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Title: School Reform and Student Diversity, Volume II: Case Studies of Exemplary Practices for
LEP Students. Studies of Education Reform.
Authors: Berman, Paul; And Others
Publication Date: September 1995

Solving the challenges of educating language-minority students to the high standards expected of all children requires a willingness to reform the usual practices at many of today’s public schools. This volume, the second in a series of three, presents findings of a study that examined exemplary school-reform efforts involving the education of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The study focused on language arts in grades 4 through 6 and mathematics and science in Grades 6 through 8. The volume describes eight schools with exemplary approaches to the education of language-minority students. The schools were selected through a nomination process, telephone screening interviews, and two site visits to each of the eight schools. The case-study summaries briefly describe the school and community context; portray a scene from one or more exemplary learning environments; identify the strategies and learning models that work for LEP students; highlight structural innovations; identify supportive factors at the district or state level; and outline key findings. The strategies included accelerated learning environments, cooperative learning, long-term teacher–student cohorts, critical thinking, material presented in a meaningful context, and respect for students’ cultural backgrounds.

Title: Helping Hispanic Students Reach High Academic Standards: An Idea Book.
Authors: Weiner, Lisa; Leighton, Mary; Funkhouser, Janie
Publication Date: September 01, 2000
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827 (Toll Free); Tel: 800-872-5327 (Toll Free); Fax: 301-470-1244; e-mail: For full text: ttp://

This report is part of a series of Idea Books designed to help schools and communities work together to strengthen education so all students can achieve high academic standards. It is specifically designed to help administrators and teachers seeking to understand how Title I, Title VII, and other programs assist educators in helping Hispanic students and Spanish-speaking English language learners achieve high standards. It describes promising practices that have been proven effective, illustrating how they can operate in schools and other community settings with Hispanic students. The book describes how effective schools serve Hispanic students in four ways: implementing effective, aligned, standards-based programs; building teacher and organizational capacity to serve Hispanic students; using family and community resources; and building firm foundations for postsecondary education. Each section of the book ends with a checklist that educators can use to see how well their schools and districts are meeting the needs of Hispanic students. A final chapter presents lessons learned from experience based on the four methods of serving Hispanic students. The three appendixes present an overview of profiled programs, resources for serving Hispanic students and their families, and additional resources.

Title: Curriculum Development for Multicultural and Multilingual Students.
Author: Andrews, Lanna
Source: Multicultural Education, v9 n3 p15-18 Spr 2002

Addressed the need to train teachers to work with culturally/linguistically diverse students, using a classroom case and online feedback from the case teacher and building a database of adapted lessons. Although cases were useful in promoting application of knowledge and skills, feedback and opportunity for reflection were essential. Computers facilitated teacher training and expanded their use of new skills.

Title: Curriculum Innovations in Intensive English Programs: An Update.
Author: Casey, Judy
Source: Journal of Intensive English Studies, v13 p79-97 Spr-Fall 1999

Discusses curriculum design and development for intensive English programs (IEP). Describes a study on recent and future curricular innovations in IEP programs. Makes suggestions for successful IEP programs, including useful orientations, accurate assessment and bridge programs, faculty and staff training in diversity awareness, better student advising, and scholarships.

Title: Gallery of ESOL Lesson Plans.
Pages: 23
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: For full text:

This collection of lesson plans for teaching English as a Second Language includes the following: “You Scratched Me!” which has students examine verbs in three forms (base, past, and progressive) together with questions, accelerating the memorization and understanding of verb forms and tenses; “Getting Acquainted/Inferential Thinking,” which provides an exercise in inference and has students apply the knowledge to how body language, words, and actions help people understand what is happening in a play even if they do not understand the language well; “Let’s Create Job Biographies,” which helps adult learners relate their knowledge of work in their home countries to a workplace in the United States; “Let’s Talk about Work!” which helps adult learners explore career options through oral interaction with peers after a visit to a work place; “Student-Generated Sentences,” which encourages students to use and internalize grammatical structures in English; “Community Language Learning,” which encourages and promotes real conversations in English with beginning language learners; and “Where Is the Monkey?” which has students answer yes/no questions using the verb “be” with prepositions.

Title: Make It and Take It: Computer-Based Resources for Lesson Planning.
Authors: Brown, Tasha; Cargill, Debby; Hostetler, Jan; Joyner, Susan; Phillips, Vanessa
Publication Date: August 01, 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

This document is part lesson planner and idea resource and part annotated bibliography of electronic resources. The lesson planner is divided into four parts. Part one, “Tables to Go,” contains different tables that can be used for a variety of exercises at all levels of the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom. Part two, “Exploring the Internet for Conversation Ideas” provides many ideas for subjects of conversation practice, including mock job interviews and news reporter interviews of newsmakers or witnesses, and can be used at any level of instruction and learner proficiency. Part three provides a number of activities designed to engage students directly in the target language, including such games as “Alphabet Soup,” “Grammar Bingo” and “Vocabulary Journal.” The final part introduces creative and innovative ways to use student writing to enhance student oral skills. An annotated bibliography of Internet resources is listed by subject.

Title: Project-Based Learning and Assessment: A Resource Manual for Teachers.
Publication Date: 1997
Availability: Virginia Adult Education Resource Centers, Oliver Hall, VCU, 1015 W. Main Street, P.O. Box 842020, Richmond, VA 23284-2020.

The idea behind this guide is that assessing student performance through projects not only allows for the observation of affective behaviors and cognitive strategies that affect learning, but also helps to make instruction fully responsive to students’ needs. This resource kit was developed to assist teachers in understanding the purpose of project work as a practical and meaningful way of learning and assessing the progress of learning English. The main focus of this kit is to guide teachers in developing projects for learning and assessment of their adult students. The kit includes an introduction, a guide for developing and implementing projects (including background information, project framework, pre-project activities, assessment, and sample projects), abstracts of projects for different levels, and a bibliography. Numerous diagrams, figures, charts, rubrics, checklists, and lesson plans are included.

Title: Same Old Dog, New Tricks: Lesson Planning as Friend Not Foe.
Author: Propst, David
Source: Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997

Presents a lesson-planning instrument for English-as-a-Second-Language courses to help clarify the role of lesson planning in teaching. The instrument can be used by teacher trainers to introduce trainees to lesson planning or by teachers looking for a change of pace.

Title: Into, Through, and Beyond. A Framework to Develop Content-Based Material.
Authors: Brinton, Donna M.; Holten, Christine
Source: Forum, v35 n4 Oct-Dec 1997

Describes a lesson planning framework that content-based instruction teachers can adapt to their instructional materials, student populations, and classroom settings. Applying the framework to an authentic reading passage, the sample lesson illustrates how teachers can develop activities that supplement the content, increase student access to and comprehension of core materials, and foster students’ linguistic skills.

Title: Planning Successful Writing Lessons.
Authors: Lederfein, Batya; Karhash, Ayellet; Guetta, Arianna; Cohen, Mira; Dey, Dafna; Azaria, Galia; Ellen, Ruthie; Komarovsky, Sharon
Source: English Teachers’ Journal (Israel), v52 p21-29 Oct 1998

Presents nine tips for planning effective second-language writing lessons. Tips are based on three principles (writing is a means of communication, writing is a process, and eliciting oral or written production of foreign language varies according to the degree of guidance teachers give to students). The paper offers six sample writing lessons for elementary and junior high school students.

Title: Planning a Computer-Assisted Lesson.
Authors: Mor, Nili; Bracha, Tamar; Heilweil, Ida; Freidenreich, Orit
Source: English Teachers’ Journal (Israel), p6-10 Mar 1997

Describes how to plan computer-based activities for second-language classrooms, noting ways that computer use differs in such classrooms. Explains how to plan a lesson, focusing on the activity, grade level, time requirements, software, preparation time, teaching method, pre- and post-computer work, skills used, and teacher’s role. Sample lessons and units are provided.

Title: The Effect of Culture on the Teaching of English.
Author: Lawrence, Brian
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v4 n1 p18-30 Oct 2000

Describes the nature of culture, and examines the cultural and learning differences between Japan and Great Britain in relation to the communicative approach. Warns of stereotyping that ignores sub-cultures and individual personality.

Title: The Cultural Conundrum: Cultural Literacy in the Classroom.
Author: Malone, Stephen
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v5 n3 p277-82 Jul 2002

Focuses on the potential pitfalls of exposing students from a non-Western culture, such as Thailand, to literature in English with its accompanying baggage of cultural references. Referencing Ed Hirsch, Jr.’s, “Cultural Literacy—What Every American Needs to Know,” the importance of cultural literacy as opposed to mere lexical literacy is emphasized.

Title: Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.
Author: Courtney, John
Source: English Teacher: An International Journal, v5 n3 p256-64 Jul 2002

Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures.

Title: Tending School: A Forum on the Experiences of Refugee and Immigrant Students in the United States System.
Authors: Roberts, Amy; Locke, Steven
Source: Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, v32 n4 p375-93 2001

Discusses refugee and immigrant students’ education, highlighting three high school students’ experiences based on the notion that such students’ school life can be examined from a critical and political perspective. Face-to-face encounters in school settings made possible a new politics of truth for these students by their assumption of control over personal interpretations of the U.S. system.

Title: Cross-Cultural Varieties of Politeness.
Authors: Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget
Source: Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, v6 n1 p163-170 Fall 2001

The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper explores the culturally based variations of a particular speech act (the compliment). A review of current literature on the subject among the speakers of five languages (American English, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian Arabic, and Spanish) illustrates contrasting patterns of discourse. The review indicates that if communicative competence is a learning objective, the language curriculum needs to include direct treatment of such sociolinguistic features. Implications for today’s classroom include the important role teachers play in implementing the use of compliments in the target culture.

Title: Reflecting Latino Culture in Our Classrooms: A Quick Start for Teachers.
Authors: Canning, Christine; Salazar-Guenther, Mary; Polanco-Noboa, Julio
Publication Date: February 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

This paper describes how the University of Northern Iowa’s San Antonio Regional Student Teaching Program developed a course to provide cultural information on Hispanic Americans for its predominantly white student teachers. The course was delivered over 2 semesters, with students doing most work in five 2-hour meetings on campus. During the student teaching semester, they implemented the ideas and activities that they had created during the course. The paper presents the course syllabus, which offers a background on Hispanics and five sessions that emphasize how to reach Hispanic students; Mexican and Mexican American culture (holidays, food, art, and music); literature for students and teachers/exemplary authors, books, and activities; Mexican American historical perspectives and Mexican American heroes; and bilingual education and other critical issues. The sessions include strategies, field trips, handouts, and assignments.

Title: Problems and Recommendations: Enhancing Communication with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students.
Authors: Kader, Shereen Abdel; Yawkey, Thomas D.
Source: Reading Improvement, v39 n1 p43-51 Spr 2002

Notes that communication between teachers and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students need serious consideration especially in recognizing potential sources of miscommunication and misinterpretation. Considers sources of miscommunication within verbal and nonverbal communication. Discusses each element and offers examples in CLD classroom settings.

Title: A Good Start: A Progressive, Transactional Approach to Diversity in Preservice Teacher Education.
Authors: Arias, M. Beatriz; Poynor, Leslie
Source: Bilingual Research Journal, v25 n4 p417-34 Fall 2001

A study examined what three English-as-second-language preservice teachers learned in a progressive, transactional methods course about teaching culturally and linguistically diverse children. Although the course did not instill the deep cross-cultural understanding necessary for bicultural competence, it did cultivate the student teachers’ desire to value and respect other cultures.

Title: A Cross-Cultural Study of Mexico and the United States: Perceived Roles of Teachers.
Authors: Nelson, Gayle; Lutenbacher, Cindy; Lopez, Maria Elena
Source: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v22 n6 p463-74 2001

Investigated one area that may affect Mexicans’ performance in American schools: cultural differences in appropriate school behavior. Interview data were collected from 40 students and 20 teachers in Mexico in Spanish by native Spanish speakers, and from 20 native English-speaking students, 20 Mexican English-as-a-Second-Language students, 20 content area teachers, and 20 native English speakers in the United States.

Title: A Critical “Checkbook” for Culture Teaching and Learning.
Author: Guest, Michael
Source: ELT Journal, v56 n2 p154-61 Apr 2002

Attempts to offer insight that will help teachers bring a balanced awareness of the role and usage of culture into the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom.

Title: U.S. Culture: What You Need To Know To Survive.
Author: Sjolie, Dennis
Publication Date: October 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

This paper addresses the issue of encouraging students to read and experience culture first hand, rather than read about culture as defined by or channeled through textbooks. Students new to the United States learn about the culture through a variety of publications: “Sun,” “The National Enquirer,” “People Weekly,” “Newsweek,” and “Time.” Utilizing this series of print media, students touch the pulse of mainstream U.S. culture and understand that a large percentage of U.S. citizens believe “first hand accounts” of UFO abductions, “learn about the future” through fortune tellers, and discover what their favorite Hollywood celebrities eat for breakfast. Likewise, students learn how a large percentage of U.S. citizens focus on world events, global political situations, and hard news that bears consequence to all. As the broad and varied aspects of U.S. culture reveal themselves to students, follow-up language/culture learning activities are limited only by the creativity of the instructor.

Title: LEARN: A Community Study about Latino Immigrants and Education.
Authors: McLaughlin, H. James; Liljestrom, Anna; Lim, Jae Hoon; Meyers, Dawn
Source: Education and Urban Society, v34 n2 p212-32 Feb 2002

Examines the perceptions of parents, educators, and students regarding the educational needs of new English learners, particularly Latinos. Overall, foreign-born students may not know how to relate to American teachers and peers, and educators may not understand students’ prior educational experiences and cultural influences. Language is a frequently noted barrier to teacher–student–family communication and educational quality.

Title: A Lesson in Culture.
Author: Tseng, Yueh-Hung
Source: ELT Journal, v56 n1 p11-21 Jan 2002

Argues for a new interpretation of culture that potentially challenges traditional views of the culture common in discussions of foreign and second language learning. Proposes ways to restructure curriculum around this new interpretation. Suggestions for creating a classroom environment consistent with these new views are explored.

Title: Cultural Awareness and the Negotiation of Meaning in Intercultural Communication.
Author: Littlewood, William
Source: Language Awareness, v10 n2-3 p189-99 2001

Focuses on a number of episodes in intercultural communication in which there is some degree of mismatch between the intentions and interpretations of the interlocutors. Three concepts are used to illustrate the nature of these mismatches: the concept of common ground, the principle of indexicaity, and the concept of cultural models.

Title: Handling “Culture Bumps”
Author: Jiang, Wenying
Source: ELT Journal, v55 n4 p382-90 Oct 2001

Reviews Archer’s and Thorp’s ideas about the most frequently encountered culture bumps or “confused encounters,” and offers alternative ways of perceiving and handling them. Also stresses that the fundamental values of a nation should be considered in dealing with these cultural variations and suggests six principles for perceiving and handling them.

Title: Teaching English as an International Language: Implications for Cultural Materials in the Classroom.
Author: McKay, Sandra Lee
Source: TESOL Journal, v9 n4 p7-11 Win 2000

Explores the link between culture and international language and examines what is meant by international language. The role of culture in language teaching is discussed. and a description of the various levels of culture that can be included in teaching materials is provided. Concludes by suggesting that there are many benefits to including a variety of cultures, not just Western cultures, in classroom materials.

Title: Project Homeland: Crossing Cultural Boundaries in the ESL Classroom.
Author: Ortmeier, Christina M.
Source: TESOL Journal, v9 n1 p10-17 Spr 2000

Describes how a writing project and oral presentation engage middle school English-as-Second-Language students in collaborative activities that develop their understanding of and respect for one another’s heritage and an appreciation for their valuable cultural contributions to the greater community.

Title: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and Culture.
Author: Atkinson, Dwight
Source: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly, v33 n4 p625-54 Win 1999

Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the perspectives toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent “TESOL Quarterly” articles, and concludes that different views of culture exist in the field.

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