What are the possible effects of a test?

The positive and negative effects of a test on teaching and learning are sometimes called washback.

Positive washback are effects that are expected due to the test. For example, a test may encourage students to study more or may encourage stronger connections between instruction and standards. Tests that accurately measure the skills you want to know about that are used appropriately can have positive results for classroom instruction.

Negative washback refers to the unexpected and harmful consequences of a test. For example, instruction may focus too heavily on test preparation at the expense of other educational activities.