differences; Elementary Education; *Equal Education; *Language Proficiency; *Minority Groups; *Track System (Education)
Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.
Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.
This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more than 25% of the students are of limited English proficiency (LEP). Developmental Bilingual Education requires dual language instruction throughout the duration of the program. This is in contrast to a transitional program in which instruction is gradually changed to English-only. At the same time, Developmental Bilingual students must master subject matter skills and meet grade promotion requirements. Baseline data were collected on the 600 students at the 2 schools who will receive 4 years of developmental bilingual teaching, but all 967 students at the 2 schools participate. Baseline scores for the two schools indicated that 56% of students were fluent English speakers, with 17% not speaking English, and 72% not speaking Spanish. Third graders in 1996-97, in comparison with 1995-96 third graders, showed a 10% gain in the numbers of students passing on all of the English Texas Assessment of Academic Skills tests. Prekindergarten and kindergarten students in the second year also showed considerable gains in Spanish vocabulary in 1996-97. Evaluation also revealed the extensive preparation of the teachers at both schools and the investment in curriculum and technology to improve education. Parent participation was shown to be an integral part of the program at both schools. Recommendations are made for continued program improvement with better communication between the two schools and better use of student testing in evaluation. (Contains 12 tables, 1 figure, and 12 references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Achievement Gains; *Bilingual Education; Bilingual Education Programs; Elementary Education; *English (Second Language); Language of Instruction; *Limited English Speaking; Parent Participation; Program Evaluation; *Second Language Learning; *Spanish; Tables (Data); Test Use
Identifiers: *Austin Independent School District TX; Elementary Secondary Education Act Title VII; Improving Americas Schools Act 1994
Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. Final Report.
Christian, Donna; Montone, Chris; Carranza, Isolda; Lindholm, Kathryn; Proctor, Patrick
The report presents results of a study of elementary and secondary school two-way bilingual immersion programs that focused on the program and contextual factors affecting student learning, student and teacher language use in the classroom, and teaching strategies used to promote target language use and increase language proficiency. The study included a survey of 182 schools in 19 states offering two- way bilingual education (results are summarized here) and case studies of 3 elementary school programs: Francis Scott Key Elementary School (Arlington, Virginia); River Glen Elementary School (San Jose, California); and Inter-American Magnet School (Chicago, Illinois). The case studies detail program design and components, school and district characteristics, program history, learning environment, instructional strategies, teacher classroom behaviors, student language use, student outcomes, and the program's impact on the students and the school community. Contains 39 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Case Studies; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Secondary Education; *English (Second Language); *Immersion Programs; Institutional Characteristics; *Language Role; Language Usage; *Native Language Instruction; Program Descriptions; Program Design; Program Effectiveness; Second Language Instruction; Student Behavior; Teacher Behavior
Identifiers: Arlington Public Schools VA; Chicago Public Schools IL; San Jose Unified School District CA; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Sanchez and Metz Elementary Schools: Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII First-Year Evaluation Report, 1995-96.
Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria
The first-year evaluation of a two-way Spanish/English bilingual education program at two Austin (Texas) elementary schools is presented. The developmental program has as its objectives the development of students' oral proficiency in Spanish and English, development of grade-level appropriate literacy in both languages, increase in academic achievement in reading, language, and mathematics, and changed attitudes toward bilingualism among students, parents, community, and staff. Baseline data were collected during the 1995-96 school year on the first cohort of 600 students in grades pre-K through 3. The report details program characteristics, the student population, baseline data corresponding to each of the objectives, and additional program services and policies. The latter include staff training and opportunities, parent outreach efforts, the parent advisory council, policy concerning parent refusals, development and administration of bilingual attitudinal questionnaires, a teacher professional survey, and project management findings. Long-term evaluation plans and project recommendations based on the first-year survey are also included. Contains 22 references and 16 tables. (MSE)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Achievement Gains; Administrative Policy; Affective Objectives; *Bilingual Education Programs; Elementary Education; *English (Second Language); Federal Aid; *Limited English Speaking; Literacy Education; Mathematics Instruction; Outreach Programs; Parent Attitudes; Parent Participation; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Reading Instruction; Spanish; *Spanish Speaking; Student Attitudes; Surveys
Identifiers: *Austin Independent School District TX; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Investigating Alternative Assessment in Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs. Final Report.
30 Apr 1997
A study investigated alternative methods of assessing student language skills in Arlington County (Virginia) public schools' Spanish/English two-way bilingual partial immersion program, with the objective of improving information for developing more effective teaching. A team of teachers from each participating school worked with researchers to develop, pilot, field-test, and evaluate alternative assessment methods, including oral and written language rubrics in both Spanish and English. In addition, the research team, which included elementary and middle school teachers, a special education teacher, district administrators, and researchers, explored ways in which using alternative assessment methods might inform or otherwise influence instructional practices. The report describes the context of the school system and bilingual education program, chronicles the project, and summarizes results as they relate to specified project goals. Early termination of the project limited assessment of the rubrics' validity. Unanticipated results and their implications for classroom instruction are also noted. Appendices comprising approximately 75% of the report include English and Spanish versions of the rubrics (grades 1-5) and supporting classroom materials and forms. Contains 11 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Elementary Education; *English (Second Language); Evaluation Methods; *Immersion Programs; Instructional Effectiveness; Instructional Improvement; Junior High Schools; Language Research; *Language Tests; Limited English Speaking; Middle Schools; Oral Language; *Spanish; Student Evaluation; Written Language
Identifiers: *Alternative Assessment; Arlington Public Schools VA; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Parents' Attitudes towards Dual Language Immersion Programs.
A study investigated parent attitudes toward a dual-language (Spanish/English) immersion program of bilingual education, in which both English-speakers and non- English-speakers are participating students and English is used no more than 50 percent of the time for instruction. The 20-item (agree/disagree format) survey elicited opinions from 200 parents concerning four program areas: cultural appreciation among peers; students' academic progress; the importance of learning a second language; and the importance of parent volunteerism. Results indicate most parents had a favorable attitude about dual-language immersion; over 90 percent were satisfied with the program and would recommend it to other families. Learning a second language was perceived as important by 97 percent. A similar percentage agreed that all schools should teach a second language and that children should speak English and Spanish fluently. While 97 percent were satisfied with their children's second language learning, only 95 percent were satisfied with their native language development. Most were also satisfied with their academic progress and enhanced cross-cultural attitudes and appreciation. Most supported parental involvement, although only about half had volunteered. Contains 11 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Bilingual Education; Cultural Awareness; Educational Attitudes; Elementary Education; English (Second Language); *Immersion Programs; Language Attitudes; *Parent Attitudes; Parent Participation; *Peer Relationship; *Second Languages; Spanish; Surveys; Volunteers
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures: A Title VII Two-Way Bilingual Program at Herod Elementary School 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Grants.
This report describes a program that was designed to end the isolation typically experienced by language minority students in traditional bilingual education and to provide language majority students the opportunity to acquire proficiency in a second Language. The program served 4 classes of approximately 22 students each (85 students) in kindergarten through grade 3, with one grade level to be added each year until a longitudinal and comprehensive two-way developmental bilingual program exists through grade 5. Each participating class was composed of about 50% native speakers of Spanish and 50% native speakers of English. Each language was used as the medium for instruction about half the time, with language mixing in the classroom avoided. Data from the first 2 years of the program indicate that substantial progress was made toward the program's 3-year goals for program participants in both oral language proficiency and content area achievement. In content areas, students of limited English and limited Spanish proficiency performed at or above grade level or showed growth. Parents were very satisfied with the language classes offered. An appendix provides a checklist for project goals. (Contains one figure, eight tables, and five references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Bilingual Education; *Cultural Awareness; Cultural Differences; English; Hispanic Americans; Language Minorities; *Limited English Speaking; Primary Education; Second Language Instruction; *Second Language Learning; Spanish; Urban Schools; Urban Youth
Identifiers: Elementary Secondary Education Act Title VII; *Houston Independent School District TX; *Two Way Bilingual Education
El Proyecto Cunningham: Dos Idiomas; Muchos Paises, 1995-96 (The Cunningham Project: Two Languages, Many Countries, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.
This report presents an evaluation of a two-way bilingual program in English and Spanish at the Cunningham Elementary School (Texas). The program was designed to extend and expand educational reform by shifting the instructional program at the school over the 5-year time span from a transitional bilingual program to a two-way bilingual, or dual language, education for all students. The first year was the planning year for the program, with actual implementation scheduled for the 1996-97 school year. This report describes the planning efforts and reports baseline data on student performance and participant perceptions. Eighty students were accepted into the program to start in 1996-97 in two kindergarten and two first-grade classes. The school hired and trained staff and teachers, held informational meetings, purchased instructional materials, and selected students. The majority of the 48 parents responding to the initial survey agreed that they were pleased with the bilingual program, and the majority of the teachers expected the program to help students and agreed that a bilingual education was important for these students. Five appendixes present the forms used in the evaluation and program budget data. (Contains seven tables and five references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Cultural Awareness; *Educational Planning; Elementary School Students; Grade 1; Hispanic Americans; Kindergarten; Language Minorities; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; Program Implementation; Second Language Instruction; *Second Language Learning; *Student Attitudes; Urban Schools; Urban Youth
Identifiers: Elementary Secondary Education Act Title VII; *Houston Independent School District TX; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?
Nunez, Mario A.
This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to instruction. The Mexican Spanish/Tarahumara/Tepehuano bilingual educational model is discussed within the scope of this project. Both countries face the challenge in their educational systems of providing bilingual content area instruction to monolingual populations. Contains 38 references. (EH)
Descriptors: Area Studies; *Bilingual Education; Bilingualism; Foreign Countries; Language; *Latin American Culture; *Latin American History; *Latin Americans; Multicultural Education; Secondary Education; Social Studies
Identifiers: *Mexico (Chihuahua State); *Mexico (Tarahumara Region)
How a New Form of Peer Coaching Helps Teachers and Students in Two-Way Bilingual Programs.
A 5-year study, conducted in two schools on the Texas-Mexico border, is investigating the effectiveness of peer coaching as a professional development strategy for teachers in two-way bilingual education programs. A group of 24 teachers, half bilingual and Hispanic and half monolingual and Anglo participated in the study. For each, classroom ethnographies were compiled after classroom observation, and teachers were videotaped at random times during classroom teaching. Six teachers were observed all day for a period of one week. In addition, teachers responded to a questionnaire on teaching practices, team teaching experience, and perceived problems and successes. Professional development sessions, during which the teachers acted as peer coaches, were also videotaped and ethnographies were developed for them. Ethnographies were analyzed for code switching, instructional patterns for each language, social/power relationships, teacher/student participation structures, and identification of particular discourse forms. The methods were found to be effective in focusing on the quality of student participation patterns, level of learning quality in each language, time and status given to each language, and teachers' professional development needs. (Contains 39 references.) (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; *Classroom Communication; Classroom Observation Techniques; Classroom Techniques; Code Switching (Language); Cross Cultural Training; Discourse Analysis; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethnography; *Inservice Teacher Education; Instructional Innovation; *Intercultural Communication; Interpersonal Relationship; *Peer Teaching; Power Structure; Surveys; Team Teaching
Identifiers: *Border Communities; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Dual Language Programs and Team-Teachers' Professional Development.
A study in two El Paso (Texas) elementary school two-way bilingual education programs investigated factors in learning through first and second language, analyzed teacher development in a context of complex change, and identified promising school structures for collaborative professional development for these teachers. Of the 24 participating teachers, 12 from each school, half were bilingual (Spanish-English) and half were English monolingual. Classes were team-taught. All were observed monthly by trained observers; six of them were observed all day for an entire week. All were videotaped for an hour at randomly-selected times, and observed once a month during professional development sessions. Teachers also responded to an essay-type questionnaire asking them to elaborate on their teaching practices, team-teaching experiences, and overall problems and successes. Teachers all commented that the team teaching situation, with one monolingual and one bilingual teacher, offered new opportunities for personal and professional growth. Structures for the teams' development provided opportunities to learn collaboratively, including role-playing, peer coaching, classroom ethnography, and curriculum writing. The locally- constructed professional development program was found to be an effective structure for needed change. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; *Bilingual Teachers; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; English (Second Language); Inservice Teacher Education; Monolingualism; *Peer Relationship; Professional Development; Second Language Instruction; Spanish; *Team Teaching
Identifiers: Texas (El Paso); *Two Way Bilingual Education
Bilingual, Bicultural, and Binational Cooperative Learning Communities for Students and Teachers.
As NAFTA opens the border between the United States and Mexico, the need for binational cooperation in education becomes ever more imperative. This chapter provides a rationale for binational education--the benefits of binational education both for language-minority students and for the majority culture--and describes a variety of cooperative bicultural programs for students and teachers. These programs include: (1) the Leadership Enhancement Academy for Binational Education in neighboring El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico), which brings together educators, community leaders, and parents to cultivate relationships and develop an integrated systemic approach to binational education in the cities' schools; (2) two- way bilingual classrooms in which English- and Spanish-speaking students are grouped in heterogeneous cooperative learning teams; (3) teachers' learning communities that provide collegial support for implementing a complex cooperative learning model; and (4) binational staff development activities involving U.S. and Mexican teachers from neighboring cities along the border. Particular emphasis is placed on an effective binational staff development process that helps teachers transfer appropriate knowledge and behaviors into the bilingual cooperative classroom, and provides ongoing support for personal development, interpersonal relationships, and program implementation. Contains 50 references. (Author/SV)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Collegiality; *Cooperative Learning; Educational Benefits; Educational Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Inservice Teacher Education; Institutional Cooperation; International Cooperation; International Educational Exchange; *International Programs; *Interprofessional Relationship; *Mexican American Education; *Staff Development
Identifiers: Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition; Language Minorities; *Learning Communities; Mexico; Two Way Bilingual Education; United States
Students' Views of the Amigos Program. Research Report No. 11.
Lambert, Wallace E.; Cazabon, Mary
This report describes a pilot study of the attitudes and personal estimates of progress of students who have spent 4 or more years in the Amigos two-way bilingual program in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The program currently enrolls about 300 students: 50% native Spanish speakers and 50% native English speakers, approximately half of whom are African American. For half the day Spanish is the medium of instruction and English is used for the other half. A 25-questions survey was administered to Grade 4, 5, and 6 Amigo students designed to sound out their perceptions of the two-way language learning experience and the social world it provides. Results showed that both English- and Spanish-Amigos are aware of their progress in acquiring skills in both Spanish and English; that both groups have confidence in their potential as teachers of these languages; and that both are sensitive to cultural norms governing language use outside of school. Results also showed that the majority of Amigo students are basically satisfied with the program; that they want to continue in it and in their own bilingual/bicultural development; and that they do not believe the program has jeopardized their academic progress nor their command of their first language. The study investigators believe that these perceptions and opinions of students are essential to the evaluation of the program's effectiveness and to the program's amelioration. Appended to the report are the responses displayed in tabular form by grade following each of the 25 questions. A brief second table gives data on average Spanish and English reading scores of the Spanish Amigos. (LR)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Cultural Awareness; English (Second Language); Hispanic Americans; Immersion Programs; *Intercultural Communication; Intermediate Grades; Language of Instruction; Language Skills; Limited English Speaking; Reading Comprehension; *Second Language Instruction; *Spanish Speaking; *Student Attitudes
Identifiers: Amigos Program MA; Cambridge Public Schools MA; *English Speaking; * Two Way Bilingual Education
Policy and Practice in Bilingual Education: A Reader Extending the Foundations. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 2 Series.
Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Baker, Colin, Ed.
Available From: Multilingual Matters, Ltd., 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007 (paperback: ISBN-1-85359-266-8; hardback: ISBN-1-85359-267-6).
This book can be used as a comprehensive introduction for instructors, researchers, and students, and as an interactive text for students. In designing the text the authors have been particularly attentive to the needs in teacher education, especially in the preparation of bilingual teachers. Thus, each of the readings is followed by questions and activities that engage students in reflection and practices that may transform their own thinking, as well as the schools, classrooms, and communities to which they will contribute. Articles include: "Past and Future Directions of Federal Bilingual Education Policy" (James J. Lyons); "Bilingual Education: Politics or Pedagogy?" (Ursula Casanova); "Educational Language Planning in England and Wales" (Michael Stubbs); "Multilingualism and the Education of Minority Children" (Tove Skutnabb-Kangas); "Bilingual Education and Anti-Racist Education" (Jim Cummins); "Realities of Teaching in a Multiethnic School" (David Corson); "A Spanish-English Dual Language Program in New York City" (Sidney H. Morison); "Bilingual Education of Cuban-American Children in Dade County's Ethnic School" (Ofelia Garcia, Ricardo Otheguy); "Empowering Minority Students' (Jim Cummins); "Canadian Second Language Immersion Program" (Fred Genesee); "Heritage Language Teaching in Canadian Schools" (Jim Cummins); "European Models of Bilingual Education" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); "Bilingual Education in Wales" (Colin Baker); "Allocating Two Languages as a Key Feature of a Bilingual Methodology" (Rodolfo Jacobson); "Creating Successful Learning Contexts for Bilingual Literacy" (Nancy H. Hornberger); "Relating Experience and Text: Socially Constituted Reading Activity" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "A Process Approach to Literacy Using Dialogue Journals and Literature Logs with Second Language Learners" (Maria de la Luz Reyes); "Combining Language and Content for Second-Language Students" (Donna Christian, and others); "Language Education in Bilingual Acadia" (William Francis Mackey); "Cooperative Learning" (Evelyn Jacob, Beverly Mattson); "Creative Education for Bilingual Teachers" (Alma Flor Ada); "Building Bridges between Parents and the School" (Christian J. Faltis); "Recasting Frames: Latino Parent Involvement" (Maria E. Torres- Guzman); and "Bilingual Classroom Studies and Community Analysis" (Luis C. Moll). (VWL)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Dialog Journals; *Educational Policy; English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; Heritage Education; Immersion Programs; Intervention; *Language Planning; Limited English Speaking; Literacy Education; Models; Multilingualism; Parent Participation; Spanish; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Acadia; Canada; England; New York City Board of Education; Wales
Two-Way Foreign Language Immersion Programs: A Handbook for Parents and Teachers.
Craig, Barbara A.
This guide is intended as a reference for both parents and teachers concerning the design and objectives of two-way bilingual language immersion programs in elementary schools, including procedures and considerations in the creation of a new program. The first section looks at the role of language immersion as a form of enrichment education, and outlines different immersion program models. The second section examines attitudes toward language, language education, and bilingualism and the importance of community readiness in developing an immersion program. Section three addresses the planning and organization of a two-way immersion program, focusing on such issues as community demographics and the involvement of local school authorities. Parental involvement in the program is discussed in the fourth section. The challenges specific to the first 6 weeks of the program, the function of an immersion parent advisory committee, and issues in home-school cooperation are addressed in this section. In the final section, selected successful two-way immersion programs are profiled and a more extensive case study of one Arlington (Virginia) program is presented. Contains 20 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: Advisory Committees; *Bilingual Education Programs; Bilingualism; Case Studies; Elementary Education; Enrichment; *Immersion Programs; Language Attitudes; *Parent Participation; Program Descriptions; *Program Design; Program Development; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Programs; *Second Languages; Student Characteristics
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
Parent Involvement in a Two-Way Bilingual School.
21 Apr 1995
This study investigated the nature of and factors in the involvement of both Spanish-speaking and English-speaking parents in an elementary school specializing in two-way bilingual education. The researcher observed parents and teachers in interaction, reviewed school documents, and interviewed parents, families, and school staff, some in short interviews, informal-conversational interviews, and a selected group received in-depth interviews. It was found that: (1) parents' comfort with the staff and the school was critical in their becoming involved; (2) language played a major role in the nature of involvement, with English the language of structural organizations that involved groups of parents; and (3) parents' view of their role in relationship to the school, their own schooling level, and present economic situation, were major influences on how they were involved at school. Excerpts from parent comments, in English and Spanish, are presented. Conclusions are drawn and include: (1) a context specific framework of viewing home-school continuity can enable educators to more clearly understand opportunities for parent involvement at the school site, and to determine ways to more equitably involve all parents; (2) parents can be enabled to or disabled in demonstrating their school related cultural resources depending on the action of the schools; and (3) a fluid perspective, one that recognizes variation within and between social groups and school contexts, can address the biases and stereotypes that continue to be associated with minority groups of parents and their relationships to schools. Contains 13 references. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education; Case Studies; Economic Factors; Educational Background; Elementary Education; English; Interviews; Language Role; Meetings; *Parent Background; *Parent Participation; *Spanish Speaking; Volunteers
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
A Review of Findings from Two-Way Bilingual Education Evaluation Reports.
Mahrer, Cindy; Christian, Donna
A review of 35 reports evaluating 27 two-way bilingual education programs is reported. All programs represented meet basic criteria for language of instruction, student characteristics, and emphasis on developing bilingualism. The review examined program characteristics and student outcomes, when available. Results are summarized in the following areas: language proficiency in Spanish, English, Chinese, and Portuguese language proficiency; Spanish and English reading achievement; Spanish and English writing achievement; Spanish and English math achievement; Spanish and English science achievement; Spanish and English social studies achievement; additional content-area results; student self-perception and language/cross-cultural attitudes; staff development activities; parent involvement activities; and teaching methodologies and classroom strategies. Contains five references. (MSE)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Achievement Gains; *Bilingual Education; Chinese; Classroom Techniques; Cultural Awareness; English (Second Language); Language Attitudes; Language Proficiency; Mathematics Instruction; *Outcomes of Education; Parent Participation; Portuguese; Program Design; *Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Science Instruction; Second Language Instruction; Social Studies; Spanish; Staff Development; Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Tests; Uncommonly Taught Languages
Identifiers: *Content Area Teaching; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Local Perspective. ERIC Digest.
Two-way bilingual education has taken root in many schools across the United Sates. In these programs, students develop dual language proficiency by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised of half native speakers of English and half native speakers of the target language. Two-way programs work toward academic, language, and affective goals. Language minority students benefit from the opportunity to develop and learn through their native language as well as English, while English speakers achieve well academically in an immersion environment. The first part of this Digest looks at the issues involved in implementing a two-way program, future directions and concerns of two- way bilingual education, and emerging results of two-way bilingual programs. The second part of the Digest concentrates on the Amigos Program, a two-way program established in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1985-86 that now serves nearly 300 students. Program design, program assessment, and student responses to program participation are highlighted. Contains eight references. (VWL)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Educational Trends; English (Second Language); *Futures (of Society); Program Descriptions; *Program Effectiveness; *Program Implementation; Spanish; Spanish Speaking; *Student Attitudes; Testing
Identifiers: *Amigos Program MA; Digests; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. Educational Practice Report: 12.
Since the mid-1980s two-way bilingual education programs have attracted renewed interest as an effective way to educate both language-minority and language-majority students. This report, which describes and assesses the current state of such programs in the United States, is based on data collected from 169 schools during the 1991-92, 1992-93, and 1993-94 school years. The opening section, a brief overview of the goals and rationale for the two-way approach, profiles the programs in four tables showing: programs by state; grade levels served; language of instruction; and year of establishment of programs. The remaining parts of the paper provide: an account of the results of the study; a discussion of variability in program implementation; and an exploration of some significant related questions. Among these are: Will the model that works for one school district work for another? What about attrition and late admission to the program? What about the development of programs in diverse languages: for example, those that do not share an alphabet with English? And how can the target languages be maintained and developed in the face of the dominance and power of English in U.S. society? While these concerns and others need to be addressed, it is concluded that two-way bilingual programs benefit U.S. education in three important ways: (1) by providing an effective approach to educating a growing number of nonnative-English speaking students in an environment that promotes both English language development and academic progress; (2) by expanding the nation's language resources; and (3) by enhancing cross-cultural understanding and appreciation. A list of resources from 12 programs is appended. (Contains 24 references.) (LR)
Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Elementary Secondary Education; Intercultural Communication; Language of Instruction; Limited English Speaking; Minority Groups; Program Descriptions; Program Implementation; Second Language Instruction; *Second Language Learning; Spanish Speaking; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
Emerging Literacy in a Two-Way Bilingual First Grade Classroom.
Kuhlman, Natalie A.; And Others
A study investigated the emerging journal-writing skills of 16 monolingual Spanish- speaking Mexican Americans and 10 monolingual English-speaking first-graders in San Diego County, California, in a whole-language, two-way bilingual classroom. The research looked for developmental stages in writing in the primary language, similarities or differences for the second language, the beginning of spontaneous second-language writing, and occurrence and results of social interaction during journal writing. It was found that the children approached the writing task from unique and individual perspectives, combining drawing and writing in early journals, experimenting with alphabetic forms and shapes, writing lists, and repeating patterns of letters, words, and sentences. They used early journals for egocentric writing activities, actively constructing writing schema through manipulation and experimentation. As the year progressed, journals became more audience-oriented as the children interacted with their peers, teachers, and researchers. (MSE)
Descriptors: Audience Awareness; *Bilingual Education; Developmental Stages; Elementary School Students; *English (Second Language); Grade 1; Interaction; *Journal Writing; Mexican Americans; Monolingualism; Primary Education; Second Language Learning; Skill Development; *Spanish Speaking; Whole Language Approach; *Writing Skills
Identifiers: *Emergent Literacy; English Speaking; *Two Way Bilingual Education
Two-Way Bilingual Language Arts Portfolio.
Lindholm, Kathryn J.
The two-way bilingual language arts portfolio was designed to help teachers, administrators, parents, and others understand the level of language arts development of students in the two-way bilingual program. It was originally conceived as a method of student assessment, to substantiate teachers' observations that students were making significant progress in the two program languages (native and second). The portfolio format presented here consists of: (1) an outline of assessment procedures for different grade levels; (2) a timeline for data collection using each form of evaluation at each grade level (K-6); and (3) forms for each evaluation method. The evaluation forms include a matrix for assessing student oral language skills, a form for evaluating an interactive writing journal (K-1, 2-6), reading rubric assessment scales (K, 1-2, 3-6), guidelines for informal reading observation (1-6), a parent questionnaire concerning the child's reading and writing habits, a student reading attitude questionnaire (K, 1-2, 3-6), and a thematic book list form. (MSE)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; *Bilingual Education; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; *Immersion Programs; *Language Arts; Language Skills; Language Tests; *Portfolios (Background Materials); Second Language Instruction; *Second Languages; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: *Two Way Bilingual Education
Two-Way Bilingual Education: A Progress Report on the Amigos Program. Research Report: 7.
Cazabon, Mary; And Others
The progress report on the Amigos two-way bilingual education program in the Cambridge (Massachusetts) public schools describes: research on the achievement in mathematics, Spanish, and English of Amigos students and students in control/ comparison groups; data gathered on students' and parents' attitudes toward bilingualism and biculturalism; student's self-assessments of academic competence and self-esteem; teachers' judgments of students' academic competence and self-esteem; and social-interactional patterns among Amigos students from different ethnic backgrounds. Features and policies of the program are described in a discussion of the results. It was concluded that Spanish and English language skills had improved steadily in participants of the Amigos, transitional bilingual, and standard English- only programs, but that Amigos students had not suffered any academic loss in mathematics or English despite having only half their instruction in English. By grade 3, Amigos students developed classroom friendships independent of race or ethnicity. While English-Amigos and English controls had favorable views of bilingualism, the Spanish-Amigos were most favorable. Spanish-Amigos also rated themselves highest in personal satisfaction. A tabulation of survey responses and a brief bibliography are appended. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Bilingual Education Programs; *Cultural Pluralism; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; English (Second Language); *Interpersonal Relationship; *Limited English Speaking; Mathematics Instruction; Parent Attitudes; Program Descriptions; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Self Esteem; Self Evaluation (Individuals); Spanish; Student Attitudes; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: *Amigos Program MA; Cambridge Public Schools MA; *Two Way Bilingual Education
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