Language of Initial Literacy Instruction in Two-Way Immersion Programs

This PowerPoint presentation details three different options for providing initial literacy instruction in two-way immersion (dual language) programs in the United States. Along with a description of each option, the document outlines how these approaches fit into 50/50 and 90/10 program models, the benefits and drawbacks of each approach, and future research directions.

This presentation may be useful to TWI/dual language practitioners interested in the following questions:

  • Should native English speakers and native speakers of the partner language be separated or integrated for initial literacy instruction?
  • Should all students learn to read in their native language?
  • What does research tell us about the different models and approaches and what do we still have to learn about biliteracy development?

This presentation was developed by Elizabeth R. Howard (University of Connecticut) and Julie Sugarman (Center for Applied Linguistics) with invaluable help from David Rogers and Natalie Olague of Dual Language Education of New Mexico.



Download the PDF,
Program Models and the Language of Initial Literacy
in Two-Way Immersion Programs

(PDF, 284KB).


Please contact CAL with any questions or feedback about the presentation.