To Translanguage or Not To Translanguage?

“Schools confuse the assessment of general linguistic proficiency, which is best manifested in bilinguals while translanguaging, with the testing of proficiency in a named language, which insists on inhibiting translanguaging.”

The Guiding Principles and the Critical Third Pillar: Sociocultural Competence

Why the change from cross-cultural understanding to sociocultural competence? Why not have a separate strand for sociocultural competence? This post takes a look at these questions through the lens of the 3 pillars of dual language (DL) education as expressed in the Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education, 3rd edition (Howard, et al., 2018).