4. Are there standards for Spanish language arts? Should they be different for L1 and L2 learners?

Some standards have been developed for Spanish, but much more work needs to be done in this area. The state of Texas has Spanish language arts standards, and the state of New York has developed Native Language Arts Standards for a variety of languages. In addition, some school districts (such as Arlington, VA) have developed them. Finally, the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) has developed general standards for foreign language instruction in the United States, but these are not language specific, nor do they apply to native speakers.