Classroom Instruction: Additional Resources



The following four books contain descriptions of successful research-based instructional practices in dual language classrooms.


Calderón, M. E., & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2003). Designing and implementing two-way bilingual programs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Part II of this book provides very detailed examples of successful instructional techniques for two-way classrooms, including the various components of sheltered instruction. It describes techniques, resources, and activities for vocabulary building along with various types of reading activities that students can do independently or with others. Part II also includes tips on differentiating instruction for students at different stages of language acquisition and offers descriptions of cooperative learning activities. “Structuring Components for Integrating Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing” in chapter 6 describes the process of literacy development in two languages that is facilitated by drawing on students’ background knowledge; building their vocabulary; and engaging in listening comprehension activities, different types of shared interactive reading, and independent reading. The section on writing instruction emphasizes the process writing approach, connecting students’ writing to larger contexts, and including interactive discussions about writing in the classroom.


Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
This book approaches instruction through the domains of oral language development, literacy development, and content teaching. In regard to oral language development, the authors discuss individual student and classroom characteristics that contribute to second language learning; expectations for first and second language development; the development of lessons that include appropriate objectives, materials, and activities; and language use in the classroom. Topics on literacy development include choosing teaching materials, building on oral language skills and cross-language transfer, making instruction appropriate for students at different developmental stages or at different stages of literacy acquisition, and working with special student populations. For content teaching, the authors outline how to set content, language, and general learning objectives and how to select materials and plan for evaluation. Table 6.5 includes activities for the three phases of instruction (preview, focused learning, and extension); Table 6.6  lists the task demands appropriate to each stage of proficiency. The book also includes a template for a unit and lesson plan (Table 6.10) and two model lessons.


Freeman, Y. S., Freeman, D. E., & Mercuri, S. P. (2005). Dual language essentials for teachers and administrators. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
The curriculum essentials discussed in this book involve integrating language and content, using thematic instruction, and connecting curriculum to students’ lives as well as to content and language standards. The authors recommend establishing predictable routines, separating languages for instruction without translating, and scaffolding instruction. Figure 4-7 illustrates the opportunities and constraints of grouping students heterogeneously or homogenously by native language for instruction. The authors also discuss the interrelation of speaking, reading, and writing; the importance of teacher expectations; and cross-language transfer.


Soltero, S. (2004). Dual language: Teaching and learning in two languages. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Chapter 5 covers the following teaching components: home-school connections, cooperative learning activities, a thematic approach using children’s literature across languages and content areas, integrating language and content, sheltered instruction, and authentic assessment. Chapter 6 offers specific explanations and vignettes of instructional practices for cooperative grouping (numbered heads together, jigsaw, literature circle, partner reading, think-pair-share, cross-age buddies), teaching strategies (activating prior knowledge, the Language Experience Approach, using pattern language or predictable books, preview-review, and Total Physical Response), and graphic organizers.


Program Profiles

The following selections demonstrate instructional strategies in particular two-way programs.


Calderón, M., & Slavin, R. (2001). Success for All in a two-way immersion school. In D. Christian & F. Genesee (Eds.), Bilingual education (pp. 27-40). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
In this profile of a two-way program in Texas that uses the English and Spanish Success for All program, the authors outline components of the Early Learning (Grades pre-K–K), Reading Roots (Grade 1), and Reading Wings (Grades 2-5) programs. This reading program involves 90 minutes a day of instruction on literacy concepts, fluency, and oral and written comprehension, conducted alternately in English and Spanish.


Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (1999). Multiple embedded scaffolds: Support for English speakers in a two-way Spanish immersion kindergarten. Bilingual Research Journal, 23(2-3), 135-146.
Teachers in two bilingual Spanish-immersion kindergarten classrooms used multiple environmental scaffolds in order to ensure listening comprehension and build vocabulary, particularly for the students learning Spanish as a second language. The scaffolds included routines (phrases, songs, poems, and activities through which students could hear new vocabulary in a variety of contexts repeatedly), sheltered instruction strategies, the use of realia, and modeling of verbal responses by native-Spanish-speaking students.


Pérez, B. (2004). Becoming biliterate: A study of two-way bilingual immersion education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Based on a study of two-way immersion schools in San Antonio, Texas, this book describes a range of oral language strategies used by students to communicate in both English and Spanish. It outlines the components of the balanced literacy model used in the Spanish curriculum as well as aspects of literacy transfer. The author complements the observations of instructional strategies with examples of students’ oral and written products and discussions of the teachers’ perspectives on their literacy practices.


Rubinstein-Avila, E. (2003). Negotiating power and redefining literacy expertise: Buddy reading in a dual-immersion programme. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(1), 83-97.
This case study of paired reading in a two-way Portuguese-English second grade class shows the variety of strategies that the students in the focal dyad used to make sense of the text. The study demonstrates the benefits of interactive reading in the dual language context.



Silver, J. (1996). Profile of Effective Two-Way Immersion Teaching: Sixth Grade. Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Part of the "Meeting the Challenge of Teaching Linguistically Diverse Students," this video features bilingual teacher M. Dorrego explaining her pedagogical style and beliefs as classroom scenes illustrate how she crafts meaningful learning around instructional strategies aimed at helping sixth graders in a two-way bilingual immersion class reach higher levels of linguistic and academic sophistication. (VS5) (28 minutes)


Silver, J. (1996). Learning Together: Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs. Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Part of the series "Meeting the Challenge of Teaching Linguistically Diverse Students," this video presents for parents, educators, and administrators, a clear and concise overview of the rationale for two-way bilingual immersion, common features of two-way programs, and discussion of criteria for successful implementation. Classroom scenes from two schools illustrate the discussion. (VS6) (26 minutes)


Digests and Briefs on Instruction for Second Language Learners

These briefs concern instruction in non-TWI learning contexts but are applicable to any classroom with second language learners.


Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition (2000) by Aída Walqui

Developing Language Proficiency and Connecting School to Students' Lives: Two Standards for Effective Teaching (1998) by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy (1993) by Joy Kreeft Peyton

Educating Hispanic Students: Effective Instructional Practices (2002) by Yolanda N. Padrón, Hersh C. Waxman, & Héctor H. Rivera

English Language Learners with Special Needs: Effective Instructional Strategies (2001) by Alba Ortiz

Integrating Language and Content: Lessons from Immersion (1995) by the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning

In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences (1998) by Elizabeth R. Howard & Michael I. Loeb

Promoting Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement Through Cooperation (1999) by Margarita Espino Calderón

Reading with a Purpose: Communicative Reading Tasks for the Foreign Language Classroom (1998) by Elizabeth K. Knutson

Selecting Materials to Teach Spanish to Spanish Speakers (2002) by Paula Winke & Cathy Stafford

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol: A Tool for Teacher-Researcher Collaboration and Professional Development (1999) by Deborah J. Short & Jana Echevarria

Spanish for Spanish Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency (2001) by Joy Kreeft Peyton, Vickie W. Lewelling, & Paula Winke

Strategy Training for Second Language Learners (2003) by Andrew Cohen

Thematic, Communicative Language Teaching in the K-8 Classroom (2000) by Mari Haas

Think Aloud Protocols: Teaching Reading Processes to Young Bilingual Students (2003) by Magaly Lavadenz


Other Online Resources

Trends in two-way immersion education: A review of the research (by Howard, Sugarman & Christian, 2003)

Comprehensive bibliography of two-way immersion literature

The IRC E-Kit: An electronic toolkit of resources for ESL and bilingual K-12 classrooms, teachers and administrators.

Dual U: An eight module curriculum designed to assist elementary and secondary teachers and administrators in developing, implementing, and assessing dual language programs.

Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education (See especially the sections on Curriculum and Instruction).