Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S.
The Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the U.S. was supported by funding from the U.S. Department of Education from 1991-2004. To support the field, CAL is continuing to make this online directory available for searching and, upon request from many programs, we have reopened the directory so programs can add or change information. CAL is exploring ways to expand its activities around Bilingual, Dual Language, and Two-Way Immersion Education. Watch our website for updates.
This directory lists two-way immersion (TWI) programs in the U.S. that serve students in Pre-K through 12th grade. The elementary (K-5) programs listed in this directory meet all four of the following criteria:
- Integration: Language-minority and language-majority students are integrated for at least 60% of instructional time (and ideally more) at all grade levels
- Instruction: Content and literacy instruction in English and the partner language is provided to all students, and all students receive instruction in the partner language at least 50% of the instructional day at all grade levels
- Population: Within the program, there is a balance of language-minority and language-majority students, with each group making up between one-third and two-thirds of the total student population
- Duration of program: The TWI program begins in Pre-K, Kindergarten, or first grade and runs at least five years (preferably through Grade 12)
Secondary (middle and high school) programs are included in the Directory if they are the continuation of a TWI program that meets the above criteria. It is preferable that students in a secondary TWI program receive at least one language/literacy and one content course in the partner language.
Directory of Two-Way Programs
SEARCH the Directory
by name, location, features
BROWSE the Directory (alphabetically by state)
ADD or CHANGE
TWI program information
CAL has received many requests to allow programs to add or change information in the TWI Directory. We have re-opened the Directory for this purpose.
CAL is exploring ways to expand its activities around bilingual and dual language education. Watch our website for updates.
By excluding Elementary School programs that do not meet one or more of these criteria we are by no means making any statement about the quality or effectiveness of these programs. Two-way immersion is only one model of enriched language education, and it may not be feasible or desirable depending upon a given community's demographics, resources, and goals.
Note that the duration of program criterion refers to the program's intended duration. Programs can be listed in the Directory beginning in their first year of implementation (when they enroll students in only one or two grades).
If you are looking for a program that is a total or partial immersion program for native English speakers, check the Directory of Foreign Language Immersion Programs in the U.S. in addition to the TWI directory. CAL also hosts the Database of Elementary and Secondary School Newcomer Programs in the U.S., the Heritage Language Programs Database, and National Directory of Early Foreign Language Programs.
Some states have their own directories of Two-Way Immersion. These directories are NOT maintained by CAL:
- California: Connect to the California Department of Education
- Texas: Connect to Texas Two-Way
- Illinois: Connect to the Illinois Resource Center
- Number of Districts and Schools by State
- Number of Programs by Grade Level
- Number of Programs by Language
- Growth of Two-Way Immersion Programs in the U.S., 1962-Present
- Programs that Span Pre-K/Kindergarten through Grade 12
*The data in these tables will be updated regularly, but may not include the most recent additions to the Directory.
Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics
Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman
Center for Applied Linguistics
Citing the TWI Directory
To cite the TWI Directory using APA Publication Standards, we suggest the following:
Center for Applied Linguistics. (2012). Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/twi/directory